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COPYright 1990 by The Intel natIOnal SocIety o/Offshore and Polm EnglneelS

IN CALCAREOUS SOILS

J P Carter,

Fnil"Pl'sit,l' of SytillP,I'

Sydney.-1l'8TR,UIA

ABSTRACf

grouted pde foundatIon is pnmarily a function of the shear

behaviour of the interface between the cement grout and

Other factors that

the surrounding calcareous soil.

influence the response of these foundations are the

stlffnesses of the pIle sectIon and the SOlI medium and, of

course, the magnitude of the applIed load.

loaded piles is presented in this paper. The method can

be used to predIct the full load-displacement behaviour of

a pile, and unlike the conventional t-z analysis It IS also

capable of mdicating the complete mechanism of load

transfer as well as t~e complete stress path at the pIle-soil

mterface. It is able to do thIS by assuming as input a

constitutive model for the pIle-soil interface that permits

coupling between the shear and normal modes of

deformation. The use of the technique is illustrated for a

driven and grouted pile in calcareous soiL

calcareous soils has been studied m depth in recent years

(e.g. Johnston, et al,. 1988; Boey, 1990). Special apparatus

has been constructed to test such interfaces under

conditions of constant normal stiffness (e.g. Ooi and Carter,

1987; Airey et aI, 1990) as thi~ condItIon more closely

represents the situation around a pile grouted mto the

surrounding medium. In the field, the radial stiffness of

the soil medIUm can be regarded, at least to a first

approximation, as fmite and constant. The results of tests

of this type have been used to formulate design guidelines

for grouted piles in calcareous soils (e.g. Randolph and

Jewell, 1989).

structures, Interface models.

INTRODUCfION

Many fixed offshore platforms used for the recovery

of natural hydrocarbons are supported on pile foundatIons.

In a number of regIOns of the world, e,g. off the coasts of

India, Australia and in the PerSIan Gulf, the sub-sea soIl

condItions COnsISt of significant deposits of calcareous soils.

This soil type has posed a number of dIfficult problems

for deSIgners of these offshore platforms.

One of the

major problems IS the development of very low skm

fnctions on the SIdes of pIles dnven mto such soIl masses.

These low values of skm fnction are largely a result of

the crushmg of the SOlI around the piles during dnving,

whIch gives rise to low normal stresses actmg on the pIle

and hence low frictIonal shear resistance.

'

behaviour of piles subjected to axial loadmg IS the load

transfer or t-z method, e.g. Coyle and Reese (1966),

O'Neill and Mahar (1982), Randolph (1985), Chow (1986).

In thls approach assumptions are made about the manner m

which shear transfer develops between the pile and the SOlI

with pile displacement. For the case of piles in calcareous

soils, these shear transfer relationships, or t-z curves, have

been based on the results of constant normal stiffness

(CNS) dIrect shear tests and model pile tests, e.g.

Randolph and Jewell (1989).

The CNS tests provide

Information on the shear behaVIOur of the grouted pile-soil

interface, but in determinmg the t-z curves account must

also be taken of the deformation of the SOlI medIUm

surrounding the pIle due to the transfer of shear stresses.

The latter IS usually calculated by assummg that the soIl

can adequately be represented as an elastic contmuum (e.g.

Randolph and Wroth, 1978).

to be supported on piles which are either fully or partIally

grouted into the calcareous medium.

In some cases,

pnmary piles are driven to the appropnate depth, and then

secondary piles are constructed by augermg a cylindncal

hole and groutmg a steel pipe msert below the pnmary

piles. In other cases the piles are dnven and then cement

grout IS injected through tubes that pass down the mSlde

~nd through the walls of the pile.

The latter are referred

to as dnven and grouted piles.

the interactIon between the shear deformatIons of the

interface and its volumetnc (or normal displacement)

263

sheared, contraction occurs in the direction normal to the

Under conditions of constant normal

shearing surface.

stiffness, this contractIon will be associated with a reductIon

in normal stress. For the case of a pile in calcareous sOlI,

shearing at the pile-soil interface will generally reduce the

radial normal stress on the pIle and thIS will accelerate the

reductIon in shear strength of the interface.

