Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 15

CHARACTERISTICS

&
OPERATION OF CENTRIFUGAL
PUMPS
Understand Performance
Characteristics
&
Operation of Centrifugal Pumps
1

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CP

A. PERFORMANCE CURVE

120%
100%
H

H = Head

=
Efficiency

BEP

Q=
MAX FLOWCapacity

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CP

B.

NPSH & CAVITATION


NPSHA

- NPSH available
(Define by process side)

NPSHR
- NPSH required (By pump
manufacturer)

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CP

B.

NPSH & CAVITATION


10
Vs 2
NPSHA
Ps.Pv

2g

Hs

= diff. in height

H1

= Frictional loss (m liq.


Column)

Pv

= Vapor press. (kg/cm A)

= Vessel inside Press.


(kgf/cm A)

Ps

= Suction Press. (kgf/cm


A)

Hs

10 P Vs 2 10 Ps
Hs

H1

2g

10
P Pv Hs H1
NPSHA

When NPSHA is decreased to a point where cavitation start to happen


Vs below
= Flow normal
velocity value
at suction
and value H of the Q-H curve begins to decrease
pipe (m/s)
(decrease around 3% in JISB 8301), the value of NPSHA
at this point is
defined to be NPSHR
4

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CP
C. Difference between Anticipated Performance
& Actual Performance
Head at Design Capacity
H

Process Pump

H 150 M

+7%

150< H 300

+5%

300 m < H

+4%

Water Pump
(room temp.)

+10%

Head at shut off

+20%

Approx.
rules of
thumb

* Check API & others

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CP

D. MOTOR OUTPUT & STARTING CHARACTERISTICS


START

STOP

SUCTION VALVE
OPEN, OUTLET VALVE
CLOSE

OUTLET VALUE
CLOSED

VENT

MOTOR OFF

Not always
necessary

MOTOR ON

OUTLET VALVE OPEN

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CP
E. TORQUE SPEED CHARACTERISTICS

100% Torque : Motor rated


torque
100% Speed : Motor rated
speed
(Not Sychronous
speed)

1
Pump.GD MotorGD
10
2

G : weight of rotor
D : diameter of gyration

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CP
F. TRANSMISSION EFFICIENCY & MARGIN FACTOR

Transmission system

Transmission
Efficiency

Motor capacity

Margin factor

Small

0.1 0.3

Medium - large

0.1 0.25

Direct coupling

1.0

Gear
reduction

Orthogonal or parallel
shaft gear one stage

0.96

Orthogonal or parallel
shaft gear two-stage

0.94

Example per API

Planet gear one stage

0.97

Motor Capacity

Margin factor

0.96

19 kW max

0.25

0.9 0.93

22 60 kW

0.15

0.95

Over 75 kW

0.10

Fluid coupling
Flat belt
V-belt

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CP
G. CAPACITY CONTROL

How to Control Capacity


1. Discharge Valve Control

Difference heads in static


pressure

Running points
Fluid line
resistance

Head equivalent to pressure loss


caused throttling the discharge
valve

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CP

Difference heads in static pressure

G. CAPACITY CONTROL
2. Speed Control
Running points

Fluid line
resistance

Example
Performance curve at 100 r. p. m
Performance curve at 80 r. p. m

10

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CP
G. CAPACITY CONTROL
3.

Performance at Parallel Running and Control

Combined
Individual
performance

Performance

11

MINIMUM FLOW BY PASS


1. WHY NEEDED
CP cannot be operated continuously at Q less than a
certain min. level. This is called min. continuous flow.

Q ~ provides
excessive
radial trust &
will induce
vibration

REASON

Turbulent flow &


separation at
impeller inlet &
outlet tend to cause
erosion & corrosion
of impeller

Destroys thrust
balance, caused
overloading on
thrust bearings

Excessive temp.
rise of the
pumping liquid,
will include
cavitation

12

MINIMUM FLOW BY PASS


2. MIN FLOW ~ HOW TO DETERMINE

Rules of thumb ~ 20~30% of flow rate at peak


efficiency or Q at a temp. rise of 10C.
> * Need to consult pump manufacturer.

Checking temperature rise ;

1
H
t C
X

427Cp

= Pump efficiency

= Head (m)

Cp = Specified heat (kcal/kg C)

13

MINIMUM FLOW BY PASS


3. MIN FLOW BY PASS CONFIGURATION
Continuous bypass system.
Cap: = MIN FLOW + PROCESS RQMT X (1 + )
Normally for pumps with small Q (2 10 m/h) & low power loss
A.
Restriction Orifice System

14

MINIMUM FLOW BY PASS


B. FCV System

This system is used mainly for boiler feed water pumps, where the RO system cannot be used because of excessive power loss.

When Q > min flow FCV is CLOSED.


When Q = min flow FC is activated to fully open FCV.
When Q increase from small to normal FC activated to fully close FCV

Care should be taken to avoid hunting on CV .

Full open signal


Full close signal

: min .FLOW
: more than twice min flow

15