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# Applied Mathematics and Mechanics

## (English Edition, Vol. 14, No. 7, July 1993)

Shanghai, China

S I M I L A R I T Y S O L U T I O N S O F ROUND J E T S AND P L U M E S
Huai Wen-xin ( ~ { ~ )

Li Wei ( ~

~,)

## (Received June 9, 1992; Communicated by Chien Wei-zang)

Abstract
The k-e turbulence model, considering the effect of buoyancy on turbulent
kinetic energy and its dissipation rate, is adopted to present a mathematical model for
round plumes and jets. There are similarity solutions in the uniform environment.
Taking into account the conservation of momentum and heat flux, Finite Analytic
Method is applied to obtain the similarity functions of velocity, temperature and
turbulent kinetic energy. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data
is good.

## Key words jets, environmental hydraulics, similarity solutions.

I.

Introduction

The round jet and plume in the static environment is one of the typical problems related
with environmental pollution. It has wide application in environment, combustion and military
affairs. There are similarity solutions in uniform environmentE~J. The similarity analytic
method means that the dependent variables of flow are given in similarity function form, hence
the partial differential equations are reduced into the ordinary differential equations, then the
similarity solutions can be obtained.
Recently, higher order turbulence closure models are proposed, the accuracy and the
ability of prediction of turbulent flow are much improved. Paully et ai. (1985) have proposed
the similarity solutions of velocity distributions of plane and axisymmetric jets by using the
k - e turbulence model. They did not take into account the conservation of momentum flux in
the flow direction. Fukushima (1988, 1989) has shown that the inclined wall plumes, plane jets
and plumes have the similarity solutions which satisfy the k - e turbulence model. Fukushima
did not consider the effect of buoyancy on turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate in
k-'e turbulence model. Thus their solutions are not complete. This study take into account
the conservation of momentum and heat flux and the effect of buoyancy on turbulent kinetic
energy and its dissipation rate in k - e turbulence model, and the Finite Analytic Method is
applied to obtain the similarity solutions of round jets and plumes.
II.

M a t h e m a t i c a l Model

There is a vertical round plfime (exit fluid temperature T ois larger than ambient fluid
temperature To) in the uniform environment. The x coordinate is taken in the upward vertical

649

650

## Huai Wen-xin and Li Wei

direction. The r-coordinate is taken in the radial direction, u and v are t h e velocity
components in the x coordinate and the r coordinate, respectively. It is assumed that the flow
is steady and o f the boundary-layer type. ( i.e. zJ))v, a /~3y >) 8 / Ox ) . If the Boussinesq
approximation is made, and k-e turbulence model is applied, the governing equations are

Ou
1
0
O~ 4 r 0---7-( r v ) = O

(2.1)

Ou
Ou
T' 1
u--~x + v -~r = a g ~- r
OT
OT
1
u---~-+o Or = r

ok

ok

u--d-xx + V Or = T

0
Ou
Jr ( rvt r ) '

d(
,,~
Or r P~e

OT)
Or"

o (

ok)

a~-

crk

'

v,
- e - - a g p~,
Oe
u~+v

Oe
1
0---7 = - -r

a[
v,
O---TXr or,

Or

(2.2)

(2.3)

+ "' k Or ]

OT
Ox

(2.4)

ae ~
e
[ Ou ~ ~
Or } + C t .--~v, \ Or /

e2
e
-C2'T-C"--kag

v,
P,,

OT
Ox

(2.5)

where v , = C ~ k z / e is the eddy viscosity of the turbulence, k and e are the turbulent kinetic
energy and its dissipation rate respectively; T is the supertemperature based on the
environmental temperature; g is the gravity acceleration; a is the volumetric expansion
coefficient, P~, is the turbulent prandtl number.
The values of numerical constant appearing in the model are adopted as

## C~=0.09, cr~=l.O~ cr~=l.3, C,,=1.44,

C 2 , = 1.92, P ~ , = O . 8 , ~ 1 . 0
It is noted that in the case o f round jets the terms related with temperature in the model
may be cancelled.

## III. Similarity Analysis

1.

Round plumes
For axisymmetric problem, the velocity components satisfy the following relations.

1
u=

a~0
ar

1
v=

o~
ax

(3.1)

## where Tp denotes stream function 9

There are similarity solutions for round plumes in uniform environment. The similarity
variable r/ is introduced

q=arx-l

(3.2)

The stream .function ~ , the temperature T, the kinetic energy o f turbulence k and the
viscous dissipation rate o f turbulence e are expressed by the following relations

## Similarity Solutions of Round Jets and Plumes

~O= b x " F ( rl )

651

T =cx"G(rD
k =dxtK(rl)

(3.3)

e=axqE(rl)
in which F, G, K and E are the similarity functions for r
We have the following relations

Or1 _
8x

1
x rip

O
Ox

1
x

~rl
d----~ = a x - ~

d
do "

u=aZbx "-zt

T, k and e respectively.

