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A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON READERS AND RADIO BROADCASTERS

CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF PRINT NEWS AND ONLINE NEWS

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of


Bachelor of Arts in Mass Communication

Presented to:
Ms. Mignon S. Tan

Presented by:
Gilleen Megan B. Bunga

March 13, 2015

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Mass media are everywhere these days. Anywhere people go, like malls,
airports, restaurants, hotels or other public places, news are on even though people do
not seek or ask for them. Radios are heard in elevators and public transportations.
Computers and internet cafes are mushrooming. But then, compared to other medium,
the news from the Internet is abundant and easily available (Lu and Andrews, 2006).
Many readers are having the opportunity to get the information via the Internet instead
of the traditional ways (Eastin, 2001).
The growth of Internet since the 1980s has been far faster than the growth of any
other medium of communication such as telephone, radio, television, and even cellular
phones (Fogg et al., 2001). This growth has been possible because of the increased
support in the development of the Internet technologies and the administration of
Internet resources (Lu and Andrews, 2006).
The basic purpose of both print and online format is consistent: to deliver
relevant news to the people while building revenue from advertising. But then,
newspapers always remain to have several unique benefits as compared to their online
counterparts. One of those benefits is that the print is a stronger copy of record. Aside
from it, when comparing the contents, the online sites are less transparent as they can
be updated and changed as many times as the writer can. The online sites enjoy much
their capability to compete with other sites in publishing news quickly, therefore making
it possible for the online news organizations to publish news even without the complete
information and validation of it. The sole focus of the print news will always be to inform
the people, while the online news seems to have other objectives. With these, the

amount of information on the Internet currently is increasing tremendously, and there


are many different types of information sources available through the online media and
traditional media, so this creates a possibility for false information (Eastin, 2001). The
rapid rise of the Internet has created some questions like; is publishing in traditional
media better and more credible than posting the news on the internet?
In August 2012, Amazon announced that its eBook sales had exceeded that of
their counterparts. Print journal subscriptions were eclipsed by their electronic
counterparts and it now stand as the predominant format in terms of library purchases.
But despite the accessibility and utilization of these media as sources of information
especially the Internet, people do not completely trust and believe everything they get
from the mass media. In 2004, Pew Research Center for the People and the Press
reported that since the mid-1980s Americans have become increasingly doubtful of the
information they get from mass media. Therefore, the credibility of online and traditional
media is becoming an increasingly important topic to understand in the field of
communication.
This information has motivated the researcher to study the credibility perception
of online news as compared to traditional media or print news, among radio
broadcasters and readers. The researcher believes it best to assess and compare the
perception of print news and online news among radio broadcasters and readers
especially at our times when people rely most on the Internet for information and the
concept of credibility needs considerable attention. The researcher believes that there
may be a difference on the perception of radio broadcasters and readers because the
radio broadcasters perception may be affected by their years of practice in radio
broadcasting.

Past researches had studied and compared readers perception of TV news and
online news only, and few studies have been made to compare the readers and radio
broadcasters perception of Print News and Online News. Moreover, those studies
surveyed readers only, so the researcher decided to study both the radio broadcasters
and the readers to find out if there are differences in the way they perceive Print News
and Online News.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study seeks to compare the credibility perception of the readers and radio
broadcasters from Lucena City towards the news presented online and the news
presented on print. Specifically, it seeks to establish answers to the following questions:
1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents-readers according to:
a. Age
b. Gender
c. Family Monthly Income
d. Civil Status
e. Year Level
2. What is the demographic profile of the respondents-radio broadcasters according
to:
a. Age
b. Gender
c. Educational Attainment
d. Civil Status
e. Years in Practice
3. How frequent do the readers and radio broadcasters read Print News and Online
News?
4. What are the readers and radio broadcasters credibility perception of Print News
in terms of Believability and Timeliness, Comprehensiveness, Accuracy and
Fairness?
5. What are the readers and radio broadcasters credibility perception of Online
News in terms of Believability and Timeliness, Comprehensiveness, Accuracy
and Fairness?

6. Is there a significant difference between the readers and radio broadcasters


credibility perception of Print News?
7. Is there a significant difference between the readers and radio broadcasters
credibility perception of Online News?
8. Is there a significant difference between the readers credibility perception of Print
News and Online News?
9. Is there a significant difference between the radio broadcasters perception of
Print News and Online News?

IMPORTANCE OR SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


The credibility perception for print news and online news among readers and
radio broadcasters is an important area for study because of the following:
Mass Communication Education
This will provide a new knowledge regarding how readers and radio broadcasters
view print news and online news. This may be use by the mass communication
professors as an example in helping the students realize the ways to which they can
persuade the readers, especially when providing news/information for the people.
Mass Communication Practitioners
Journalists and public relations professionals are beginning to recognize the
impact the Internet is having on news consumers. Organizations communication
professionals should be interested in finding out how the readers are judging the
information both on print and online. If, for example, research shows that radio
broadcasters find Internet news to be non-credible, public affairs practitioners may redirect effort in another direction. On the other hand, if research shows that Internet is
seen as credible, public relations professionals can use the Internet to provide news to
the public. Credibility is a very important factor for news, so mass media practitioners
should always know which medium is best and most credible so that persuasion among
the readers will be achieved.
Society
Because not all people are knowledgeable on how to judge the news and the
gatekeeping process necessary before publishing a news, this study will help not only
the radio broadcasters, but also the readers, to identify the ways to judge information
both for Print News and Online News, especially today that the people are rely more on
the cheaper and easier access for information, the Internet.
SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS

This study will discuss the credibility perception towards print news and online
news of readers, who are purposively chosen as Communication students who are
either in their third or fourth year level, from four college schools, namely; Calayan
Educational Foundation, Incorporated, Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation, St.
Anne College of Lucena, Incorporated, and Southern Luzon State University; and radio
broadcasters from different AM and FM radio stations in Lucena City. The credibility
perception of the respondents, either readers or radio broadcasters regarding print
news and online news are divided into different categories: Believability and Timeliness,
Comprehensiveness, Accuracy, and Fairness.
The limitations of this study are generalized as follows:
First, the sample size of this study is small. The subjects in this study will be 15
readers and 15 radio broadcasters from radio stations in Lucena City. Moreover, the
respondents used in this study are not randomly selected. Thus, the ability to generalize
the entire population of readers and radio broadcasters in Lucena City and beyond its
borders is severely limited.
It is very unpredictable whether the subjects will respond to the questionnaires
honestly. The subjects responses to the questionnaires may be out of researchers
control.
Owing to the limited time to answer the questionnaires, the number of questions
is also limited. The questionnaire may not be able to comprise all the questions in terms
of the readers and radio broadcasters credibility perception of Print News and Online
News.
STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES
Based on the statement of the problem, the researcher formulated the following
hypotheses as bases for the study:
Hypothesis 1:
The respondents use Print News more often than Online
News.
7

Hypothesis 2:

There is a significant difference between the readers and


radio broadcasters credibility perception of Print News in
terms of Believability and Timeliness, Comprehensiveness,

Hypothesis 3:

Accuracy and Fairness.


There is a significant difference between the readers and
radio broadcasters credibility perception of Online News in
terms of Believability and Timeliness, Comprehensiveness,

Hypothesis 4:

Accuracy and Fairness.


There is a significant difference between the readers
credibility perception of Print News and Online News in
terms of Believability and Timeliness, Comprehensiveness,

Hypothesis 5:

Accuracy and Fairness.


There is a significant difference between the radio
broadcasters credibility perception of Print News and Online
News

in

terms

of

Believability

and

Timeliness,

Comprehensiveness, Accuracy and Fairness.


CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Based on the theories used as framework for this study, the researcher
formulated a conceptual framework as illustrated in the following page:

News Available on
the Internet and
Newspapers

Demographic
Profile of the
Readers and
Radio

Knowledge and
Perception of the
Readers and Radio
Broadcasters regarding
Proper News Content

Credibility Perception of Print


Credibility Perception of Online
News in terms of Believability
News in terms of Believability
and Timeliness,
and Timeliness,
Comprehensiveness, Accuracy
Comprehensiveness, Accuracy
and Fairness
and Fairness
Assessment of the Readers

and Radio Broadcasters


Credibility Perception of Print
News and Online News
Analysis and Comparison of
the Readers and Radio
Broadcasters Credibility
Perception of Print News and
Online News

Persuasive Effect of
Persuasive Effect of Print
Online
News
to
the
News
to of
thePrint
Readers
Figure I. Readers and Radio Broadcasters Credibility Perception
Newsand
and
Readers and Radio
Radio Broadcasters
Broadcasters
Online News
The figure shows the relationship of the independent variables and dependent
variables of the study. Independent variables include the following: the News Available
on the Internet and Newspapers, the Demographic Profile of the Respondents and the
Knowledge and Perception of the Readers and Radio Broadcasters Regarding Proper
News Content. News Available on the Internet and Newspapers refers to all information
or news they read from either newspaper or internet. The Demographic Profile of the
Respondents talks about the Age, Gender, Family Monthly Income, Civil Status and
Year Level for the readers, while Age, Gender, Educational Attainment, Marital Status
and Year in Practice of Radio Broadcasting for the radio broadcasters. Meanwhile, the
Knowledge and Perception of the Readers and Radio Broadcasters Regarding the
Proper News Content is influenced by the year level of the readers or years the

broadcasters stay in radio broadcasting, the knowledge they have gained throughout
their training or job, as well as the by the organizations they are belonging to. These
variables influence the readers and radio broadcasters credibility perception of Print
News and Online News in terms of Believability and Timeliness, Comprehensiveness,
Accuracy and Fairness.
These data will be assessed by the researcher using proper instruments. Data
gathered will be analyzed, compared and interpreted. Proper statistical treatment will be
applied.
The Dependent variables of this study are the Persuasive Effect of Online News
to the Readers and Radio Broadcasters and the Persuasive Effect of Print News to the
Readers and Radio Broadcasters.

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DEFINITION OF TERMS
To facilitate better understanding, the researcher defined the following terms
used for the study:
Credibility Perception This refers to a mass mediums trustworthiness as
perceived by readers and radio broadcasters. Credibility Perception is divided in terms
of Believability and Timeliness, Comprehensiveness, Accuracy and Fairness.
eBook This is an electronic version of a printed book that can be read on a
computer or handheld devices designed specifically for this purpose.
eNews This is an electronic version of a printed newspaper that can be read on
a computer or handheld devices designed specifically for this purpose.
Gatekeepers It refers to people who has the authority or control in deciding
what information should reach the audience.
Gatekeeping This is the process of filtering the information before it goes
through the public by radio, Internet, TV or newspapers.
Mass Media It refers to any channel of broadcasting a message to the public.
For this study, mass media refer to either Internet or Newspaper.
Online News Any news presented on the Internet, which can be updated or
changed by the writer or the organization as many times as they can. Such online news
is seen on online news sites of which do not have print news counterparts.
Print News It refers to any news presented on local and national newspapers.
Public Press This refers to the print media responsible for gathering and
publishing news in the form of newspapers.
Radio Broadcasters All radio broadcasters who are based in all AM and FM
radio stations in Lucena City, of any gender, disregarding the years they are staying in
practice.
Readers Refers to news readers who are either on third or fourth year level as
Communication students from Calayan Educational Foundation, Incorporated, Manuel
S. Enverga University Foundation, St. Anne College of Lucena, Incorporated, and
Southern Luzon State University.

