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In the name of Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful

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Metallography
Prepared By
Syarifah Nur Aqida Syed Ahmad
aqida@ump.edu.my
Telephone Ext:
Hand phone:
Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal,
Universiti Malaysia Pahang
Lab Instructor
Syarifah Nur Aqida Syed Ahmad
Lab Location
Materials Laboratory
Lab Objectives
By the end of semester, students should be able to:
sketch and label the constituents of plain carbon steel and cast
iron microstructures at different composition and heat
treatment, and
analyze the microstructures of plain carbon steel and cast iron
at different composition and heat treatment.

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Date: ____________________
Group Members

BMM1511 Engineering Mechanics Lab 1_0809/I_284064275.doc

Student
ID

Section

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Metallographic Study
Metallography is a technique used to reveal the internal
structure of materials. The technique was developed originally for
examining internal structure of minerals, metals and alloys, and is still
used extensively for that purpose. The technique has been expanded
and adapted to look at other materials including composites, and
ceramics. The technique involves sectioning a sample to a size
suitable for evaluation, grinding to provide a flat surface and for the
removal of deformation caused by sectioning, polishing to remove
deformation caused by grinding and then etching to reveal internal
structure(s) and or feature(s). Etching selectively attacks the
constituent parts of the microstructure, causing them to appear
separately under the microscope due to differences in the chemical
and physical conditions of the constituents.
The crystalline microstructure of metals can be studied by
examining it under a microscope at magnifications from 100 to 1000
times. The shape and size of the crystals indicates the composition,
work hardening, and heat treatment a metal has received.
In a cold worked specimen, the specimen to be examined should
be removed parallel to the direction of the cold work. In a heat
treated specimen, the sample should include a portion of the outer
skin, so that surface conditions like scale and decarburization can be
examined.
Steel, in the annealed condition, consists of pearlite with ferrite
or cementite, depending on the carbon content. The carbon content
may be estimated by observing the amount of pearlite present.

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Experiment Setup

Before getting started, you should recognize the objective


lenses and eyepieces used for the metallurgical microscope and
make sure to handle and install them properly.

Equipment and Materials


Metallurgical microscope
5 standard sample of plain carbon steel and cast iron (sample no
2, 3, 4, 12 and 14)

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Experiment Procedure
1. Observe and sketch each microstructure at 100X-400X
magnification. Label the constituents (ferrite, pearlite, grain
boundaries, graphite, inclusions, etc.) and describe the important
features of the microstructure.

Sample no. 2

Low carbon steel

Description :

_____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

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Sample no. 3

Medium carbon steel (annealing)

Description :

_____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

Sample no. 4

Medium carbon steel (normalizing)

Description :

_____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

Sample no. 12

White cast iron

Description :

_____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

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______________________________________________________

Sample no. 14

Ductile cast iron

Description :

_____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

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2. What type of microscope did you use to view your samples (include
manufacturer)?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

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3. What light source(s) were used to view your samples in the
microscope? Were there any special precautions taken/needed to
view samples using the light source(s)?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

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4. What power objective lenses (and their NA) were available to you
to use on your microscope? What power were the eye pieces on
your microscope?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

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5. What magnification(s) provided you with the best general overall
image of your samples?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

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Conclusion
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

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Reference
1.

BMM1511 Engineering Mechanics Lab 1_0809/I_284064275.doc