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Chapter(2:(The(Personnel(and(Procedures(of(Special(

Education
Monday,$September$ 7,$2015

The$Professionals$ Who$Work$in$Special$Education
Special$Education$Teachers

Professionals$who$provide$day;to;day$instruction$and$other$support$for$
students$with$disabilities
May$work$with$students$with$one$type$of$disability$or$students$with$varying$
disabilities$depending$on$specific$state$teacher$legislature$
Types$of$instruction:
Remedial$(re;teaching)
Developmental$(teaching$based$on$student's$functional$learning$level)
Strategic$(teaching$tool$skills$to$help$student$succeed)
Prepare$materials$adapted$to$meet$students'$special$needs
Assess$and$report$progress
Consult$with$general$education$teacher
May$work$in:
General$education$classroom$for$part$of$day
Resource$rooms
Self;contained$classrooms
Separate$schools
Itinerant$special$education$teacher:$special$educator$who$travels$from$school$to$
school

Bilingual$Special$Educator

Knowledgeable$about$both$bilingual$education$and$special$education
Special$training$in:
Knowledge$of$language$proficiency
Appropriate$assessment$tools$and$techniques
Cultural$and$linguistic$diversity
Effective$delivery$of$instruction
Professionalism$for$working$with$colleagues,$families,$and$community$
members

Early$Childhood$Special$Educator

Birth$to$5$years
Knowledge$in$wide$range$of$disabilities
Speech;language

members

Early$Childhood$Special$Educator

Birth$to$5$years
Knowledge$in$wide$range$of$disabilities
Speech;language
Intellectual
Behaviour$concerns
Work$in:
Children's$homes
Separate$classrooms
General$education$classes

Adapted$Physical$Educator

Adapt$exercises,$games,$and$other$activities
Works$in:
General$physical$education$class
Separate$special$class
Work$with$other$physical$educators

Related$Services$Professionals
Speech;Language$Pathologist

Assist$students$having$difficulty:
Making$certain$sounds
Forming$sentences
Also$may$assist$students$who:
Are$deaf$or$hard$of$hearing
! American$Sign$Language
Do$not$have$the$ability$to$speak
! Pictures
! Computer$
Have$significant$disabilities
! Swallowing
! Controlling$tongue$movements

School$Psychologist

Can$determine$whether$student$is$eligible$ to$receive$ special$education$services


Communicate$this$information$to$parents

School$Counselor

Work$with$all$students
Problem$solvers
Individual$students$or$entire$class$to$resolve$peer$relationship$issues
Career$counseling

School$Social$Worker

Coordinate$efforts$of$educators,$families,$and$outside$agency$personnel$to$
ensure$students$receive$ all$supports$they$need
Help$all$students

Individual$students$or$entire$class$to$resolve$peer$relationship$issues
Career$counseling

School$Social$Worker

Coordinate$efforts$of$educators,$families,$and$outside$agency$personnel$to$
ensure$students$receive$ all$supports$they$need
Help$all$students

School$Nurse

Help$all$students
Screens$in$areas$of$vision$and$hearing
Immunization$records
Health$education
Distribution$of$medications
Interpret$medical$information$

Educational$Interpreter

Listens$to$words$being$spoken$and$translates$into$sign$language

Occupational$Therapist

Teaches$functional$and$other$living$skills$such$as:
Grasping$pencil
Cutting$with$scissors
Buttoning$and$zipping$clothes
Tying$shoelaces
Feeding
Wash$face$
Use$computer
Cook$
Problem;solving
Decision;making
Determine$whether$students$need$adapted$equipment
Instruct$students$on$how$to$use$adapted$equipment

Physical$Therapist

Provide$services$when$student's$disability$affects$ability$to$move
Help$with:
Muscle$strength$and$flexibility
Mobility
Posture
Positioning
Maintaining$or$improving$large$muscle$use
Balance$and$coordination
Decisions$about$type$of$equipment$best$for$students'$needs

Others$Who$Work$in$Special$Education
General$Education$Teacher

Students$with$disabilities$receive$part$or$all$instruction$in$typical$classroom
Collaboration$with$special$education$teachers