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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter contains the reviewed literature and studies that are related to the
study being undertaken by the researcher.
Related Literature and Studies
Due to advanced technology, mass media have penetrated almost every corner
of the world. Homes are getting more and more equipped with different media
appliances (Van Rompaey & Roe, 2004).
Amidst negative charges against mass media like media bias, sensationalism of
news and issue, wrong prioritization, and other criticism, credibility has emerged as the
major issue that ought to be addressed to news operations (Bucy, 2003).
The Washington Times (2006) reported the Project for Excellence in Journalism
revealed that only 19 percent of the people who participated in a survey believed all or
most of the information they read in daily newspapers. Forty percent believed only a
good deal of what they read. The paper also cited some of the probable causes of loss
of public trust such journalists caught making up stories, reporting unverified data,
plagiarizing, juicing stories, and accepting payola from the government.
Other polls also rate the press at low in public respect. Broadcasters are treated
as celebrities yet they are strongly criticized (Klein, 2007). Klein believes the major
reason for the publics criticism of the media is how reports ask questions. Reporters
often insert their opinion in their questions. This style of asking questions creates and
stirs different opinions and scenarios in the minds of the audiences.
In the 1930s, mass communication started measuring credibility for the purpose
of knowing which medium was most trustworthy: newspaper, television or radio. The
studies were primarily done to attract advertisers to invest their dollars to the perceived
most trusted news source.

12

Research at that time was based on the hypodermic needle model of


communication where mass media were perceived to be highly credible and whatever
they said were most likely accepted by the audience. Initial studies showed that
newspapers were the most trusted medium. Later, radio was tagged as the most
credible, but in the 1950s, television assumed the position as the most trusted medium
(Pompitakpan, 2004).
The concept of credibility in the context of mass media has various definitions
based on different presuppositions. It has been defined as believability, trust, perceived
reliability, and scores and combinations of other concepts (Self, 1996).
Studies on credibility were primarily focused on the believability of the source, the
medium, or the message itself. Source credibility studies examined how characteristics
of the communicator influence the processing of the message (Kiousis, 2001). Under
this stream of research, the attributes of a source were examined in terms of its impact
on the message or content. The message may be processed based reliability and
expertise of the sender/source (Pompitakpan, 2004).

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Source Credibility
Importance of Source Credibility
For many years now, the term credibility, or source credibility, has been an
important area of research in persuasion theory. The source credibility theory states that
people are more likely to be persuaded when the source presents itself as credible
(Hovland, & Janis, Kelley, 1953). Credibility is considered to be the judgments made by
a message recipient concerning the believability of a communicator (Callison, 2001)
The source of a message is of vital importance when determining the credibility
of the message. An individuals acceptance of information and ideas is based in part on
who said it. (berlo, Lemert and Mertz, 1969) Credibility is one of the most fundamental
source factors that have produced scholarly research.
Anderson (1971) described source credibility as a weight that can enhance the
value of information in a message. Similarly, Tormala and Petty (2004), defined source
credibility as a message sources perceived ability or motivation to provide accurate and
truthful information.
Determinates of Credibility
Numerous factors affect the credibility of a public relations message. The
following attributes, for the purposes of this study, are the main determinants of the
perceived credibility of print news and online news for the readers and radio
broadcasters:
Timeliness and Believability
Comprehensiveness
Accuracy
Fairness
Media credibility is the news mediums trustworthiness. It is distinct from source
credibility, which focuses on the individual or group as communicator or to the message
itself (Bucy, 2003).

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In September 2004, a Gallup poll found that news media credibility had reached
its lowest rating in 30 years (Geary, 2005). In June 2005, less that a year later, the same
organization reported that newspapers and television news credibility turned out to be
very low. Despite the fact that the data revealed the mistrust of the people to the media,
only 28 percent of the journalists believed that the media had lost their credibility.
Similarly, public relations practitioners still believed they should not abandon the media
but instead continue to build relationship with them. A considerable large audience wtill
believed the news media. Moreover, not all media had low credibility.
The Internet continues to evolve into a major news source. On a typical day,
more than 50 million American obtain news from the Web (Pew Internet & American Life
Project, 2006). The Newspaper Association of American (NAA, 2006) reports that 112
million people visited online news sites during the first quarter of 2006. Nearly onequarter (24%) of Americans say the Internet is their main source of news, while 44%
obtain news from online sources at least once a week (Pew Research Center, 2005). In
addition, more news sites are becoming profitable, and news organizations are
investing more money in online journalism (Project for Excellence in Journalism, 2006).
However, questions have been raised about the credibility of online news (Brill,
2001; Online News Association, 2002). These concerns are significant in that journalism
is built on credibility (France, 1999). If the public does not believe or trust the press, they
are less likely to pay attention to it (Gaziano, 1988). Johnson and Kaye (1998) suggest
that lack of trust in information obtained from the Internet could keep it from becoming
an even more important and influential news source.
Few studies examined audience perceptions of the credibility of Internet
information (Flanagin & Metzger, 2000; Kiousis, 2001). However, less scholarly attention

15

has been paid to journalists perceptions of online news credibility, even though most
journalists regularly use Internet information on their work (Weaver et. al. 2003).
According to one study, nearly two-thirds (64%) of journalists sometimes or often
use news from the Web in their reporting (EURO RSCG Magnet & Columbia University
Survey of the Media, 2005). Furthermore, more than 90% of journalists say that Internet
has had a substantial impact on how they perform their jobs (Middleberg/Ross Media
Survey, 2002). Kovach and Rosenstiel (2001) believe that Internet has prompted a shift
in the role of the journalists in the communication process. Journalists in the news
millennium are no longer deciding what information the public should know but instead
are helping audiences make sense of it. Similarly, a report by the Project for Excellence
in Journalism (2004) contends that the increasing availability of news and information
from both legitimate and illegitimate sources makes the demand for the journalist as
referee, watchdog, and interpreter all the greater.
The goal is to provide an insight into how journalists are reshaping their
gatekeeping roles in the online environment.
For the past two decades, the publics overall trust in the press has declined
(Project for Excellence in Journalism, 2006). The Pew Research Center (2005) reports
that 60% of Americans think the media are politically biased in their reporting, whereas
only 42% felt this way in 1986 (Pew Research Center, 2002). Similarly, the percentage
of those who believe most of what they read in their daily newspaper dropped from 84%
in 1985 to 59% in 2006 (Pew Research Center, 2006). In 2002, only 35% said media
reporting is generally accurate, down from 55% in 1995 (Pew Research Center, 2002).
The believability of several major news organizations has also declined since the
mid-1980s. for example, in 2002, only 65% of Americans surveyed rated ABC news as
highly believable, while 83% did so in 1985. The results were similar for NBC news and

16

CBS news. In addition, believability for daily newspapers declined from 80% in 1985 to
59% in 2002 and from 81% for television news in 1985 to 65% in 2002 (Pew Research
Center, 2002)
Nonetheless, a February 2006 study suggests that the publics trust in the media
may be on the rise. Fifty nine percent of Americans reported having favorable view of
the press, up from 43% in December 2004 (Pew Research Center, 2006). Similarly,
42% of Americans gave the media high marks for coverage of the 2006 elections, up
from 33% for the 2004 elections (Pew Research Center, 2006).
Residents of Austin, Texas rated newspapers highest in credibility for news
information, followed by Internet news and television news in a study by Kiousis (2001).
Flanagin and Metzger (2000), in a survey comprised largely of U.S. undergraduate
college students, found that newspapers were perceived as more credible as more
credible than television, radio, the Internet, and magazines for news. However, the
differences across the four media were not significant and suggested that overall, the
mass media are only considered moderately credible.
The Online News Association (2002) surveyed a nationwide panel of U.S.
Internet users and reported that online news was rated about as credible as that of
traditional media sources. For example, 78% said that cable television websites were
credible. National newspaper and local newspaper websites were rated as credible by
67% and 63% of respondents. Cable television news ranked first, with 82.5% finding it
credible. However, 13% of U.S. Internet users felt that online news was their most
trusted news source.
Another national study found that the credibility of news sites is an important
concern for the Internet users (Consumer Reports Webwatch, 2005). Sixty seven
percent said that the news site they visited most often was believable most or all of the

17

time. Interestingly, this was nearly identical to perceptions of the believability of daily
newspapers (67%) and national television news (68%).
While many politicians and critics have expressed dissatisfaction with the mass
media, journalists have tended to be less self-critical (Beam, 2004). More than 60% of
U.S. journalists in a nationwide survey opined that their news organizations was doing a
very good job and improving journalistic quality (Weaver, Beam, Brownlee, Voakes, &
Wilhoit, 2003). In contrast, about half of the journalists in another study said that the
profession was headed in the wrong direction, and that there were too many factual
errors in news reports (Pew Research Center, 2004). Of particular interest to this study,
more than one-third of local and national print journalists rated credibility as the leading
problem facing the journalism profession (Pew Research Center, 2004).
The Online News Association (2002) reports that 69% of journalists believed that
online news sites did not meet the same standards as traditional sources. Journalists
also tended to rate online news sites lower in credibility than did the public (Lasica,
2002). The most commonly expressed concern is related to the high speed with which
stories can be posted online. The competition to be the first to report breaking news
stories is, according to Lasica (2002), heightened by the Internet and makes errors
more common. The majority of journalists surveyed in a Pew Research Center (2004)
study said that the Internet has increased the amount of incorrect information in new
stories. Similarly, Arant and Anderson (2001) found that nearly half of online editors
reported that less time was spent verifying informationbefore a story was posted.
Ruggiero (2004) contends that the professional socialization and ideology of
journalists initially inhibited them from accepting the Internet as a credible news source,
because its emergence impacted their ability to control the standards of the profession.
Breed (1955), in his landmark study, documented the strong influence of peers and
18

senior colleagues on the norms and values of journalistic practice, which socialize
journalists to perform their jobs in a similar manner. However, as Deuze (2001) notes,
online journalism differs from traditional types of journalism in some norms and
practices. For example, online journalists must decide which formats are best for
reporting a story, make allowances for interactivity, and assess ways of connecting
related stories to each other via hyperlinks. Deuze (2001) believes these technological
factors challenge traditional journalistic ways of storytelling. Furthermore, the Internet
allows users to act as their own gatekeepers (Singer, 1998). Because of such
challenges, traditional journalists have expressed resistance to journalism as practiced
online because it is deviant and could potentially alter the norms of the profession as
they know it (Ruggiero, 2004). This resistance is often framed in terms of debates about
journalistic quality and what constitutes real journalism (Deuze, 2005).
However, Deuze (2005) also notes that journalism continually reinvents itself by
incorporating new norms and values into these debates over quality. Indeed, recent
research indicates that traditional journalists may be becoming more accepting of online
journalism and incorporating some of its values into their professional role conceptions.
The majority of respondents in a Pew Research Center (2004) study said that the
Internet has improved journalism, with many citing its benefit as a research tool.
Additionally, a majority gave the websites of major news organizations high grades (A or
B).
No previous studies have examined the influence of these characteristics on
journalists perceptions of credibility.
Earlier research found that the majority of Internet users are highly educated
males with substantial incomes (Stempel, Hargrove, & Bernt, 2000). However, more
recent studies suggest that because the Internet is becoming more demographically
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mainstreamed, demographics exert less influence on the news audience as regards


