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Tutorial Questions for Week Nov 21-25.

All taken from text book with permission


Text 9.16
Ricardo, of mass 80 kg, and Carmelita, who is lighter, are enjoying Lake Merced at dusk
in a 30 kg canoe. When the canoe is at rest in the placid water, they exchange seats,
which are 3.0 m apart and symmetrically located with respect to the canoe's center. If the
canoe moves 40 cm horizontally relative to a pier post, what is Carmelita's mass? (Ignore
effects of friction).
16. When they exchange places, the centre of mass will remain constant (in the absence
of friction) Hence if the exchange of Ricardo and Carmelita moves mass in one direction,
the canoe will move backwards in the opposite direction to keep the canter of mass
constant. Suppose the pier post is at the exact center of the canoe initially, and take this to
be 0 in the x direction. Suppose Ricardo is initially on the left. Then the center of mass of
Ricardo, Carmelita and the canoe is given by.
M (1.5 m) M C (1.5 m) M canoe (0)
xcm R
M R M C M canoe

Now after they exchange places, the canoe will have moved .4 m to the left, so will be at
-0.4 m with respect to the post. Ricardo will be 1.5 m to the right of that, so at x = 1.1 m,
and Carmelita will be 1.5 m to the left of the center of the canoe, so at x = -1.9 m. Then
the center of mass is given by:
M (1.1 m) M C (1.9 m) M canoe (.4)
xcm R
M R M C M canoe

Since the center of mass doesnt change, these two expressions are equal. Ricardo has
mass 80 kg, and the canoe is 30, so one obtains:
1.5(80) 1.5M C 1.1(80) 1.9 M C .4(30)
Solving this for the unknown mass gives:
3.4 M C 196
or
M C 57.6 kg

Text 10.37
Calculate the rotational inertia of a meter stick, with mass 0.56 kg, about an axis
perpendicular to the stick and located at the 20 cm mark. (Treat the stick as a thin rod.)

37. We use the parallel axis theorem: I = Icom + Mh2, where Icom is the rotational inertia
about the center of mass (see Table 10-2(d)), M is the mass, and h is the distance between
the center of mass and the chosen rotation axis. The center of mass is at the center of the
meter stick, which implies h = 0.50 m 0.20 m = 0.30 m. We find

I com

gb

1
1
2
ML2
. m 4.67 102 kg m2 .
0.56 kg 10
12
12

Consequently, the parallel axis theorem yields

gb

I 4.67 10 2 kg m2 0.56 kg 0.30 m 9.7 102 kg m2 .

Text 10.41
In Fig. 10.34, two particles, each with mass m 0.85 kg , are fastened to each other, and
to a rotation axis at O by two thin rods, each with length d 5.6 cm and mass
M 1.2 kg . The combination rotates around the rotation axis with the angular speed
0.30 rad/s . Measured about O, what are the combination's (a) rotational inertia and
(b) kinetic energy?

Figure 10.34 Problem 10.41.


41. The particles are treated point-like in the sense that Eq. 10-33 yields their rotational
inertia, and the rotational inertia for the rods is figured using Table 10-2(e) and the
parallel-axis theorem (Eq. 10-36).
(a) With subscript 1 standing for the rod nearest the axis and 4 for the particle farthest
from it, we have
2
2
1
1
1
3
2
2
2
I I1 I 2 I 3 I 4 Md M d md Md M d m(2d ) 2
12
12
2
2

8
8
Md 2 5md 2 (1.2 kg)(0.056 m) 2 +5(0.85 kg)(0.056 m) 2
3
3
2
=0.023 kg m .

(b) Using def of rotational kinetic energy we have:


K 12 I 2 12 (0.023)(0.30) 2 1.04 103 J

Text 10.43
The uniform solid block in Fig. 10.35 has mass 0.172 kg and edge lengths a 3.5 cm ,
b 8.4 cm , and c 1.4 cm . Calculate its rotational inertia about an axis through one
corner and perpendicular to the large faces.

Figure 10.35 Problem 10.43.


43. Since the rotation axis does not pass through the center of the block, we use the
parallel-axis theorem to calculate the rotational inertia. According to Tables, the
rotational inertia of a uniform slab about an axis through the center and perpendicular to
M 2
the large faces is given by I com
a b 2 . A parallel axis through the corner is a
12

distance h

ba / 2g bb / 2g
2

I I com Mh 2

from the center. Therefore,


M 2
M
M 2
a b2 a 2 b2
a b2 .

12
4
3

With M 0.172 kg , a 3.5 cm, and b 8.4 cm , we have


I

M 2
0.172 kg
a b2
[(0.035 m) 2 (0.084 m) 2 ] 4.7 104 kg m 2 .

3
3

Text 10.51
In Fig. 10.38, block 1 has mass, m1 460 g , block 2 has mass m2 500 g , and the pulley,
which is mounted on a horizontal axle with negligible friction, has radius R 5.00 cm .
When released from rest, block 2 falls 75.0 cm in 5.00 s without the cord slipping on the
pulley. (a) What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the blocks? What are (b) tension
T2 and (c) tension T1 ? (d) What is the magnitude of the pulley's angular acceleration? (e)
What is its rotational inertia?