Decisions$about$type$of$equipment$best$for$students'$needs

Others$Who$Work$in$Special$Education
General$Education$Teacher

Students$with$disabilities$receive$part$or$all$instruction$in$typical$classroom
Collaboration$with$special$education$teachers

Paraeducator

Work$under$direction$of$teacher$to$help$in$delivery$of$services$for$students$with$
disabilities
Wide$variety$of$tasks
Tutor$reading
Accompany$student$with$emotional$disability$from$class$to$class$
Personal$assistant

Parents

Most$important
Inform$you$of$students'$life$outside$school
Listen$without$judgment$and$account$for$their$perspectives

Additional$Service$Providers

When$student$has$particularly$unique$need

Rehabilitation+Counsellor

Help$students$find$and$keep$appropriate$employment$after$high$school$
completion
Community$agency$setting

Art+or+Music+Therapist

Help$students$who$better$understand$or$cope$through$use$of$art$or$music

Orientation+and+Mobility+Specialist

Help$students$with$visual$impairments$gain$independence$by$teaching$how$to$
confidently$move$around$in$classroom,$school,$and$community

Audiologist

Expert$in$diagnosing$problems$related$to$hearing$and$the$ear
Determine$whether$hearing$aid$or$other$device$or$strategies$would$benefit

Inclusion+Facilitator

Ensures$students$with$disabilities$ receive$supports$and$services$needed$to$
succeed$in$general$education

Language+Interpreter

Help$facilitate$communication$with$student$and$family$whose$native$language$is$
not$English

Special+Education+Administrator

Responsibility$of$ensuring$all$policies$and$practices$related$to$special$education$
are$carried$out$properly

Technology+Specialist

Evaluates$whether$student$with$disability$needs$technology$support$and$what$
type

Responsibility$of$ensuring$all$policies$and$practices$related$to$special$education$
are$carried$out$properly

Technology+Specialist

Evaluates$whether$student$with$disability$needs$technology$support$and$what$
type
New$school$position

Therapeutic+Recreation+Specialist

Work$through$community$agency$or$hospital
Help$student$and$family$use$recreational$activities$to$improve$student's$
functioning$and$independence

Psychometrist+or+Educational+Diagnostician

Completes$individual$assessment$of$students$for$special$education
Specifically$trained$to$administer$and$interpret$tests
Does$not$have$broad$set$of$skills$of$school$psychologist

Determining$ Student$Eligibility$for$Special$Education$
Services
Small$percentage$with$disabilities$identified$at$very$young$age
Most$identified$as$having$disabilities$ only$after$experiencing$extraordinary$
difficulties$in$school

Initial$Consideration$of$Student$Problems

General$education$teachers$most$likely$to$express$initial$concern
Tries$several$strategies$to$address$problem
Discuss$informally$with$other$teachers$and$administrators
Contact$parents$for$their$view
Gather$data
Samples$of$student's$work
Log$of$behaviour$incidents

General$Education$Interventions

Next$step$for$teacher$is$to$request$case$be$reviewed$by$team$of$professionals
Can$use$portion$of$special$education$funding$to$provide$extra$support$to$reduce$
special$education$referrals

Response$to$Intervention$ (RTI)$and$Tiered$Approaches

Two$main$purposes:
Ensure$student$receives$research;proven$remediation$and$other$supports$
as$soon$as$being$identified$as$having$academic$difficulties
Ensure$professionals$gather$high;quality$data$to$guide$decision
Continuous$progress$monitoring:$ongoing$use$of$data$to$determine$whether$
student$is$responding$to$interventions$
RTI$based$on$three;tiered$approach$to$intervention:
Tier$1:
! Used$with$reading,$math,$and$behaviour$concerns
! Research;based$approaches

Continuous$progress$monitoring:$ongoing$use$of$data$to$determine$whether$
student$is$responding$to$interventions$
RTI$based$on$three;tiered$approach$to$intervention:
Tier$1:
! Used$with$reading,$math,$and$behaviour$concerns
! Research;based$approaches
! All$students
Tier$2:
! Small;group$instruction$several$times/week
! Remedial$instruction
Tier$3:
! Daily$one;on;one$instruction$or$small;group$instruction
! Outside$classroom
! Decide$if$student$needs$special$education