Internet credibility levels (Johnson & Kaye, 2002). Reliance on the Internet has been
shown to influence audience perceptions of Internet credibility (Flanagin & Metzger,
2000). In contrast, Johnson and Kaye (2002) found that reliance on the Internet did not
significantly influence politically-interested Internet users perceptions of online
information credibility. Based on the aforementioned opinions of online journalists in the
Pew Research Center (2004) study, it seems logical that whether or not one is a
member of the online staff of a daily newspaper would also exert influence on ones
perceptions of credibility.
Daily newspapers were chosen because they are the largest employers of
journalists (Weaver, Beam, Brownlee, Voakes, & Wilhoit, 2006). More than 54,000
journalists work for daily newspapers (American Society of Newspaper Editors, 2006).
In addition, the online newspaper audience is growing at an impressive rate. Unique
visitors to online newspaper sites grew more than 20% during 2005 (Cyberjournalist.net,
2006) and newspaper sites averaged 56 million unique visits monthly during the first
quarter of 2006 (Newspaper Association of America, 2006).
Journalists were defined by Weaver and Wilhoit (1996) as those who [have]
responsibility for the preparation or transmission of news stories or other information
all full-time reporters, writers, correspondents, columnists, photojournalists, news
people and editors (p. 248). However, this definition does not take online journalists
into account, as it was articulated before many news organizations had established a
significant online presence. Despite this, the essence of the definition can still be
applied to online journalists. As noted earlier, Deuze (2001) believes that online
journalism is distinct from other types of journalism because its technological

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component is an important factor in how online journalists perform their jobs. Allowing
for interactivity, hypertextuality, and deciding which formats best serve a story certainly
qualify online journalists as having responsibility for the preparation or transmission of
news stories (Weaver & Wilhoit, 1996).
Accordingly, this study defines an online newspaper journalist as one who meets
Weaver and Wilhoits (1996) criteria necessary to be defined as a journalist, and whose
job primarily entails working on the online edition of a daily newspaper with the job title
editor, producer, or reporter (McAdams, 2000). Similarly, a print newspaper journalist is
defined as one who meets Weaver and Wilhoits (1996) criteria necessary to be defined
as a journalist, and whose job primarily entails working on the print edition of a daily
newspaper.
Research suggests that familiarity with the print edition is what leads readers to
the online version (Singer, 2006).
Credibility is most often measured as a multidimensional construct (Johnson &
Kaye, 2002). Believability, fairness, accuracy, and comprehensiveness are four
measures that have been utilized in studies assessing credibility perceptions (Gaziano
& McGrath, 1986, Johnson & Kaye, 1998, 2002; Meyer, 1988; Newhagen & Mass,
1989).
A recent study of online journalism concluded that the more people use the
Web, the less they trust it. The most trusted sites of all increasingly are those from the
old-legacy media (The State of the News Media, 2006). The report goes on to state
that the boost to old-legacy media sites is balanced by an increasing skepticism
toward alternative online news fora, noting that [e]ven people who enjoy blogs, for
instance, are suspicious of them. They go for the energy, argument and authenticity
they find there, not hard information (ibid.).

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In Slovenia, almost 1.1 million people were using the Internet in the first quarter
of 2009, which represents almost 64% of all people aged from 10 to 74 years old, 56%
of whom were using a broadband connection. The largest share of regular users of the
Internet (98%) was in the age group between 10 and 15 years old. The majority (54%)
was using the Internet for e-mail communication; 48% were using it to search for
information about goods and services; 35% to participate in Internet fora; 15% to make
phone or video calls; and 13% to send messages to Internet chat rooms. 22% of users
made or edited their own profile on social network sites. (RIS, 2009)
According to Vobi (2009), the transition of print and broadcast media companies
to the Internet began in the second half of the 1990s, when a we-have-to-beonline
mentality prevailed in the Slovenian media ecosystem. Media companies implemented
a shovelware concept, publishing only selected content of in-house print or broadcast
news teams. In the early 2000s, media companies started to establish online
departments of 10 to 15 newsworkers, producing original news content, mainly by
repackaging in-house print or broadcast news and content of other media and news
agencies. In the late 2000s, online teams at traditional media organisations still mainly
reproduce news content from in-house print or broadcast sources or other media and
press

agencies;

however,

characteristics

of

online

communication,

such

as

hypertextuality, interactivity and multimediality, are being more actively implemented into
the online news production process, resulting in the establishment of special multimedia
news teams and online news formats.
Furthermore, urnal media, Delo and Dnevnik started the newsroom integration
process in 2008, trying to bring online news teams into the centre of news production,
and build common information engines across departments and media platforms. In

22

short, the offer of news websites in Slovenia mostly consists of websites which are mere
extensions of the traditional print organisations (e.g., Dnevnik. si, Vecer.com, Finance.si,
Delo.si, Primorske.si), television programmes (e.g., 24ur.com, Rtvslo.si), or radio
programmes (e.g., Radio1.si), while there are only a few news websites which offer
information about public issues exclusively on the Internet (e.g., Vest.si, Razgledi.net,
Siol.net). It is interesting, however, that the tabloid Slovenske novice, which is the most
read Slovenian daily newspaper (Valicon, 2009), does not have its own website.
Credibility of the news media or sources is important to audience members
(Kaufman et al., 1999). Two types of media credibility have traditionally been studied.
Source credibility considers the trustworthiness of the individual who constructs the
message (Hovland & Weiss, 1951) while news medium credibility evaluates the overall
credibility of a larger entity, such as a local television news station, newspaper
(Graziano & McGrath, 1986), or, of course, an online news company.
Much of the Internet credibility research has compared online newspapers to
more traditional news formats. The studies have produced mixed results with some
research indicating that online news media are more credible than more traditional news
media (television and radio stations, newspapers), while other research has suggested
that online media are less credible.
Some research has also examined Internet credibility without considering other
media. Greer (2003) compared the credibility of a highly credible and recognizable
online news source Nytimes.com (the online version of The New York Times) to a
personal Web page. Participants saw either a highly credible source or a less credible
source, and then rated the credibility of a news story on the page. The highly credible
source was evaluated as the most credible, but the difference was not statistically
significant. Lowrey (2004) found that online news credibility was not affected by story
23

design. One group of participants rated the credibility of a news story written in a
traditional, linear style. The other participants read a news story that was in a non-linear
online format, which allowed participants to jump from one part of the story to another
via hyperlinks.
It is obvious that the traditional news media will never be able to control what
individual users are able to say online; nor do they need to exert that level of control.
Therefore, rather than closing down the Internets information proliferation, it is
sufficient for their purposes that news audiences maintain a pervasive skepticism
regarding online information that is not issued under the banner of a mainstream news
Website (Jordan, 2007).

24

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter discusses the theoretical framework and the method of research
used in the study. It includes the research design, the population sample, the location of
the research, the instrument that the researcher will use in the study, the data collection
procedure and the statistical treatment of the data.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Publics and individuals may respond differently to the same stimulus depending
on their personal presuppositions and perceptions. To further support this statement, the
researcher used the following theories for this study:
Source credibility theory explains how communications persuasiveness is
affected by the perceived credibility of the source of the communication (Hovland, Janis,
& Kelley, 1953). The credibility of all communication, regardless of format, has been
found to be heavily influenced by the perceived credibility of the source of that
communication. According to Dan Gilmor (2013), when becoming mediactive (an active
consumer of media) source credibility is a very important aspect. He suggests that
users be skeptical; they should be on the lookout for fallacies. He also believes that
people need to exercise judgment; the idea of assuming that everything is lying is just
as much a problem as assuming that everything posted or published is the truth.
Most people are likely to consider a source credible if the content reflects ideas
that the user also holds. Cognitive dissonance theory holds that if a message received
is dissonant or contrary to the existing belief of the recipient of the message, cognitive
and psychological processes take place (Cotton, 1985; Festinger, 1957). Information
contrary to the existing beliefs of an individual causes dissonance. Dissonance is a
psychological discomfort felt when there is discrepancy between an existing knowledge

25

and belief and new information or an interpretation. This occurs when there is a need to
accommodate new ideas. To eliminate the discomfort or anxiety, the recipients of the
message tend to reconcile their thoughts until they establish a state of equilibrium.
Journalists view loss of credibility as the biggest issue facing the industry
(Doherty, 2005). Because the media occupies a significant part of peoples daily lives, it
significantly impacts the social construction of reality and the shape of public
consciousness (Bandura, 2001). Therefore, medias credibility is as important as
message itself.
There is also another reason why a medium may appear credible or not credible
for the users, and this is what the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of communication
explains. Elaboration Likelihood Model states that an individual will receive a message,
examine it, and form an opinion. Other times, they may listen to the message, do not
actively process it, but allow an external factor to persuade them. According to the ELM,
there are two basic routes to persuasion; the central route is the route taken by
individuals who receive the message, diligently and actively process the information,
and are subsequently persuaded by the rationality of the argument or the message. The
peripheral route of persuasion occurs when a receiver of the message does not take the
time to evaluate the argument or process the information. These individuals allow
nonessential cues to guide their decision.
The ELM claims that the process of attitude change will vary based on the
degree of elaboration. When an argument takes the central route, it is generally
because it has been buttressed with strong argument and has significance to the
receiver. When an argument takes the peripheral route, there are different factors to be
considered. In this case, the receiver is relying on simple decision-making criteria (like
attractiveness, gender).
26

RESEARCH DESIGN
The researcher utilized the descriptive method of research. As widely accepted,
the descriptive method of research is a fact-finding study that involves adequate and
accurate interpretation of findings. Descriptive research describes a certain present
condition. Relatively, the method is appropriate to this study since it aims to describe the
readers and radio broadcasters perception of the credibility of print news and online
news. The tool used by the researcher is a survey questionnaire. In addition, the
researcher made use of existing literature in order to come up with preliminary ideas
regarding the research problem and in coming up with the questionnaire. Meanwhile,
inferential method is also used to conclude if there are relationships or differences
between to variables.
DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT VARIABLES
The independent variable of the study include the News available on the Internet
and Newspapers, the Demographic Profile of the Readers and Radio Broadcasters, the
Knowledge and Perception of the Readers and Radio Broadcasters regarding Proper
News Content and the Credibility Perception of Readers and Radio Broadcasters for
Print

News

and

Online

News

in

terms

of

Believability

and

Timeliness,

Comprehensiveness, Accuracy and Fairness. Meanwhile, the dependent variable of the


study is the persuasive effect of Online news and Print news to the readers and radio
broadcasters.
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
The researcher utilized self-made survey form to gather the data needed for the
research. Two survey forms were made by the researcher; the first one was for the
readers, while the other one was for the radio broadcasters. Both contain four parts.