T1

0
Or
-

~ U X

d
do

-I

, v = - a b x "~-t-l

/2KK'
":*=t'4 -E

KZE '
E~

-IF'

where v t . = C , K 2 / / E is the dimensionless eddy viscosity, the prime ( ' ) means the ordinary
derivative with respect to r/ .
Substituting above relations into equations (2.2)-(2.5), the following set of equations is
derived after some manipulations.
x 2''-4t-1 [ (m - 21)r/-2F'2+ m o - 3 F F ' -

d2
..~_~XZp-q+m

- 4 t [ V 't .v,( r] - l

F ' )'

mr] -2

F F " ] - agc

## q-~vt.( rl-t F ~) ' + q-~vt.F " ' ]

dz
____~2p-q+rt-2l

--

.,-,

be

I (
p,,

v,.

G'
71

+v~.G'+v,.G")
x'

'
d2

-_

+__b_g_e x 3, q 2,

(3.5)

1 (lv,.K,+v:.K,+v:.K,,)

or,,

_ a Z ; d X q E _aga2bacd

P.,1 .xZ,+._q_~v,.(nG_iG,rl)

x,.+q_2t_~ __
ql ( q F ' E - m F F )-= ,
a

(3.4)

E 2

a~bd
a x 2,,

,z+
-

(3.6)

E
( qF__~')' 2
tUl~-~vt.
~

~2

Cl~ cd xp+._ t
E
- ag'-p-~,t aZbe
v , . ~ - [ nG - IG/ri ]
According to continuity equation (2.1), Eq. (2.3) can be rewritten as

(3.7)

652

## Huai Wen-xin and Li Wei

ouT ooT - v
Ox ~ - ~ + ' 1 " r

t
r

O ( v,
Or r--~,j

OT .)
Or

LOv-x r--~,,

OTor- ) - Tv ~dr

' r=0,

OT
v=0, ~=01

## r-~oo, v=O, ~0T

=

We can get

_ Oax I ? 2"ruTdr=O
i.e., the buoyancy flux in the vertical direction is conserved. If B~ denotes the buoyancy flux at
exit, we can get

In order to have the similarity solutions for Eqs (3.4)-(3.8), the following equalities can
be obtained

## 2m--41-- 1 =n-~ 2p--q Wm--41

m+n--21- t-.---2p--q+n--21
m - 2 1 + p - - 1 = 2 m - 6 1 + 2 p - - q = 3 p - q --21=-q = 2 p + n - q - 1
re+q--21-- l . = 2 m - - 6 1 W p = ' 2 q - - p = 2 p - - 2 1 = p + n - - 1 .
re+n=0
and

agc
d 2 a'bd
e
Bz
agcd 1
-'---~''~
a'b
be = a = a - - ' ~ d b d = ~ = ~
=
So we can obtain
I

1,

a=l,

m---5/3, n = - 5 / 3 ,

b---(aaB~) ~,

p=-2/3,

c=B~/taa) ~

d=(aaBt~ T, a=a#B~
Thus, we have
"1 ~ r / X

~= (agBl)~xS"3F ('1)
T ffi BIr ( a a ) - t x - s, 3G (,1)

q-~--~ - - 2

## Similarity Solutions of Round Jets and Plumes

9

653

K = (agB,)~"x-2'sK [rl)
e = (agBt)x-2E(rD
u= (agB~)~x-~lF"(~)
v,= (agBI) xTvt *
Eqs. (3.4)- (3.7) can bJ: written a s

## ~--~--1i ~.,~ 53 Ti FF,,+y5 ~FF,,+G+v:.(~F, )'

1. ~, %' i
- - ~lv , . i~-~-r
] +-~vt*F'"

51.