Screening

When$states$do$not$have$mandated$intervention$or$RTI$process
School$psychologist,$counselor,$principal,$etc.$meet$with$general$education$
teacher$to$discuss$student
Skip$this$step$if$parent$formally$requests$assessment

Special$Education$Referral$and$Assessment

Consensus$that$student's$difficulties$are$serious$enough$to$consider$special$
education
Full$assessment$required$by$IDEA$before$any$services$can$be$provided
Multidisciplinary$team:
School$psychologist
General$education$teacher
Parents
Data$gathered$on$academic$performance

Parents'$Rights

Request$and$give$permission$for$testing
Can$seek$independent$evaluation
Be$meaningfully$informed$in$writing$about$procedures
Have$child$tested$in$language$child$knows$best
Native$language
Sign$language
Braille
Be$full$members$of$team
Withdraw$consent$at$any$time
Have$child$receive$free$appropriate$public$education
Have$child$educated$in$least$restricted$environment
Notified$in$writing$whenever$school$proposes:
Reevaluation
Change$in$placement
Decision$not$to$evaluate$child

Have$child$receive$free$appropriate$public$education
Have$child$educated$in$least$restricted$environment
Notified$in$writing$whenever$school$proposes:
Reevaluation
Change$in$placement
Decision$not$to$evaluate$child
Decision$not$to$change$disputed$placement
When$disagreement$occurs$(within$2$years):
Informal$dispute$resolution
Mediation
Impartial$hearing
Have$access$to$child's$education$records$within$45$days$of$formal$request,$
request$changes$in$inaccurate$information,$give$permission$to$others$working$
with$child$to$access$records
Be$kept$informed$of$child's$progress

Assessment$Components

Vision$and$hearing$screening
Intellectual$ability$(capacity$to$learn)
Achievement$(present$level$ of$learning)
Social$and$behavioural$functioning
Developmental$history$(developmental$delays,$illnesses,$injuries)
Other$areas$as$needed

Assessment$Procedures

Assessment$instrument$must:
Be$valid$(measure$what$it$is$supposed$to$measure)
Be$reliable$(consistent)
Be$free$of$racial$or$cultural$bias
Be$administered$by$trained$professional
Take$into$account$possible$impact$of$suspected$disability
Be$completed$in$language$student$feels$most$comfortable$with
Use$multiple$measures

Decision$Making$for$Special$Education

Multidisciplinary$team$meets$after$assessment$has$been$completed$to$make$3$
decisions:
Whether$student$has$disability
Whether$disability$adversely$affects$educational$performance
Whether$student$would$benefit$from$special$education
Parent$participation

Preparing$the$Individualized$Education$Program$(IEP)

Summarizes$all$ information$gathered$about$student
Sets$expectations$of$what$student$will$learn$over$the$year
Prescribes$all$special$services$student$will$receive

Deciding$About$Placement

Parent$participation

Preparing$the$Individualized$Education$Program$(IEP)

Summarizes$all$ information$gathered$about$student
Sets$expectations$of$what$student$will$learn$over$the$year
Prescribes$all$special$services$student$will$receive

Deciding$About$Placement

Setting$in$which$student$will$be$educated
Full;time$general$education
Combination$of$general$education$and$special$education$settings
Full;time$special$setting

Monitoring$for$Students$with$Disabilities
Annual$Review

Professionals$working$with$student$meet$at$least$once$a$year$with$parents$to$
review$IEP
Update$information
Review$progress
Set$new$goals
Can$be$amended$rather$than$rewritten$during$year

Three;Year$Reevaluation

Reassessed$using$many$of$same$procedures$as$initial$assessment
Determine$whether$student's$program$and$services$remain$appropriate$or$need$
to$change
May$decide$no$use$in$completing$new$assessment
School$can$complete$reevaluation$and$prepare$new$IEP$even$if$parents$choose$
not$to$participate

Understanding$ the$Individualized$ Education$Program$(IEP)