27

The forms differ only on their first parts. For the readers survey questionnaire, the first
part asks their demographic profile which includes their Age, Gender, Family Monthly
Income, Civil Status and Year Level. For the radio broadcasters survey questionnaire,
the first part asks their Age, Gender, Educational Attainment, Civil Status, and Years in
Practice. The succeeding parts for both questionnaires are the same. The second part
gathers answers on their frequency of reading Print News and Online News. The third
part asks their credibility perception of Print News in terms of different categories;
Believability and Timeliness, Comprehensiveness, Accuracy and Fairness. The fourth
part asks their credibility perception of Online News in terms of different categories;
Believability and Timeliness, Comprehensiveness, Accuracy and Fairness. There are
opposite statements written for both sides for every number. The statements for each
category for the third and fourth parts are the same. The category of Believability and
Timeliness contains 4 items, Comprehensiveness has 3 items, Accuracy has 4 items
while Fairness consists of 8 items. The respondents answers were ranked based on
semantic scale.
The validity of the instrument was established through pilot test. The pilot test
was conducted among five readers and five radio broadcasters. Participants of the pilot
test completed the survey instrument where they were allowed to write corrections and
suggestions for the questionnaire. The participants for the pilot test did not participate
during the actual conduction of the study.
POPULATION
Readers and Radio Broadcasters served as the studys target population. There
are 30 respondents in total. Fifteen readers and fifteen radio broadcasters answered the
survey questionnaires.

28

SAMPLE
In this study, the researcher used convenience sampling for the respondentsbroadcasters. They were drawn from the population of AM and FM radio broadcasters
working in Lucena City. For the respondents-readers, the researcher used the purposive
sampling. The researcher utilized those readers who are studying Mass Communication
or Communication courses and who are currently on their third or fourth year level.
Reader who participated in the study came from different schools, namely; Calayan
Educational Foundation, Incorporated, Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation,
Incorporated, Southern Luzon State University and St. Anne College of Lucena.
DATA COLLECTION
Prior to performing data gathering from the respondents, the initial step was to
ask authorization from the dean and department head of Mass Communication as well
as dean of the schools with Communication courses and the station managers for each
radio stations to be used in Lucena City to approve the proposal to conduct a study.
After the pilot study, the researcher gathered the data. The data gathering proper
was done from January 12 to January 24, 2015. The researcher was the one who
personally collected the information and observed the respondents during data
gathering.
The researcher allowed the respondents to do the questionnaire and participate
in the study in their convenient time. The purpose of this action is for the researcher not
to bring discomfort and pressure to the respondents. The participants consent was
collected prior to conducting the study. Answering of questionnaires lasted for an
average of 10 minutes.
The data has been recorded and updated simultaneously as responses are
received. The results have been organized in the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet.
STATISTICAL TREATMENT

29

The questions under study were treated using descriptive and inferential
statistics. The researcher utilized the percentage distribution to answer the first, second
and third sub-problems which include the respondents demographic profile and their
frequency of reading Print and Online News. The formula for the percentage distribution
is as shown:

f
N

Where:
P
= Percentage
= frequency of the respondents
= total number of the respondents

Sub-problems 4 and 5 used the Weighted Mean Formula to determine the


general response of the respondents on their credibility perception of Print News and
Online News in terms of Believability and Timeliness, Comprehensiveness, Accuracy
and Fairness. The formula for computing weighted mean is as follows:

Where:
WM

= Weighted

Mean
f
N

= frequency of the respondents


= total number of respondents

30

The computed mean was analyzed and interpreted based on the guidelines and
example below:
Table I. Weighted Scores and Verbal Interpretation

Arbitrary Score
Weighted Score
Verbal Interpretation
5
4.21 5.00
Highly (Positive)
The
4
3.41 4.20
Somewhat (Positive)
3
2.61 3.40
Neither
first
two
2
1.81 2.60
Somewhat (Negative)
1
1.00 1.80
Highly (Negative)
statements for the category of Believability and Timeliness were used as an example to
show the interpretation made by the researcher:
Example:
The statements shown on the left side of the table are positive statements, while

STATEMENT
Presents
complete
information.
Presents realistic
stories.

Highly
(5)

Somewhat

Frequency
Neither
Somewhat

Highly
(1)

(4)

(3)

(2)

STATEMENT
Presents
incomplete
information
Does not present
realistic story.

Weighted
Mean
4.33

4.53

those on the right are negative statements. For the first statement, the researcher
computed a weighted mean of 4.33 which falls under the interpretation of Highly
(Positive). The positive side has the statement Have complete information. The
researcher interprets the Weighted Mean of 4.33 as Highly Presents complete
information. Meanwhile, for the second statement, the Weighted Mean of 4.53 was
interpreted as Highly Presents realistic stories.
The inferential statistics include Mann Whitney U-Test and Wilcoxon Signed
Rank Test. For sub-problems number 6 and 7, the researcher used the Mann Whitney
U-Test to determine if there are significant differences between the readers and radio
broadcasters credibility perception of Print News and Online News in terms of
Believability and Timeliness, Comprehensiveness, Accuracy and Fairness.
31

Sub-problems number 8 and 9 used the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test to determine
if there are significant differences between the readers credibility perception of Print
News and Online News in terms of Believability and Timeliness, Comprehensiveness,
Accuracy and Fairness as well as the radio broadcasters credibility perception of Print
News and Online News in terms of Believability and Timeliness, Comprehensiveness,
Accuracy and Fairness. The Wilcoxon Signed Rank Tests formula is shown below:
All computations used by the researcher are presented in the Appendix of this
study.

32

CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter presents the data collected from the respondents, both news readers and
radio broadcasters. It consists of six parts. The first part of the chapter includes the
demographic profile of the readers; age, gender, family monthly income, civil status and year
level; and the radio broadcasters; age gender, educational attainment, civil status and years in
practice of radio broadcasting. The second part presents the readers and broadcasters
frequency or reading print news and online news. The third part includes the readers and
broadcasters credibility perception of print news in terms of Believability and Timeliness,
Comprehensiveness, Accuracy and Fairness. The fourth part shows the readers and
broadcasters credibility perception of online news in terms of Believability and Timeliness,
Comprehensiveness, Accuracy and Fairness. Part five shows the comparison between readers
and broadcasters credibility perception of print news while part six shows comparison between
the readers and broadcasters credibility perception of online news. The seventh part presents
the comparison between readers credibility perception of print news and online news and the
eighth part presents the comparison between broadcasters credibility perception of print news
and online news.

33

PART I. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE READERS AND BROADCASTERS


This part presents the readers percentage distribution according to Age, Gender, Family
Monthly Income, Year Level and Civil Status. It also shows the broadcasters percentage
distribution according to Age, Gender, Educational Attainment, Years in Practice and Civil
Status.
Questions regarding the demographic profile of the respondents were covered in the first
part of the questionnaire.

Figure 2. Distribution of the Respondents-Readers according to Age


The figure above shows the age of the respondents-readers. It shows that majority of the
readers are 19 to 20 years old, while the least age group is 23 to 24 years old with only two
respondents. This is because the readers are purposively chosen as those who are in their third
and fourth year level in Communication and Mass Communication courses.
In a study conducted by American Press Institute (2014), they stated that young people are
active news consumers, with particular attentiveness to breaking news. They also said that
younger people particularly aged 18 29 are more likely to express preference for social media
as a means of discovery. A study as well conducted by the Newspaper Association of America
(2013) which surveyed 206,000 US adults showed that majority of the US adults, ages 18 to 24,
read newspaper media content in print or online in a typical week or access it on mobile devices
in a typical month.

34

Figure 3. Distribution of the Respondents-Readers according to Gender


Figure 3 presents that the readers gender profile is made up of 80% (12) females and
20% (3) males. This shows that majority of the Communication and Mass Communication
students are females. Female students have been the majority in mass communication for
nearly twenty five years. (Golombisky, 2002)
Figure 4. Distribution of the Respondents-Readers according to Family Monthly Income
Majority of the readers have a family monthly income of P10,-001 to P15,000. There is
an

equal distribution of the readers family monthly income for P10,000 and below, P15,001 to
P20,000 and P25,000 and above.
A Scarborough Research survey by Beaujon (2013) showed that news readership correlated to
higher income levels. According to American Press Institute (2014), income is associated with
greater levels of news consumption and news gathering habits. Income is related to how people
follow the news, how easy they feel it is to keep up with the news and the sources they use for
news. Income levels are also related to trust in news sources. It is reported that those with
higher incomes are somewhat more likely to report reading or hearing the news on a daily basis
or several times a week.

35

Figure 5. Distribution of the Respondents-Readers according to Civil Status


All (15) readers who participated in this study are single. This is attributed to the readers
being college students. Civil status may affect an individuals perception of both online news and
print news. Single people are mostly younger people, and most of the young readers prefer
online news over print news, as print news is more accessible for them.

36

Figure 6. Distribution of the Respondents-Readers according to Year Level


Majority of the respondents are on the third year level. The respondents-readers came
from four (4) different schools, namely; Calayan Educational Foundation, Incorporated, St. Anne
College of the Pacific, Southern Luzon State University, and Manuel S. Enverga University
Foundation, Incorporated. Readers who participated in this study are purposively chosen. They
are Communication/Mass Communication students who are on their higher year level of the
course. This is because their perception will be compared to the radio broadcasters, so the
readers must also have the knowledge about journalism.

Figure 7. Distribution of the Respondents-Broadcasters according to Age


Majority of the radio broadcasters belong to the age range of 51 years old and above.
Radio broadcasters are mostly of older age because usually those who do news announcing on
radios are the senior announcers. Perception of either print news or online news varies on
peoples age. Pew Research Centers study (2013) showed that older people have been slower
to embrace the online news as a main news source.

37

Figure
8.

Distribution of the Respondents-Broadcasters according to Gender


Like the readers, most of the radio broadcasters are females, comprising 60% of the
population. How an individual perceives news either print or online varies on their gender.

Figure 9. Distribution of the Respondents-Broadcasters according to Educational


Attainment
Majority of the broadcasters (67%) attained a Bachelors Degree, while only 13% or 2
radio broadcasters had a Masters Degree. In a study conducted by American Press Institute
(2014), ninety five percent of Americans who have completed college or graduate school
reported reading or hearing the news on a daily basis or several times per week.

38

Figure 10. Distribution of the Respondents-Broadcasters according to Civil Status


Majority of the radio broadcasters are Single and only 7% or one respondent belongs to
the Civil Status of Separated. Although most of the broadcasters are 51 years old and above,
most of them are still single.

Figure 11. Distribution of the Respondents-Broadcasters according to Years in Practice


Majority of the radio broadcasters (32%) are more than 10 years in the practice of radio
broadcasting, while 7% belongs to 6-10 years and another 7% for 1-2 years in practice. The
broadcasters years in practice of radio broadcasting may affect their perception in both print
news and online news. According to Online News Association (2002), 69% of the journalists and
broadcasters believed that online news sites did not meet the same standards as traditional
sources. The broadcasters number of years in practice may influence their perception of online
news and print news, because as broadcasters, they should use both medium as reference for
radio broadcasting. Through years of practice, they are able to distinguish which medium is
more reliable and credible to be used as news source.

39

PART II. READERS AND BROADCASTERS FREQUENCY OF READING ONLINE NEWS


AND PRINT NEWS
This part presents the readers and broadcasters percentage distribution according to
frequency or reading online news and print news.

Figure 12. Distribution of the Respondents-Readers according to Frequency of Reading


Online News
Majority of the readers read online news one to two times per week, comprising 48% of
the population. No respondent read online news on a daily basis. The Pew Research Centers
biennial media attitudes survey (2013) among 1,480 adults found that 50% of the public now
cites the internet as a main source for national and international news, up from 43% in 2011.
Java et. al. (2007) conducted studies that looked at the motivation of online news consumers,
concluding that online news fulfills a need for fast mode of communication that lowers users
requirement of time and thought investment for content generation. Despite the journalists and
broadcasters low rate in credibility as compared to other media according to Online News
Association (2002), and the report that the competition to be the first to report breaking news
stories is heightened by the Internet and makes errors more common, still, more of them rely on
Internet for news as this is very accessible and almost free nowadays.