(FG')-,}

[3.9)

(Ovt,,G')'=O

(3.10)

1' 2

.+

ab

1 (rJvt.K')"
ri

(3.11)

E z
1
E
5
,
-- C ; . - - ~ + - ~ - C , .v,. ---~(--~-Gq- G r / ) = 0

(,3.12)

The boundary conditions of round plumes and their dimensionless forms are adopted as
0u

x>~o, r=O

aT

, Ok

0e

Or =-W-r=-W-r=-6T-r =~
o=0

## 7 - - 0 , F = kF'/tl)' =G' = K ' = E ' = 0

x>~0, r ~ o o

u=T=kfe=O

tl-.oo F ' = G = K = E = O
It is. found from Eqs. (3.9)-(3.12) and the boundary conditions that the similarity
solutions are independent on the Reynolds number and are determined-only by the buoyancy
flux (B,) at exit.
2. R o u n d j e t s
The same procedure in the previous section is used to obtain the similarity solutions of
the round jets. In the case .of the jet," the terms related with temperature in the modelling
equations are omitted. Based on the boundary conditions, the integration of Eq. (2.2) leads to

a I : 2JrruZdr=O
It means that the momentum flux is a constant in the flow direction. The momentum

flux is

654

defined as

Mt

oo 1

2zru~dr

## If the similarity solutions exist, we have

2m--41--1=2p--q+m--41
m+ p--21--1=2m--.61+ 2p--q=3p--q--21=q
m+q-21-1=2m-61+

p=2q-p=2p-21

2m-21=0
and

d2
be

a+bd
r

r
~ =

M,
a--dT~b
z=x

Thus, we have
1=1,

a=l,

m=l,

p=--2,

q=--4

b = M t 89 d = M t ,

a = M l s'z

The similarity variable and similarity functions are obtained from substitution of above
values into Eqs. (3.2)-(3.3) as the following

= r/x
~=Mt 89
k =M~x-ZK(rl)
e = MI V2x-4F (rl)
u=Mt 89
v+----M t89 t~
In the same way, the following ordinary differential equations for the round jet are
obtained

## + l7/v , . F ' "

= 0

(3.13~

fl-~-t2F'K+FK')+v"(2
",rl )""-I"~r~l r11(rlv,*K')'-E=o
__1 ( 4 F ' E + F E ' )
71

+C~ E

E2
- C2:-'-R- +

I 1 ,-,, ) n
;--~-v,.
,~,--~r
1
O'~

(r/v,*EQ' = 0

## And the boundary conditions are taken as

rl = 0

(3.1,1)

F = ( F t lrl), = K I = E , = 0

(3 " 15)

## Similarity Solutions of Round Jets and Plumes

r/~

655

F I=K=E=0

The characteristics of the round jets are described by the set of the differential equations
(3.13) - (3.15) with the mentioned bcu. lary conditions. It is found that for the jets the
similarity solutions are independent also o~. the Reynolds number and are determined only by
the momentum flux atexit.
IV.

Finite Analyr

Method

F'

- H , do=vt.d~

rt= fr

(4.1)

F =Ir

rlvt.d'

(4.2)

## Eqs. (3.9)-(3.12) can be transformed into

Hr162 5 F+-V-~)

Hr

G , + ( - ~5 P , , -F
~ + - - yr.
~-)

-K,,+

%H~=0

Gr +5P,~'GFr

vt.

5 F,
3

77 -I-

=0

(4.4)

2 '

## -Evt*~r~nt- p-'--~o'k(3 Gvt*'-I-G

Er162

(4.3)

)---0

,'t* \ E
77

(4.5)
E

) r

- C2,----~-E2 ~,v,*+--~l
-,t C,.v,* E 5

)=o

c4

For the round jets, the equations (3.13) -- (3.15) are transformed into Eqs. (4.9)-(4.11)
r]=Ii

v,.d~

(4.7)

F = f 'oHqV,.d ,
H

r162 ' F

v,,

q--(ri "t--~)Hr

(4.8)
2

v,.=O

Kr162 (crkFq'vJ')
Kr
rl
Ecr ~ ( c r , F T v ~ . )

rl

El

(4.9)

(4.t0)

E z
EcT4HEv8 , cr.TC,,-~H~.

-C~,-W-~,.~. =0

(4.11)

656

## Huai Wen-xin and Li Wei

The ordinary differential equations mentioned above can be written as the generalized
form
~r162 2Br

(4.12)

## It is nonlinear equation and can be linearized as

114-1
r162 = 2 B n r

(4.13)

_,~fn

in which (n) and (n-I-l) denote the nth and ( n + l ) t h calculation respectively. For
convenience, the superscripts (n) and (n + l ) are omitted in the following passages.
Finite analytic method is applied to solve Eq. (4.13). The calculative domain is taken as
0~*.
The value of ~*is chosen as 500 for the full development of the round plumes and
jets I~y the numerical test. In the subdomain ~ l h l ,
(h is the dimensionless space step-length),
the solution of Eq. (4.13) is obtained

(4.14)

## The boundary values of the subdomain are

~=h,

r162

~=-h,

r162

Substituting them into Eq. (4.14), the'final finite analytic solution of Eq. (4.13) can be
written as

qb,=C,_,f,_,-.I-C,+,r

--.
( i = 2 , - 9. , - - ~~*

(4. is)

in which
_
exp[BhJ
C,_1 - e x p [ B h ] + e x p [ - B h ] - '
exp[ -Bh]
CI.~ = e x p [ B h ] + e x p [ - B h ]

Ct=(C'+l-Cs'l)

'

h
2B

## The system of Eq. (4.15) can be solved in stepwise method.

V.