Required$for$student$receiving$special$ education$services
Reviewed$and$updated$annually$(or$every$3$years)

Members$of$the$IEP$Team

Parents
Special$education$teacher
General$education$teacher
School$district$representative$(e.g.$principal,$school$psychologist,$special$
education$coordinator)
Individual$who$can$interpret$results$of$any$evaluations$(e.g.$school$psychologist,$
psychometrist)
Representatives$from$outside$agencies$providing$transition$services$(for$children$
16+$years)
Student$(unless$very$young)
Other$individuals$with$knowledge$or$expertise$ related$to$the$student$(e.g.$
paraeducators)
Exceptions$to$IEP$composition:
Team$member$submits$information$in$writing$if$attendance$is$not$

16+$years)
Student$(unless$very$young)
Other$individuals$with$knowledge$or$expertise$ related$to$the$student$(e.g.$
paraeducators)
Exceptions$to$IEP$composition:
Team$member$submits$information$in$writing$if$attendance$is$not$
necessary

Required$Components$of$the$IEP
Present$Level$of$Performance

About$any$domain$of$concern:
Academic$achievement
Social$functioning
Behaviour
Communication$skills
Physical$skills
Vocational$skills
Must$address$how$student's$disability$affects$involvement$and$progress$in$
general$education$curriculum

Annual$Goals

May$address$academics$as$well$as$social$and$behaviour$domains$and$self;help$
skills
Only$required$in$areas$of$education$affected$by$disability

Short;Term$Objectives$or$Benchmarks

For$students$with$most$significant$needs
Short;term$objectives:
Intermediate$steps$that$lead$toward$accomplishment$of$goal
Benchmarks:
Major$milestones
Used$when$specific$skills$cannot$be$specified,$such$as$grade$level$ reading$
performance

Special$Education$and$Related$Services

Goals$lead$team$to$decide$which$special$education$and$related$services$student$
needs

Supplementary$Aids$and$Services

E.g.$permitting$student$to$use$calculator$in$math$class,$dictate$answers$to$
assignments$instead$of$writing,$modified$assignments$(e.g.$10$questions$instead$
of$20)

Assistive$Technology
E.g.$Smartboard

Participation$with$Peers$Who$Do$Not$Have$Disabilities

State$and$justify$extent$to$which$student$will$not$be$in$general$education

Accommodations$for$State$and$District$Testing

E.g.$student$takes$test$in$small$group$instead$of$with$entire$class

E.g.$Smartboard

Participation$with$Peers$Who$Do$Not$Have$Disabilities

State$and$justify$extent$to$which$student$will$not$be$in$general$education

Accommodations$for$State$and$District$Testing

E.g.$student$takes$test$in$small$group$instead$of$with$entire$class
E.g.$extra$time
Or$if$testing$not$appropriate,$statement$why$and$outlining$alternate$assessment
E.g.$portfolio$of$work$gathered$across$school$year

Dates$and$Places

Date$on$which$it$becomes$effective
How$long$it$lasts
How$often$services$are$to$be$provided
Where$services$are$to$occur

Transition$Service$Needs$and$Transition$Services$to$Be$Provided
For$students$16+$years$old
Specify$measurable$postsecondary$goals
Services:
Career$exploration
Participation$in$vocational$preparation$program
Training$in$life$skills
Experience$ in$work$setting

Age$of$Majority

Usually$18
Rights$parents$have$transfer$to$child
Student$informed$>1$year$before$transfer$of$rights$and$what$the$rights$are

Measurement$of$Progress

How$progress$will$be$measured
Communication$with$parents

Other$Considerations

E.g.$if$student$has$limited$English$proficiency,$language$needs$must$be$
incorporated$into$IEP
Also$visually$impaired,$hearing$impaired,$significant$behaviour$difficulties

Placement$ Options$for$Students$ with$Disabilities


The$Continuum$of$Special$Education$Placements

General$education$>$resource$class$>$separate$class$>$separate$school$>$
residential$facility$>$home$or$hospital