40

Figure 13. Distribution of the Respondents-Broadcasters according to Frequency of


Reading Online News
Majority of the radio broadcasters in this study read online news on a daily basis.
Compared to the readers, radio broadcasters are more obliged to read either online or print
news on a daily basis because they may use print news and online news as reference for radio
broadcasting. According to McLuhan (1989), changes in technology transform social constructs,
which in turn shapes perceptions, experiences, attitudes and behaviors. According to a recent
study by Pew Research Center, the Internet is currently the third most popular news source and
in 2008, there was a 19% increase in online news consumption since 2000.

Figure 14. Distribution of the Respondents-Readers according to Frequency of Reading


Print News
Seventy three percent of the readers read print news one to two times per week. No one among
the respondents reads print news on a daily basis.

41

Figure 15. Distribution of the Respondents-Broadcasters according to Frequency of


Reading Print News
Majority of the respondents read print news daily, comprising 67% of the respondentsbroadcasters. Only 7% of the broadcasters read print news three to four times a week. As
compared to the broadcasters frequency of reading online news, the percentage of those who
read print news on a daily basis which is 67% is less than the percentage of those who read
print news on a daily basis which is 86%. Online news nowadays is very accessible for the
readers. Readers may use mobile phones or other handheld devices to be able to read free and
be updated with news, so people now prefer online news over print news.

42

PART III. READERS AND BROADCASTERS CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF PRINT


NEWS.
This part consists of tables which presents the readers and broadcasters credibility
perception of print news. Their credibility perception is divided into four areas, namely;
Believability and Timeliness, Comprehensiveness, Accuracy and Fairness.
TABLE II. READERS CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF PRINT NEWS

STATEMENT
Presents
complete
information.
Presents realistic
stories.
Presents
interesting
information.
Is always
updated.

Highly
(5)

Somewhat

Frequency
Neither
Somewhat

Highly
(1)

STATEMENT

Weighted
Mean

Verbal Interpretation

(4)

(3)

(2)

Presents
incomplete
information

4.33

HIGHLY
(Presents complete
information.)

Does not present


realistic story.

4.53

HIGHLY
(Presents
realistic stories.)

Presents
uninteresting
information.

4.27

Is outdated.

4.13

HIGHLY
(Presents interesting
information.)
SOMEWHAT
(Is always updated.)

(Believability and Timeliness)


The table above shows the readers credibility perception of print news in terms of
Believability and Timeliness. The highest mean is obtained by the second statement which says

43

that print news highly presents realistic information with a weighted mean of 4.53. The readers
will always perceive print news stories as realistic because the writers for newspapers are
chosen based on their educational attainment, skills and abilities. Also, news stories pass
through the gatekeeping process by the newspaper companies, so the authorities may be able
to check and omit news stories that are not realistic or true. The lowest mean of 4.13 is for the
fourth statement which says that the print news is somewhat always updated. The readers may
perceive the print news as somewhat always updated only, because as compared to online
news, the stories in print goes through a lot of process before being printed, thus, the print news
isnt as updated as online news.
TABLE III. READERS CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF PRINT NEWS
(Comprehensiveness)

STATEMENT

Provides an
overview of the
issue presented.
Provides
background
information for
follow-up part of a
running story.
Key terms are
understandable for
the audience.

Highly
(5)

Somewhat
(4)
5

Frequency
Neither
Somewhat
(3)
3

(2)
0

Highly
(1)

STATEMENT

Does not provide


an overview of the
issue presented.
Does not provide
background
information for
follow-up part of a
running story.
Key terms are not
understandable for
the audience.

Weighted
Mean

Verbal Interpretation

4.27

HIGHLY
(Provides an
overview of the
issue presented.)

4.07
3.73

SOMEWHAT
(Provides background
information for followup part of a running
story.)
SOMEWHAT
(Key terms are
understandable for the

44

audience)

This table presents the readers credibility perception of print news in terms of
Comprehensiveness. As shown above, the highest mean (4.27) is obtained by the first
statement which says that print news highly provides an overview of the issue presented.
Providing the overview of news for the readers will make them aware of the cause of the issue
or news. There are some readers who are not fully aware of the background of a certain topic,
and they may not be able to understand what the news is all about.

45

TABLE IV. READERS CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF PRINT NEWS


(Accuracy)

STATEMENT

Highly
(5)

Somewhat

Frequency
Neither
Somewhat

Highly
(1)

STATEMENT

Weighted
Mean

(4)

(3)

(2)

Words used are difficult


to understand.

Tells the story in a


chronological form.

Does not tell the story


in a chronological form

3.93

Separates facts from


opinion.

Does not separate


facts from opinion

3.87

Focuses on narrow
topics.

Focuses on broad
topics.

4.13

Words used are


simplified and easy to
understand.

Verbal Interpretation
SOMEWHAT
(Words used are
simplified and easy to
understand.)
SOMEWHAT
(Tells the story in a
chronological form.)
SOMEWHAT
(Separates facts from
opinion.)

SOMEWHAT
(Focuses on
narrow topics.)

Table IV shows the readers credibility perception of print news in terms of Accuracy. The
highest mean of 4.13 is obtained by the statement which says that print news somewhat
focuses on narrow topics. It is very important that for a news to focus on narrow topics and be
specific. This will make the readers understand what issue is being presented by the writer.

46

TABLE V. READERS CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF PRINT NEWS

STATEMENT

Highly
(5)

Somewhat

Frequency
Neither
Somewhat

Highly
(1)

STATEMENT

Weighted
Mean

Verbal
Interpretation

SOMEWHAT
Presents both sides
of the story.

(4)

(3)

(2)

Does not present both


sides of the story

With political earnings

No political earnings

4.07

Tells the whole story.

Does not tell the whole


story

4.07

Respect peoples
privacy.

Invades peoples privacy

3.47

Does not give personal


opinions on the news.

Gives personal opinions


on the news.

3.47

4.2

Presents both sides of


the story.

Cares about its


audiences needs.

Is concerned about the


public interest
Is concerned about the
communitys well being.

Does not care


about its audiences
needs

Is concerned
about making profits

3.87

Is not concerned of the


communitys well being

3.93

SOMEWHAT
With political
earnings.
SOMEWHAT
Tells the whole
story.
SOMEWHAT
Respect peoples
privacy.
SOMEWHAT
Does not give
personal opinions
on the news.

SOMEWHAT
Cares about
its audiences
needs.

SOMEWHAT
Is concerned about
the public interest.
SOMEWHAT
Is concerned about
the communitys
well being.

(Fairness)

Table V shows the readers credibility perception of print news in terms of Fairness. The
highest mean of 4.2 is obtained by the statement saying that print news somewhat cares about
its audiences needs. Although it has the highest weighted mean, the readers still do not
perceive print news to fully care about its audience needs. Somehow, print news does care for
its companys profits. They do not fully consider the audiences needs because they also have

47

to consider the companys finances. The second highest mean of 4.07 was obtained by two
statements saying that print news are somewhat with political earnings and that print news
somewhat tells the whole story. As mentioned, the companies do not fully consider audiences
needs only, as they have to earn or make profit for them to grow. The readers perceive that print
news, like any other media, earn profit from politicians during elections. Somewhat, print news
tells the whole story, as not all news stories being presented in newspapers does tell the whole
story. Some news and issues might be sensitive and should not be made known by the public.
TABLE VI. BROADCASTERS CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF PRINT NEWS
(Believability and Timeliness)

STATEMENT

Highly
(5)

Somewhat

Frequency
Neither
Somewhat

(4)

(3)

(2)

Highly
(1)

STATEMENT

Weighted
Mean

Verbal Interpretation

Presents complete
information.

Presents incomplete
information

4.33

HIGHLY
(Presents complete
information.)

Presents realistic
stories.

Does not present


realistic story.

4.53

HIGHLY
(Presents
realistic stories.)

Presents interesting
information.

Presents uninteresting
information.

4.27

Is always updated.

Is outdated.

4.13

HIGHLY
(Presents interesting
information.)
SOMEWHAT
(Is always updated.)

48

The table above presents the radio broadcasters credibility perception of print news in
terms of Believability and Timeliness. The highest mean of 4.53 was obtained by the statement
which says that print news highly presents realistic stories. The broadcasters mostly belong to
the older age groups, and older age groups prefer print news than online news, as they perceive
print news or traditional news to be more credible, as those who write for print news are
professional writers. The lowest mean of 4.13 was obtained by the statement which says that
print news is somewhat always updated. Both the readers and broadcasters perceive print news
as somewhat always updated only. This is because the news presented on print cannot be
updated when the writer wants to, unlike in online news, where the writer may update the news
any time and as many times as he wants.

49

TABLE VII. BROADCASTERS CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF PRINT NEWS


(Comprehensiveness)

STATEMENT

Highly
(5)

Provides an
overview of the issue
presented.

Provides background
information for
follow-up part of a
running story.

Key terms are


understandable for
the audience.

Somewhat

Frequency
Neither

Somewhat

(4)

(3)

(2)

STATEMENT

Weighted
Mean

Verbal Interpretation

Does not provide an


overview of the issue
presented.

4.27

HIGHLY
(Provides an overview
of the issue
presented.)

Does not provide


background
information for followup part of a running
story.

4.33

HIGHLY
(Provides
background
information for
follow-up part of
a running story.)

Key terms are not


understandable for the
audience.

4.27

HIGHLY
Key terms are
understandable for the
audience.

Highly
(1)

The table above shows the broadcasters credibility perception of print news in terms of
Comprehensiveness. The highest mean of 4.33 was obtained by the statement saying that print
news provides background information for follow-up part of a running story. Print news follows a
basic rule of providing background information of a news story. Not all readers are aware of the
whole story for a certain issue, so the writers provide background information to give basic
knowledge for them.

50

TABLE VIII. BROADCASTERS CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF PRINT NEWS

STATEMENT

Highly
(5)

Somewhat
(4)

Frequency
Neither
Somewhat
(3)

(2)

Highly
(1)

STATEMENT

Weighted
Mean

Verbal
Interpretation
SOMEWHAT
(Words used are
simplified and
easy to
understand.)
SOMEWHAT
(Tells the story in
a chronological
form.)

Words used are


simplified and easy to
understand.

Words used are


difficult to understand.

Tells the story in a


chronological form.

Does not tell the story


in a chronological
form

4.13

4.53

HIGHLY
(Separates
facts from
opinion.)

3.8

SOMEWHAT
(Focuses on
narrow topics.)

Separates facts from


opinion.

10

Does not separate


facts from opinion

Focuses on narrow
topics.

Focuses on broad
topics.

(Accuracy)
The table above shows the broadcasters credibility perception of print news in terms of
Accuracy. Most of the respondents answered that print news highly separates facts from opinion
with the highest weighted mean of 4.53. News writers must always state facts regarding an
issue first before stating his opinions regarding that issue. Broadcasters perceive that writers for
print news follow basic rules of separating facts from opinions.