R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n

Fig. 1 - Fig. 6 show the calculated results of the similarity functions for round plumes and
jets.
1. R o u n d j e t s
The calculated similarity function of velocity and velocity distribution are shown in Fig. !.
The experimental data given by Reichardt ts3 are plotted in this figure, in which uo denotes the
centerline velocity of jet. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is
good.
Fig?2 shows ~ e similarity functions of turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate
calculated,for round jets. Unfortunately, the experimental data are not got yet for comparison.

uxM

i t/:

~(cm)

6.0

20

20

./.,

[sl

657

kxlM~l

1.0

/I

3,0

0.5

1
0~0

--0.24

--0.12

-'P'_-

1.2

2.4

r/:c

--0.24

--0.12

0.}2

0.24-

n/~,.~

## Fig. 1 Velocity similarity function and

velocity distribution of round jets

ux "~ ( aaB~ ~f

s.o 7"~

\$ [6]

## Fig. 2 Similarity functions of turbulent

kinetic energy and its dissipation
rate for round jets

T=S/](ag) ] B:'t

p~t

20

prt

1.0

16

3.0

12
,

[7]

8.0

4.0
0.0

0.04

0.05

0.12

0.16

0.2

of round plumes
("

kx ~

0~04

0.0\$

0.12

O.1,~

of round plumes

( agBL )-~
l.

"16

T._

prt

pr|
1.0

--~
0.8

0.8

~-~

0.6

0.4

4
"

0.04

0,05

r/

0,12

0.}6

## Fig. 5 Similarity function o f turbulent

kinetic energy for round plumes

0.2

0.04

0.08

0.1~

0.16

o.z

## Fig. 6 Similarity function o f dissipations

rate of turbulent kinetic energy
for round plumes

2. R o u n d p l u m e s

In order to study the effect of the turbulent Prandt! number on the.behavior of round
plumes, three different Prandtl number (P,,=0.4, 0.6, !.0) axe made in the calculation.
The similarity functions of velocity and temperature calculated are shown in Fig. 3 and
Fig. 4 respectively. The experimental data got by George c6] and RouseCTJ are plotted in the
same figures. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is good (P,~ =0.4).

658

## Huai Wen-xin and Li Wei

The similarity functions of turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate calculated for'
different Prandtl number are shown in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 respectively. From them it is found
that the maximum value of the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate appears at
r/ =0.05 and rl =0.045 respectively.
VI.

Conclusion

The k-e turbulence model, considering the effect of buoyancy, is used to present a
mathematical model for round plumes and jets. The similarity functions calculated for velocity
and temperature agree well with the experimental data. Hence, the effect of buoyancy on
turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate and the conservation of momentum and heat
flux should be considered in the similarity analysis for rou'nd plumes and jets. It is found that
the agreement between the calculated and experimental data is the best as P , j =0.4 for round
plumes, but it is appeared as P , , =0.8 for plane plumes. The reason of the differentiation has
to be found in the further research.
References

[ 1]
I'2]
[3]
I-4]

[ 5]
r6 ]

i-73

Huai Wen-xin, Jets, plumes and buoyant jets in static environment, Ph. D thesis,
Wuhan University-of Hydraulic and Electric Engineering, (1991). (in Chinese)
Paully, A. T. et al., Similarity solutions for plane and radial jets using a
k-e turbulente model, Trans, ASME, J. of Fluid Engineering, 107 (1985), 7 9 - 8 5 .
Fukushima, Y.,Analysis of inclined wall plume by turbulence model, Proc. of Japan
Society of Civil Engineers, 339, I I - 10, (1988), 6 5 - 74, (in Japanese).
Fukushima, Y., Similarity. solutions Of plane plumes and jets using k-e turbulence
model, Proc. of Japan Society of Civil Engineers. 405, l I - 1 1 , (1989), 147-154. (in
Japanese).
Rechardt, H., Gesetzmabigketiten Der Freien Turbulenz, ZAMM, 21 (1944) 268.
George, W. K. et al.,Turbulent measurement in an axisymmetric buoyant plume, Int. J.
I4~ ,t Mass Transfer, 20 (I 977), ! 145 - 1! 54.
Rouse, H. et al., Gravitational convection from a boundary source, Tellus, 4 (1952),
201 -210.