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MLR 321 Growth Opportunity#1

Multiple Choice Questions for Exam #1 Chapter 7



Which motivation theory is based on the idea that work effort is directed toward behaviors
that people believe will lead to desired outcomes?
Expectancy Theory mainly helps us to predict an individual's:
An individual's perceived probability that a particular level of effort will result in a
particular level of performance refers to the:
Employees who believe that accomplishing a particular task will almost certainly result in a
day off with pay would have:
According to Expectancy Theory, a reward that is not wanted has:
In Expectancy Theory, valence refers to the:
According to Expectancy Theory, providing counseling and coaching to an employee who
lacks self-confidence is most likely to increase the employee's:
Employee motivation tends to increase when people are assigned to jobs for which they are
qualified and they receive coaching to improve their self-confidence. Both of these practices
improve employee motivation by:
According to Expectancy Theory, a skill-development training program would:
Which of the following actions would increase employee motivation mainly by enhancing
their effort-to-performance expectancy?
One way to increase employee motivation by improving the P-to-O expectancies is to:
ABC Corp. introduced a training program that ensured everyone had the required knowledge
and skills to perform the work. The company also brought in a performance-based reward
system that accurately identified employees who performed better than others. These
practices improve employee motivation by:
According to Expectancy Theory, which of the following actions would NOT alter outcome
Individualizing rewards enhances which Expectancy Theory component?

15 According to Vroom's expectancy theory, ____ represents an individual's belief that a

particular degree of effort will be followed by a particular level of performance.
16 An expectancy of 0.0 indicates
17 An expectancy of 0.5 indicates
18 According to Vroom's expectancy theory, _____ represents an individual's belief that a
particular outcome is correlated with a specific level of performance.
19 _____ theory of motivation is generally used to predict behavior in any situation in which a
choice between two or more alternatives must be made.
20 According to Vroom, "expectancy" refers to which of the following linkages?
21 An expectancy of _____ indicates effort has no anticipated impact on performance.
22 An expectancy of 1.0 indicates that:
23 Which of the following is a performance outcome perception?
24 ____, according to Vroom's terminology, represents a person's belief that a particular
outcome is contingent on accomplishing a specific level of performance.

25 An instrumentality of _____ indicates attainment of a particular outcome is totally

dependent on task performance.
26 An instrumentality of zero indicates that:
27 An instrumentality of -1.0 reveals that:
28 The value of a reward or outcome, according to Vroom, is called:
29 An instrumentality of a minus 1.0 (-1.0) indicates
30 _____ refers to the positive or negative value people place on outcomes.
31 Goal setting is most effective when:
32 Goal setting requires all of these conditions EXCEPT:
33 The optimal level of goal difficulty:
34 Effective feedback does not include which of the following:
35 Effective feedback:
36 To achieve maximum effort, goals should be
37 According to the Goal Setting theory, as goals increase in difficulty, effort first _____, then
_____, and finally _____.
38 In the employee-employer exchange, an employee's inputs would include:
39 In the employee-employer exchange, the outcome component includes:
40 _____ exists for an individual when his/her ratio of perceived outcomes to inputs is equal to
the ratio of outcomes to inputs for a relevant co-worker.
41 _____ are people who have a higher tolerance for negative inequity.
42 _____ justice is defined as the perceived fairness of the process and procedures used to
make allocation decisions.
43 To generate the maximum effort, goals should be _____, _____, _____, and _____.
44 Goal _____ pertains to the quantifiability of a goal.
45 Which of the following theories suggests that employee motivation is influenced by what
other people contribute to and receive from the organization?
46 Inputs, outcomes, and a comparison other are elements of:
47 Susan and Courtney have been in the same job for about the same length of time and
perform very similar tasks. Susan's bonus for her performance over the past year was higher
than Courtney's bonus. Susan believes that Courtney's job performance was lower than her
job performance. Based on this information:
48 Employees who receive a fixed amount of pay each week and who feel under-rewarded are
most likely to:
49 According to Equity Theory:
50 The distributive justice rule applies the concept of:
51 People who are 'equity sensitive' tend to:
52 In the equity sensitivity literature, 'entitleds':
53 Procedural justice refers to:
54 Equity theory is a motivation model that explains how people strive for _____ in social
exchanges or give-and-take relationships.
55 According to equity theory, _____ is an input to the employee-employer exchange.
56 According to equity theory, _____ is an outcome of the employee-employer exchange.
57 Pat and Chris are both computer programmers, but Pat earns more money than Chris.
However, Chris perceives an equitable relationship because Pat
58 According to equity theory, which of the following is true?

59 Equity theory predicts that a student may experience _____ if a friend of equal scholarly
ability studies the same amount for Dr. Ds test but receives a higher grade.
60 Pam is attempting to reduce inequity by attending night school for further job training. In
other words, she is trying to (be careful with this )
61 _____ is defined as the perceived fairness of the process used to make allocation decisions.
62 _____ is the type of justice upon which our legal system is based.
63 _____ is defined as the perceived fairness of how resources and rewards are allocated.
64 According to equity theory, taking longer breaks at work is an example of
Short answer questions Chapter 7.
1. Dr. D is experiencing severe negative inequity. Using different components of the Equity
theory of motivation list and explain 3 ways he might establish equity.
2. Equity theory is based on perceptions of fairness or justice. List and describe 3 of the 4
justices we discussed.
3. Expectancy probability is high. Instrumentality correlations are strong. According to the
Expectancy theory of motivation, why isnt Dr. D motivated? [This is a good question to
mix and match different conditions of the models factors. So, for example, I might mix it
up to read: Outcomes have high valence and Expectancy is high, why isnt Dr.D motivated?
Or Dr. D knows he can do the job, no problem, and the Outcomes being offered are highly
valued, but still effort is low. Why?]
4. There are 4 factors that must be present to maximize the effectiveness of goal-setting. To
make goal-setting MOST effective, goals should be ? List and explain 3 of the 4 necessary
5. We plotted the relationship between goal difficulty and effort using three motivational
theories: goal setting, expectancy, and need for achievement. With Effort on the y-axis and
Goal Difficulty on the x-axis, plot the effect on effort as goal difficulty increases from low, to
moderate, to high for each theory. Drawing on the theory, explain each of the plots. I also
mentioned what would happen to effort as goal difficulty goes up for someone with high self
esteem. What would that plot look like?