51

TABLE IX. BROADCASTERS CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF PRINT NEWS

STATEMENT

Highly
(5)

Somewhat

Frequency
Neither
Somewhat

Highly
(1)

STATEMENT

Weighted
Mean

Verbal
Interpretation

(4)

(3)

(2)

Does not present


both sides of the
story

With political
earnings

No political
earnings

3.87

Tells the whole


story.

Does not tell the


whole story

Respect peoples
privacy

Invades peoples
privacy

3.6

Does not give


personal opinions
on the news.

Gives personal
opinions on the
news.

4.07

Does not care


about its audiences
needs

3.93

4.33

HIGHLY
(Is concerned
about the
public interest)

4.27

HIGHLY
(Is concerned about
the communitys well
being.)

Presents both
sides of the story

Cares about its


audiences needs
Is concerned
about the public
interest
Is concerned
about the
communitys well
being

Is concerned
about making
profits

Is not concerned of
the communitys
well being

SOMEWHAT
(Presents both sides
of the story.)
SOMEWHAT
(With political
earnings.)
SOMEWHAT
(Tells the whole
story.)
SOMEWHAT
(Respect peoples
privacy.)
SOMEWHAT
(Does not give
personal opinions on
the news.)
SOMEWHAT
(Cares about its
audiences needs.)

(Fairness)
Table IX presents the broadcasters credibility perception of print news in terms of
Fairness. Most of the respondents-broadcasters answered that print news is highly concerned
about public interest. People will always to keep themselves updated on the latest trends and
issues globally because its what interests them. Broadcasters perceive that print news serve
the peoples interest on different issues because print news is striving to keep itself always
updated. The least weighted mean was obtained by the statement which says that print news

52

somewhat respect peoples privacy. News either print or online will always try to invade peoples
privacy as news stories are being read by many people.
PART IV. READERS AND BROADCASTERS CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF ONLINE
NEWS.
This part consists of tables which presents the readers and broadcasters credibility
perception of online news. Their credibility perception is divided into four areas, namely;
Believability and Timeliness, Comprehensiveness, Accuracy and Fairness.
TABLE X. READERS CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF ONLINE NEWS

STATEMENT

Highly
(5)

Somewhat

Frequency
Neither
Somewhat

(4)

(3)

(2)

Highly
(1)

STATEMENT

Weighted
Mean

Verbal
Interpretation
SOMEWHAT
(Presents complete
information.)
SOMEWHAT
(Presents realistic
stories.)

Presents complete
information.

Presents incomplete
information

Presents realistic
stories.

10

Does not present


realistic story.

3.87

4.73

HIGHLY
(Presents
interesting
information.)

4.67

HIGHLY
(Is always
updated.)

Presents interesting
information.

11

Presents uninteresting
information.

Is always updated.

11

Is outdated.

53

(Believability and Timeliness)


The table above shows the readers credibility perception of online news. The highest
weighted mean of 4.73 is on the statement that says online news highly presents interesting
information. Many people nowadays are engaging themselves in using Internet and other social
media, so it is very easy for online news groups to identify what information interests the
readers most. The least mean is on the statement which says that online news presents realistic
information. Still, we cannot deny that although many people rely on the Internet for news and
information, it is difficult to believe a certain issue easily. Unlike in print news, an individual must
verify issues read online or read other issues relating to what they have just read in order to
make sure the news stories.
TABLE XI. READERS CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF ONLINE NEWS
(Comprehensiveness)

STATEMENT

Provides an overview
of the issue
presented.

Highly

Somewhat

(5)

(4)

Frequency
Neither
Somewhat
(3)
0

(2)
1

Highly

STATEMENT

Weighted
Mean

Verbal
Interpretation

(1)

SOMEWHAT

Does not provide an


overview of the issue
presented.

3.93

3.73

Provides background
information for followup part of a running
story.

Does not provide


background
information for followup part of a running
story.

Key terms are


understandable for the
audience.

Key terms are not


understandable for
the audience.

(Provides an
overview of the
issue presented.)
SOMEWHAT
(Provides
background
information for
follow-up part of a
running story.)
SOMEWHAT
(Key terms are
understandable for
the audience.)

The table above presents the readers credibility perception of online news in terms of
Comprehensiveness. All three statements were answered by the respondents with Somewhat.

54

This is because the news stories presented online usually lack background information for the
readers. News stories posted specially on social media to attract readers provide very brief
discussion of certain issues, without providing the overview and background of how the issue
came up.
TABLE XII. READERS CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF ONLINE NEWS
(Accuracy)

55

STATEMENT

Highly
(5)

Somewhat

Frequency
Neither

Somewhat

(4)

(3)

(2)

Highly
(1)

STATEMENT

Weighted
Mean

Verbal
Interpretation

3.8

(Words used are


simplified and easy
to understand.)
SOMEWHAT
Tells the story in a
chronological form.
SOMEWHAT
(Separates facts
from opinion.)
SOMEWHAT
(Focuses on
narrow topics.)

SOMEWHAT

Words used are


simplified and easy
to understand.

Words used are


difficult to understand.

Tells the story in a


chronological form.

Does not tell the story


in a chronological form

3.73

Separates facts
from opinion.

Does not separate


facts from opinion

3.6

Focuses on narrow
topics.

Focuses on broad
topics.

3.73

56

Table XII presents the readers credibility perception of online news in terms of Accuracy.
The respondents perceive that words used in online news are somewhat simplified and easy to
understand with the highest mean of 3.8. Most online news sites are using English in writing
news, with a few of them using jargon and difficult words. Not all readers can understand these
terms so it is not fully for them to understand it. For the other statements, the readers perceive
that online news somewhat tells the story in a chronological form and online news somewhat
focuses on narrow topics.
TABLE XIII. READERS CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF ONLINE NEWS
(Fairness)

STATEMENT
Presents both sides of
the story
\With political earnings
Tells the whole story.

Highly
(5)

Somewhat

Frequency
Neither
Somewhat

Highly
(1)

(4)

(3)

(2)

STATEMENT
Does not present both
sides of the story
No political earnings
Does not tell the whole
story

Weighted
Mean

Verbal
Interpretation

SOMEWHAT

3.47

SOMEWHAT

3.93

SOMEWHAT

57

Respect peoples
privacy
Does not give
personal opinions on
the news.
Cares about its
audiences needs
Is concerned about
the public interest
Is concerned about
the communitys well
being

Invades peoples privacy

3.07

NEITHER

Gives personal opinions


on the news.

3.47

SOMEWHAT

3.67

SOMEWHAT

4.27

HIGHLY

3.8

SOMEWHAT

Does not care


about its audiences
needs
Is concerned
about making profits
Is not concerned of the
communitys well being

The table above shows the readers credibility perception of online news. The highest
mean of 4.27 was obtained by the statement which says that online news is Highly concerned
about public interest. The least mean of 3.07 says that the broadcasters neither perceive online
news to respect peoples privacy nor invade peoples privacy.

58

TABLE XIV. BROADCASTERS CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF ONLINE NEWS

STATEMENT
Presents complete
information.
Presents realistic
stories.
Presents interesting
information.
Is always updated.

Highly
(5)

Somewhat

Frequency
Neither
Somewhat

Highly
(1)

(4)

(3)

(2)

STATEMENT
Presents incomplete
information
Does not present realistic
story.
Presents uninteresting
information.
Is outdated.

Weighted
Mean

Verbal
Interpretation

4.13

SOMEWHAT

SOMEWHAT

4.13

SOMEWHAT

3.8

SOMEWHAT

(Believability and Timeliness)


The table above shows the broadcasters credibility perception of online news in terms of
believability and timeliness. The statements which obtained the highest mean of 4.13 say that
the broadcasters perceive online news to somewhat have complete information and somewhat
presents interesting information.
TABLE XV. BROADCASTERS CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF ONLINE NEWS

59

STATEMENT

Highly
(5)

Somewhat

Frequency
Neither
Somewhat

Highly
(1)

(4)

(3)

(2)

Provides background
information for follow-up
part of a running story.

Key terms are


understandable for the
audience.

Provides an overview of
the issue presented.

STATEMENT
Does not provide an
overview of the issue
presented.
Does not provide
background information
for follow-up part of a
running story.
Key terms are not
understandable for the
audience.

Weighted
Mean

Verbal
Interpretation

4.13

SOMEWHAT

4.07

SOMEWHAT

4.07

SOMEWHAT

(Comprehensiveness)
The table above shows the broadcasters credibility perception of online news in terms of
comprehensiveness. The statement which obtained the highest mean of 4.13 says that the
broadcasters perceive online news to somewhat provide an overview of the issue presented.

60

TABLE XVI. BROADCASTERS CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF ONLINE NEWS


(Accuracy)

STATEMENT
Words used are simplified
and easy to understand.
Tells the story in a
chronological form.
Separates facts from
opinion.
Focuses on narrow topics.

Somewhat

Frequency
Neither

Somewhat

(4)

(3)

(2)

Highly
(5)

Highly
(1)

STATEMENT
Words used are difficult to
understand.
Does not tell the story in a
chronological form
Does not separate facts
from opinion
Focuses on broad topics.

Weighted
Mean

Verbal
Interpretati

4.13

SOMEWH

4.13
3.8

The table above shows the readers credibility perception of online news in terms of
Accuracy. The highest mean of 4.13 says that broadcasters perceive online news to be words
used in online news are somewhat simplified and easy to understand and that online news
somewhat separates facts from opinion.

61

SOMEWHA

SOMEWH

SOMEWHA

STATEMENT
Presents both sides of
the story
\With political earnings
Tells the whole story.
Respect peoples
privacy
Does not give personal
opinions on the news.
Cares about its
audiences needs
Is concerned about the
public interest
Is concerned about the
communitys well being

Highly
(5)

Somewhat

Frequency
Neither
Somewhat

Highly
(1)

STATEMENT

Weighted
Mean

(4)

(3)

(2)

2
3

8
9

5
2

0
1

0
0

Invades peoples privacy

3.47
3.6

Does not present both sides


of the story
No political earnings
Does not tell the whole story

3.93
3.8
3.93

Gives personal opinions on


the news.

Does not care


about its audiences needs

3.8

Is concerned
about making profits

Is not concerned of the


communitys well being

4.07

TABLE XVII. BROADCASTERS CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF ONLINE NEWS


(Fairness)
Table XVII shows the readers credibility perception of online news in terms of Fairness.
The highest mean of 4.07 says that broadcasters perceive online news to be somewhat
concerned about the communitys well being. The least mean of 3.47 says that broadcasters
perceive online news to somewhat respect peoples privacy.

62

PART V. COMPARISON BETWEEN READERS AND BROADCASTERS CREDIBILITY


PERCEPTION OF PRINT NEWS
This part presents the tables of comparison for the readers and broadcasters credibility
perception of print news. There are four areas to compare the perception of the readers and
broadcasters, namely: Believability and Timeliness, Comprehensiveness, Accuracy and
Fairness.
TABLE XVIII. MANN-WHITNEY U TEST FOR READERS AND BROADCASTERS
CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF PRINT NEWS
(Believability and Timeliness)

No
difference
between the

STATEMENT

STATEMENT

Presents complete
information.
Presents interesting
information.

Presents incomplete
information
Does not present
realistic story.
Presents uninteresting
information.

Is always updated.

Is outdated.

Presents realistic stories.