General$Education

In$general$education$class$>80%$of$day
60.5%$of$students$with$disabilities

Resource$Class

In$general$education$40;79%$of$day
20.1%$of$students$with$disabilities

Separate$Class

In$general$education$class$<40%$of$day
14.2%$of$students$with$disabilities
Being$called$into$question$by$more$and$more$professionals

Separate$School

3%$of$students$with$disabilities

Separate$Class

In$general$education$class$<40%$of$day
14.2%$of$students$with$disabilities
Being$called$into$question$by$more$and$more$professionals

Separate$School

3%$of$students$with$disabilities
Highly$specialized$ training$for$students$with$vision$impairments$or$severe$
hearing$loss
Students$with$very$serious$emotional$disabilities
Students$with$very$complex$disabilities$ who$require$many$services
Very$serious$decision

Residential$Facility

0.36%$of$students$with$disabilities
Students$with$vision$impairments$or$who$are$deaf$or$hard$of$hearing
Students$with$very$complex$needs$(multiple$disabilities$including$difficult$
behaviour)
Students$with$emotional$disabilities$who$need$safety$and$structure$of$full;time$
supervision

Other$Placement$Settings

1.15%$of$students$attend$private$school$based$on$parental$decision
0.32%$of$students$educated$in$correctional$facilities
0.42%$of$students$receive$services$in$home$or$hospital$setting
Suspended$or$expelled
Receiving$extensive$medical$treatment
Medically$fragile
Teacher$visits

Resolving$ Disagreements$ Regarding$ Special$Education


Between$professionals$and$parents$regarding:
What$special$education$programs$and$services$should$include
How$much$should$be$provided
Where$it$should$take$place
Positive$communication$strategies

Dispute$Resolution

Resolution$session$held$within$15$days$of$notice$of$complain$received$by$school$
district
Attended$by$school$district$representative$with$decision;making$authority
Resolve$issue$without$any$further$steps
Sign$agreement$describing$resolution

Mediation

No$cost$to$parents
Impartial$professional$meets$with$each$party$to$try$to$find$resolution
Does$not$make$decision$but$helps$find$workable$solution
Legally$binding$document$specifying$resolution$signed$by$all$parties

Sign$agreement$describing$resolution

Mediation

No$cost$to$parents
Impartial$professional$meets$with$each$party$to$try$to$find$resolution
Does$not$make$decision$but$helps$find$workable$solution
Legally$binding$document$specifying$resolution$signed$by$all$parties

Due$Process$Hearing

Due$process:$clear$set$of$procedures$for$making$all$ critical$decisions$part$of$
special$education
Parents$make$formal$complaint$against$school$district
Impartial$hearing$officer$appointed$by$state$special$education$official
Eventually$issues$written$decision$based$on$evidence$provided$and$
testimony$of$witnesses
If$either$party$disagrees$with$decision$it$can$be$appealed$to$state;level$review$
hearing$officer
Either$agrees$with$initial$ decision$or$overturns$it
After$that$either$party$can$still$take$the$issue$to$court

Issues$ Related$ to$Special$Education$Professionals$ and$


Procedures

Special$Education$Teacher$Changing$Roles$and$Responsibilities

Provide$direct$instruction$to$students$with$disabilities$across$variety$of$grade$
levels$and$subject$matter$(academic$and$non;academic)
Develop$positive$working$relationships$with$peers
Consult$and/or$co;teach$with$general$education$teachers
Supervise$paraeducators
Collaborate$with$parents
Keep$up$with$paperwork
Complete$leadership$responsibilities
Participate$in$larger$school$initiatives
Contribute$to$implementation$of$RTI$procedures
Responsible$for$many$of$same$activities$ as$other$teachers
Must$ensure$roles$and$responsibilities$do$not$become$so$diverse$that$they$lose$
primary$focus

Response$to$Intervention:$Issues$in$Implementation

Balancing$desire$to$assist$colleagues$and$students$who$struggle$(but$who$have$
not$been$identified$as$having$disabilities)$with$their$other$responsibilities
Making$sure$RTI$does$not$inadvertently$lead$students$with$limited$English$
proficiency$to$being$identified$as$having$disability