Figure 10.38 Problem 10.51.


51. (a) We use constant acceleration kinematics. If down is taken to be positive and a is
the acceleration of the heavier block m2, then its coordinate is given by y 21 at 2 , so
a

2 y 2(0.750 m)

6.00 102 m / s2 .
2
2
(5.00 s)
t

Block 1 has an acceleration of 6.00 102 m/s2 upward.


(b) Newtons second law for block 2 is m2 g T2 m2 a , where m2 is its mass and T2 is the
tension force on the block. Thus,
T2 m2 ( g a ) (0.500 kg) 9.8 m/s 2 6.00 102 m/s 2 4.87 N.

(c) Newtons second law for block 1 is m1 g T1 m1a, where T1 is the tension force on
the block. Thus,
T1 m1 ( g a ) (0.460 kg) 9.8 m/s 2 6.00 102 m/s 2 4.54 N.

(d) Since the cord does not slip on the pulley, the tangential acceleration of a point on the
rim of the pulley must be the same as the acceleration of the blocks, so

a 6.00 102 m / s2
. rad / s2 .

120
R
5.00 10 2 m

(e) The net torque acting on the pulley is (T2 T1 ) R . Equating this to I we solve for
the rotational inertia:

T2 T1 R 4.87 N 4.54 N 5.00 102 m 1.38 102 kg m 2 .

1.20 rad/s 2

Text 10.66
A uniform spherical shell of mass M 4.5 kg and radius R 8.5 cm can rotate about a
vertical axis on frictionless bearings (Fig. 10.44). A massless cord passes around the
equator of the shell, over a pulley of rotational inertia I 3.0 103 kg m 2 and radius
r 5.0 cm , and is attached to a small object of mass m 0.6 kg . There is no friction on
the pulley's axle; the cord does not slip on the pulley. What is the speed of the object
when it has fallen 82 cm after being released from rest? Use energy considerations.

Figure 10.44 Problem 10.66.


66. From Tables, the rotational inertia of the spherical shell is 2MR2/3, so the kinetic
energy (after the object has descended distance h) is
K

FG
H

IJ
K

1 2
1
1
2
MR 2 sphere
I 2pulley mv 2 .
2 3
2
2

Since it started from rest, then this energy must be equal (in the absence of friction) to the
potential energy mgh with which the system started. We substitute v/r for the pulleys
angular speed and v/R for that of the sphere and solve for v.
v

1
2

mgh
2 gh

2
M
1 I
m 2 r2 3
1 ( I / mr ) (2 M / 3m)

2(9.8)(0.82)
1.4 m/s.
1 3.0 10 /((0.60)(0.050)2 ) 2(4.5) / 3(0.60)
3

Text 10.71

In Fig. 10.47, two 6.20 kg blocks are connected by a massless string over a pulley of
radius 2.40 cm and rotational inertia 7.40 104 kgm2. The string does not slip on the
pulley; it is not known whether there is friction between the table and the sliding block;
the pulley's axis is frictionless. When this system is released from rest, the pulley turns
through 0.13 rad in 91.0 ms and the acceleration of the blocks is constant. What are (a)
the magnitude of the pulley's angular acceleration, (b) the magnitude of either block's
acceleration, (c) string tension T1 , and (d) string tension T2 ?

Figure 10.47 Problem 10.71.


71. We choose positive coordinate directions (different choices for each item) so that
each is accelerating positively, which will allow us to set a2 = a1 = R (for simplicity, we
denote this as a). Thus, we choose rightward positive for m2 = M (the block on the table),
downward positive for m1 = M (the block at the end of the string) and clockwise for
positive sense of disk rotation. This means that we interpret given in the problem as a
positive-valued quantity. Applying Newtons second law to m1, m2 and to M,
respectively, we arrive at the following three equations (where we allow for the
possibility of friction f2 acting on m2).
m1 g T1 m1a1
T2 f 2 m2 a2
T1 R T2 R I

(a) From Eq. 10-13 (with 0 = 0) we find


1
2

0 t t 2

2 2(0.130 rad)

31.4 rad/s 2 .
2
2
t
(0.0910 s)

(b) From the fact that a = R (noted above), we obtain

2 R 2(0.024 m)(0.130 rad)

0.754 m/s 2 .
2
2
t
(0.0910 s)

(c) From the first of the above equations, we find


2 R

T1 m1 g a1 M g 2
t

56.1 N.

2(0.024 m)(0.130 rad)

(6.20 kg) 9.80 m/s


(0.0910 s) 2

(d) From the last of the above equations, we obtain the second tension:
T2 T1

I
(7.40 104 kg m 2 )(31.4 rad/s 2 )
56.1 N
55.1 N.
0.024 m
R