U Value

Significance

96

Not Significant

significant

81

Not Significant

occurs

96

Not Significant

93.5

Not Significant

readers and

broadcasters credibility perception of print news in terms of Believability and Timeliness as


shown above. Both the readers and broadcasters perceive online news to have complete
information, realistic stories, interesting information and be updated.

63

TABLE

XIX.

MANN-WHITNEY

TEST

FOR

READERS AND

BROADCASTERS

CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF PRINT NEWS


(Comprehensiveness)

STATEMENT
STATEMENT
Presents both sides of the story
Provides an overview of the issue
presented.
With political earnings
Provides background information
forTells
follow-up
part of
a running
the whole
story.
story.
Key
terms are
understandable
for
Respect
peoples
privacy
the audience.
Does not give personal opinions on
the news.
Cares about its audiences needs
Is concerned about the public interest

STATEMENT
STATEMENT
Does not present both sides of the
Does not provide
an overview of the
story
issue presented.
No political earnings
Does not provide background
information
for the
follow-up
Does not tell
whole part
storyof a
running story.
Key terms
arepeoples
not understandable
for
Invades
privacy
the audience.
Gives personal opinions on the
news.
Does not care
about its audiences needs
Is concerned
about making profits

Is concerned about the communitys


well being

Is not concerned of the


communitys well being

U Value
U Value
107
110.5
97

Significance
Significance
Not Significant
Not Significant
Not Significant

112
107

NotNot
Significant
Significant

111.5
77

Significant
NotNot
Significant

89

Not Significant

86

Not Significant

90.5

Not Significant

93.5

Not Significant

The table above shows that there is no significant difference between the readers; and
broadcasters credibility perception of print news in terms of Comprehensiveness. Both groups
perceive online news to provide an overview of the news presented, provide background
information of a running story and that the key terms are understandable for the audience.
TABLE XX. MANN-WHITNEY U TEST FOR READERS AND BROADCASTERS
CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF PRINT NEWS
(Accuracy)
STATEMENT

STATEMENT

Words used are simplified and easy to


understand.

Words used are difficult


to understand.
Does not tell the story in
a chronological form
Does not separate facts
from opinion

Tells the story in a chronological form.


Separates facts from opinion.
Focuses on narrow topics.

Focuses on broad topics.

U Value

Significance

96

Not Significant

98

Not Significant

74.5

Not Significant

89

Not Significant

The

table above shows that there is no significant difference between the readers; and broadcasters
credibility perception of print news in terms of Accuracy. There is no significant difference
between the readers and broadcasters perception of online news accuracy.
TABLE XXI. MANN-WHITNEY U TEST ON READERS AND BROADCASTERS CREDIBILITY
PERCEPTION OF PRINT NEWS
(Fairness)

64

The table above shows that there is no significant difference between the readers; and
broadcasters credibility perception of print news in terms of Fairness. Both groups consider
print news to be fair as it presents both sides of the story, tells the whole story, respect peoples
privacy, not giving personal opinion on the news, not caring about its audiences needs and
concerned about communitys well being.

65

PART VI. COMPARISON BETWEEN READERS AND BROADCASTERS CREDIBILITY


PERCEPTION OF ONLINE NEWS
This part presents the tables of comparison for the readers and broadcasters credibility
perception of print news. There are four areas to compare the perception of the readers and
broadcasters, namely: Believability and Timeliness, Comprehensiveness, Accuracy and
Fairness.
TABLE XXII. MANN-WHITNEY U TEST ON READERS AND BROADCASTERS
CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF ONLINE NEWS
(Believability and Timeliness)

Table
the

STATEMENT

STATEMENT

Presents complete
information.

Presents incomplete
information
Does not present
realistic story.
Presents
uninteresting
information.

Presents realistic stories.

between the

Presents interesting
information.

broadcasters

Is always updated.

Is outdated.

U Value

Significance

107

Not Significant

102

Not Significant

comparison

97.5

Not Significant

readers and

80

Not Significant

credibility

XXII

shows

perception of online news in terms of Believability and Timeliness. There is no significant


difference between the readers and broadcasters perception of online news in terms of
Believability and Timeliness.

66

TABLE XXIII. MANN-WHITNEY U TEST ON READERS AND BROADCASTERS


CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF ONLINE NEWS
(Comprehensiveness)

STATEMENT

STATEMENT

table

Provides an overview of the


issue presented.
Provides background
information for follow-up part of
a running story.

shows

Key terms are understandable


for the audience.

Does not provide an overview


of the issue presented.
Does not provide background
information for follow-up part
of a running story.
Key terms are not
understandable for the
audience.

U Value

Significance

110.5

Not Significant

100.5

Not Significant

82.5

Not Significant

The
above
the

comparison between the readers and broadcasters perception of online news in terms of
Comprehensiveness. There is no significant difference on the perception of the readers and
broadcasters with regards to Comprehensiveness of Online News.
TABLE XXIV. MANN-WHITNEY U TEST ON READERS AND BROADCASTERS
CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF ONLINE NEWS
(Accuracy)
The table above shows the comparison between the readers and broadcasters
perception of online news in terms of Accuracy. The readers and broadcasters both perceive
online news as on that use simplified words that are easy to understand, tells the story in a

STATEMENT

STATEMENT

Words used are simplified and easy


to understand.
Tells the story in a chronological
form.

Words used are difficult to


understand.
Does not tell the story in a
chronological form

U Value

Significance

95

Not Significant

93.5

Not Significant

Separates facts from opinion.

Does not separate facts from opinion

78

Not Significant

Focuses on narrow topics.

Focuses on broad topics.

101.5

Not Significant

chronological form, separates facts from opinions and focuses on narrow topics.
TABLE XXV. MANN-WHITNEY U TEST ON READERS AND BROADCASTERS
CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF ONLINE NEWS
(Fairness)

67

The table above shows the comparison between the readers and broadcasters
perception of online news in terms of Fairness. There is no significant difference on the way
readers and broadcasters perceive the fairness of online news.
STATEMENT

STATEMENT

Presents both sides of the story

Does not present both sides of the story

106

Not Significant

\With political earnings

No political earnings

88

Not Significant

Tells the whole story.

Does not tell the whole story

108.5

Not Significant

Respect peoples privacy

Invades peoples privacy

89.5

Not Significant

Gives personal opinions on the news.

101.5

Not Significant

107.5

Not Significant

97

Not Significant

97.5

Not Significant

Does not give personal opinions on


the news.
Cares about its audiences needs
Is concerned about the public interest
Is concerned about the communitys
well being

Does not care


about its audiences needs
Is concerned
about making profits
Is not concerned of the communitys well
being

U Value

Significance

68

PART VII. COMPARISON BETWEEN READERS CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF PRINT


NEWS AND ONLINE NEWS
This part presents the tables of comparison for the readers credibility perception of print
news and online news. There are four areas to compare the perception of the readers, namely:
Believability and Timeliness, Comprehensiveness, Accuracy and Fairness.
TABLE XXVI. WILCOXON SIGNED RANK TEST FOR READERS CREDIBILITY
PERCEPTION OF PRINT NEWS AND ONLINE NEWS
(Believability and Timeliness)

XXVI

STATEMENT

STATEMENT

Presents complete
information.
Presents interesting
information.

Presents incomplete
information
Does not present realistic
story.
Presents uninteresting
information.

Is always updated.

Is outdated.

Presents realistic stories.

W Value

Significance

Not Significant

Significant

Significant

10.5

Not Significant

Table

presents the comparison between the readers perception of print news and online news in
terms of Believability and Timeliness. It shows that there is a significant difference on
statements 2 and 3. The readers perceive that print news presents realistic stories Highly while
online news somewhat presents realistic stories. Moreover, they also perceive that print news
presents interesting information Highly while online news somewhat presents interesting
information.

TABLE XXVII. WILCOXON SIGNED RANK TEST FOR READERS CREDIBILITY


PERCEPTION OF PRINT NEWS AND ONLINE NEWS
(Comprehensiveness)

69

The table above shows the comparison between the readers perception of print news
and
news.
on

the

there is

STATEMENT

STATEMENT

Provides an overview of the


issue presented.
Provides background
information for follow-up part of
a running story.

Does not provide an overview


of the issue presented.
Does not provide background
information for follow-up part
of a running story.
Key terms are not
understandable for the
audience.

Key terms are understandable


for the audience.

W Value

Significance

14.5

Not Significant

27.5

Not Significant

online
As seen
table,

32.5

Not Significant

no

significant difference on how readers perceive the comprehensiveness of print news and online
news.
TABLE XXVIII. WILCOXON SIGNED RANK TEST FOR READERS CREDIBILITY
PERCEPTION OF PRINT NEWS AND ONLINE NEWS
(Accuracy)

Table XXVIII presents the comparison between the readers perception of print news and
online
As
above,
no

news.
STATEMENT

STATEMENT

Words used are simplified and easy


to understand.
Tells the story in a chronological
form.

Words used are difficult to


understand.
Does not tell the story in a
chronological form
Does not separate facts
from opinion

Separates facts from opinion.


Focuses on narrow topics.

Focuses on broad topics.

W Value
20
9
22
7

Significance
Not Significant

shown

Not Significant

there is

Not Significant
Not Significant

significant difference on how readers perceive the accuracy of print news and online news.
TABLE XXIX. WILCOXON SIGNED RANK TEST FOR READERS CREDIBILITY
PERCEPTION OF PRINT NEWS AND ONLINE NEWS
(Fairness)

70

XXIX
presents

STATEMENT

STATEMENT

W Value

Significance

Presents both sides of the


story

Does not present both sides


of the story

13.5

Not Significant

With political earnings

No political earnings

Significant

Tells the whole story.

Does not tell the whole story

7.5

Not Significant

Respect peoples privacy

Invades peoples privacy

11.5

Not Significant

Does not give personal


opinions on the news.
Cares about its audiences
needs

Gives personal opinions on


the news.

22

Not Significant

Does not care


about its audiences needs

7.5

Not Significant

Is concerned about the public


interest
Is concerned about the
communitys well being

Is concerned
about making profits

20

Not Significant

Is not concerned of the


communitys well being

Not Significant

Table

the

comparison between the readers perception of print news and online news in terms of Fairness.
As shown above, there is a significant difference statement 2. The readers perceive print news
to somewhat have political earnings, and it has a weighted mean of 4.07. Meanwhile, they also
perceive online news to somewhat have political earnings, with a weighted mean of 3.47.

71

PART VIII. COMPARISON BETWEEN BROADCASTERS CREDIBILITY PERCEPTION OF


PRINT NEWS AND ONLINE NEWS
This part presents the tables of comparison for the broadcasters credibility perception of
print news and online news. There are four areas to compare the perception of the
broadcasters, namely: Believability and Timeliness, Comprehensiveness, Accuracy and
Fairness.
TABLE XXX. WILCOXON SIGNED RANK TEST FOR BROADCASTERS CREDIBILITY
PERCEPTION OF PRINT NEWS AND ONLINE NEWS
(Believability and Timeliness)

STATEMENT

table

Presents complete information.


Presents realistic stories.
Presents interesting information.
Is always updated.

STATEMENT

W Value

Significance

Presents incomplete
information
Does not present realistic
story.
Presents uninteresting
information.

15

Not Significant

13.5

Not Significant

12.5

Not Significant

Is outdated.

Not Significant

The

above shows the comparison between the broadcasters perception of print news and online
news. As seen on the table, there is no significant difference on how broadcasters perceive the
print news and online news in terms of Believability and Timeliness.

72

TABLE XXXI. WILCOXON SIGNED RANK TEST FOR BROADCASTERS CREDIBILITY


PERCEPTION OF PRINT NEWS AND ONLINE NEWS
(Comprehensiveness)

XXXI

STATEMENT

STATEMENT

Provides an overview of the issue


presented.
Provides background information
for follow-up part of a running
story.

Does not provide an overview


of the issue presented.
Does not provide background
information for follow-up part of
a running story.
Key terms are not
understandable for the
audience.

Key terms are understandable for


the audience.

W Value

Significance

12

Not Significant

Not Significant

Not Significant

Table

presents the comparison between the broadcasters perception of print news and online news.
As shown above, there is no significant difference on how broadcasters perceive print news and
online news in terms of Comprehensiveness.
TABLE XXXII. WILCOXON SIGNED RANK TEST FOR BROADCASTERS CREDIBILITY
PERCEPTION OF PRINT NEWS AND ONLINE NEWS
(Accuracy)

The table above shows the comparison between the broadcasters perception of print news and
STATEMENT

STATEMENT

Words used are simplified and easy


to understand.
Tells the story in a chronological
form.

Words used are difficult to


understand.
Does not tell the story in a
chronological form
Does not separate facts
from opinion
Focuses on broad topics.

Separates facts from opinion.


Focuses on narrow topics.

W Value

Significance

Not Significant

12

Not Significant

Not SIgnificant

19.5

Not Significant

online news. As seen on the table, there is no significant difference on how broadcasters
perceive the accuracy of print news and online news.

73

TABLE XXXIII. WILCOXON SIGNED RANK TEST FOR BROADCASTERS CREDIBILITY


PERCEPTION OF PRINT NEWS AND ONLINE NEWS
(Fairness)
Table XXXIII presents the comparison between the broadcasters perception of print
STATEMENT

STATEMENT

W Value

Significance

Presents both sides of the story

Does not present both sides of the


story

10

Not Significant

With political earnings

No political earnings

19.5

Not Significant

Tells the whole story.

Does not tell the whole story

Not SIgnificant

Respect peoples privacy

Invades peoples privacy

24

Not Significant

Does not give personal opinions


on the news.
Cares about its audiences needs

Gives personal opinions on the


news.
Does not care
about its audiences needs
Is concerned
about making profits

Not Significant

7.5

Not Significant

Not Significant

Is not concerned of the


communitys well being

12

Not SIgnificant

Is concerned about the public


interest
Is concerned about the
communitys well being

news and online news. As shown above, there is no significant difference on how broadcasters
perceive print news and online news in terms of Fairness.

74

CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter provides the summary, summary of findings, conclusions and
recommendation of the researcher. The summary part contains the rationale for the
study, statement of the problem, criteria used in problem selection and the research
design. The summary of findings shows the significant findings of the researcher which
answered each sub-problem, as well as conclusions for each. Lastly, the researcher
provided recommendations for all the findings of this study.
SUMMARY
With the advent of technology and the fact that most people nowadays rely on
the Internet for news and other important information, and the concept of news
credibility needs considerable attention, the researcher assessed and compared the
broadcasters and readers credibility perception of print news and online news in this
study. This study is deemed beneficial to mass communication practitioners, as it will
help them recognize how readers and broadcasters judge the information they see on
print and online, and it will help them choose which medium is best in providing news for
the public. It also beneficial for the society, for it will give them knowledge on how to be
certain of what they read either on print or news.
This study answered the following questions:
1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents-readers according to:
a.
Age
b.
Gender
c.
Family Monthly Income
d.
Civil Status
e.
Year Level
2. What is the demographic profile of the respondents-broadcasters
according to:
a.
Age
b.
Gender
75

c.
d.
e.
3. How

Educational Attainment
Civil Status
Years in Practice
frequent do the readers and broadcasters read Online News and

Print News?
4. What is the readers credibility perception of Print News in terms of
Believability and Timeliness, Comprehensiveness, Accuracy and Fairness?
5. What is the broadcasters credibility perception of Print News in terms of
Believability and Timeliness, Comprehensiveness, Accuracy and Fairness?
6. Is there a significant difference between the readers and broadcasters
perception of Print News?
7. Is there a significant difference between the readers and broadcasters
perception of Online News?
8. Is there a significant difference between the readers perception of Print
News and Online News?
9. Is there a significant difference between the broadcasters perception of
Print News and Online News?
10. What are the implications of this study to:
a.
Mass Communication Education
b.
Mass Communication Practitioners
c.
Society
The researcher utilized the descriptive and inferential research method.
Descriptive research is a method used to obtain information regarding current status of
an issue or phenomenon. The tool used by the researcher is a questionnaire. In
addition, the researcher made use of existing literature in order to come up with
preliminary ideas regarding the research problem and in coming up with the
questionnaire. Meanwhile, inferential is used to conclude if there are relationships or
differences between to variables.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
The researcher has drawn the following findings from the results of the study:

76

a.

Majority of the respondents-readers are aged 19 20 years old, females,

have a family monthly income of P10,-001 to P15,000, single and on their third
year on College.
b.
Majority of the respondents-broadcasters are aged 51 years old and
above, females, Bachelors Degree holders, Single and are more than 10 years
in the practice of radio broadcasting.
c.
Majority of the readers read Online News one to two times per week, while
most of the broadcasters read Online News on a daily basis. Meanwhile, majority
of the readers are reading Print News one to two times per week, while majority
of the broadcasters read Print News daily.
d.
In terms of Believability and Timeliness, readers perceive Print News to
highly present realistic information. In terms of Comprehensiveness, print news
highly provides an overview of the issue presented for the readers. In terms of
Accuracy, readers perceive print news to somewhat focus on narrow topics.
Meanwhile, in terms of Fairness, print news somewhat cares about its audiences
needs for the readers.
e.
In terms of Believability and Timeliness, broadcasters perceive Print News
to highly present realistic information. In terms of Comprehensiveness, print
news highly provides background information for follow-up part of a running story
as perceived by the broadcasters. In terms of Accuracy, broadcasters perceive
print news to highly separate facts from opinions. Meanwhile, in terms of
Fairness, broadcasters answered that print news is highly concerned about
public interest.
f.
In terms of Believability and Timeliness, readers perceive Online News to
highly present realistic information. In terms of Comprehensiveness, Online news
somewhat provides an overview of the issue presented for the readers. In terms
77

of Accuracy, readers perceive Online news to somewhat use words that are
simplified and easy to understand. Meanwhile, in terms of Fairness, Online news
somewhat presents both sides of the story.
g.
In terms of Believability and Timeliness, broadcasters perceive Online
News to highly somewhat have complete information and somewhat present
interesting information. In terms of Comprehensiveness, Online news somewhat
provides an overview of the issue presented for the broadcasters. In terms of
Accuracy, readers perceive Online news to somewhat use words that are
simplified and easy to understand and somewhat separates facts from opinions.
Meanwhile, in terms of Fairness, Online news is somewhat concerned about the
communitys well being.
h.
There is no significant difference between the readers and broadcasters
perception

of

Print

News

in

terms

of

Believability

and

Timeliness,

Comprehensiveness, Accuracy and Fairness.


i.
There is no significant difference between the readers and broadcasters
perception

of

Online

News

in

terms of

Believability and Timeliness,

Comprehensiveness, Accuracy and Fairness.


j.
There is a significant difference on the readers credibility perception of
print news and online news in terms of Believability and Timeliness. The readers
perceive print news to highly present realistic stories and they perceive online
news to somewhat present realistic stories. There is also a significant difference
on the readers perception of Fairness of print news and online news, particularly
based on the print news and online news political earnings. There is no
significant difference on the readers perception of Comprehensiveness and
Accuracy of print news and online news.

78

k.
news

There is no significant difference on the broadcasters perception of print


and

online

news

in

terms

of

Believability

and

Timeliness,

Comprehensiveness, Accuracy and Fairness.


CONCLUSIONS
Based on the above findings, the researcher came up with the following conclusions:
a.
Old people are more active in consuming news than the young people.
This is because older adults want to be always updated particularly with news
and public affairs.
b.
There is the same level of news readership for print news and online news
among the respondents. For example, broadcasters read both print news and
online news on a daily basis, and the readers read print news and online news
one to two times per week. This shows that although there is a big advancement
in technology and most of the news are provided on the Internet, people still
continue on patronizing traditional news media or newspapers, because people
find news writers for print as more credible.
c.
The readers and the broadcasters always find print news to present
realistic information. Being the traditional news media, newspapers play great
role on providing information that are more credible for the people.
d.
Although the study showed that readers perceive that print news highly
provides an overview of the issue presented, it also showed a decreased mean
for the statement that says print news use key terms that are understandable for
the audience.
e.
Broadcasters perceive print news as somewhat updated only because the
news presented on print cannot be updated when the writer wants to, unlike in
online news, where the writer may update the news any time and as many times
as he wants.

79

f.

Broadcasters perceive that print news somewhat respect peoples privacy.

News either print or online will always try to invade peoples privacy as news
stories are being read by many people.
RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the limitations and results of this study, the researcher recommends
the following:

A replication of the current research with different respondents.


Future research should utilize and compare the credibility perception of Print
News and Online News among those who read regularly and seldomly.

A replication of the current research with the additional means of


delivering the news. This study used the online news and print news. Future
research should comprise Online News, Print News and Television News.

Another limitation is that only four areas that may affect their perception of
credibility of print news and online news were examined in this study including
Believability and Timeliness, Comprehensiveness, Accuracy and Fairness. In the
real world, many other factors may also affect the credibility perception of either
readers or broadcasters toward print news and online news. For example, not
only fairness of the news content may affect ones attitude towards a particular
news medium, the readers may also look on the name of the author as it may
also contribute to the credibility of the news. Future studies may try to study other
areas affecting the readers credibility perception of different news medium.

Future researches should also focus on the content differences between


print news and online news. It would be useful to find if there are any
relationships between the broadcasters and readers age and frequency of
reading print news and online news and their perception of print news and online
news.
80

This study only examined 15 radio broadcasters and 15 readers. Future

studies may try more participants as well as utilize other TV broadcasters and
news writers. This study could be expanded to the whole province of Quezon.

Mass media practitioners, specially those in Lucena City, can use this
research as a tool to explain to the organizations they belong to the best possible
way to present themselves to receive adequate credibility and subsequent
trustworthiness from their pertinent publics.

Regardless of how readers and broadcasters perceive the credibility of


print news and online news, mass communication practitioners must always
verify information found on print as well as online. This will ensure that correct
information is given to the people.

News companies should always make sure that terms used for news
stories are being understood by the audience. Use of jargon words should be
avoided as much as possible to provide the readers better understanding of the
issues presented.

Given the current situation, newspapers must ensure that they continue to
compete in the news industry. If possible, newspapers must try to work hard
towards transformation to be able to cope up with the digital age. Although
people remain in patronizing traditional newspapers, the newspaper companies
must also keep up with the advancement of todays world.

Readers must always verify information they have read either in print
news and online news. It is therefore a responsibility of every reader to assess
and make a decision regarding the news they have read.

81

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