Problem Definition

The problem to be analysed is that of axial loading of

a pile grouted into a cemented calcareous soil. The pile

has an embedded length of L and a radius ro'

It is

modelled as an elastic column with an effective modulus Ep

and Poisson's ratio Pp' The soil surrounding the pile IS

assumed to be homogeneous and can be modelled as an

isotropIc, linear elastIC solid, with an elastic shear modulus

G and a Poisson's ratio P.

The mechanical behavIOur of

the 'interface between the soil and the pile is described by

the constitutive relations presented below. For simplicity,

it is also assumed that the pile is a solid section, but the

extension of the analysis to include hollow pile sections is

straightforward. In the analysis which follows, compressive

normal stress, dilation of the interface, and downward pile

displacement are considered positive quantities.

technique to predict the behaviour of piles grouted into

calcareous soils.

The approach to the problem has

involved the development of a constitutive model for the

interface and its incorporation into a load transfer analysis.

The constitutive model IS based on the theory of

elastoplasticity and allows for the complex interaction

between the shear and normal modes of behavIOur, and In

partIcular it allows for normal contraction with shearIng.

As such, the technique does not require the input of an

explicit t-z curve. Indeed, the t-z curve appropnate at

any gIven point along the pile is generated by integration

of the incremental constitutive relations for the interface

and the surro~ medium. This represents a rational

extension and a ,c.oDSiderable advance on the conventional

t-z method of :pile ,analysis.

The paper contains the

formulation for ,the new method, and example problems

illustrating ,its utility.

Governing Equations

As mentioned above, the elastic pile is treated as a

column which is dIvided into elements. An infinitesimal

element of length dz is characterised by ,an axial stiffness

Kp, given by:

Kp - EpAp/dz

where

CONVENTIONAL LOAD TRANSFER ANALYSIS

~

Ep

the effective Young's modulus of the

pile.

Reese (1957) conducted tests on instrumented piles in

saturated clays to understand the mechanics of the

interaction between the pile and the soil.

From these

tests, axial load transfer characteristics were deduced.

Since then, the load transfer method has been gradually

refined and recent work in this area has tended to be

theoretically more rigorous. Kraft et al (1981) indIcated

that the pre-peak load transfer curves may be constructed

from approximate. 'dosed form elastic solutions that had

been publisheCl earlier by Raimdolph and Wroth (1978).

However, .the post-peak ~ns. w.rene detemrined

empiricafiy. Kraft 'et .a1 {JI981y oS'llllmested the \Use of (diIrect

shear test results to construct these post-,peak load transfer

curves.

Randolpb (1.9~ adopted a phenomenological

approach by assuming a 'SCilfterung 'of 'the ,interface from

peak to residual that was :hwef.bohc in lthe slip

displacement.

from the solution for radial pr~ure applied to a solid

elastic cylinder under conditions of zero axial strain (Le.

plane strain) and thus:

relationship between lthe sbear stress developed at the

interface and the axial disp'lacement of the pile is addressed

directly. In effect, the ;radial response of the :pile-soil

interface is ignored, or at tbestits influence on the shear

behaviOur is accountedfoT indirectly in the choice of t-z

curve. In other words, zero radial displacement is assumed

at the pile-soil interface and any changes in radial stress

acting on the pile are specifically ignored.

This IS

probably reasonable for the response in the elastic range of

pile behaviour and it may also be reasonable for a total

stress analysis of the slip behaviour of piles in undrained

clays. However, in many materials the radial stress may

be far from constant during axial loading of the pile,

particularly if the interface either contracts (as in

calcaneous soils) or dilates (as in stronger rocks) during

shearing. For such cases the limitations of the conventional

load 'transfer analysis can be overcome by modifying the

approach and introducing an interface element that permits

the coupling of the shear and volumetric behaviour.

stress acting on its cyhndrical surface, and w ,and .u are 'the

vertical and radial displacements at the cylindricll!l pile

surface.

The negative sign is ,required ,in equation 3

because compressive radIal stress and dilative radial

displacement have been defined as positive quantities.

Sp =

(~p

where ~

+ Gp)/ro

the elastic shear modulus of the pile

material.

thus be ,described '.incrementally as follows:

The lI'espl!Jl!lSe

([ 'dP ] = ,[ Kp

,do'

0:]

-sp

~[

dw

du

Soil Behaviour

loading of a pile is very localised at the pile-soil interface,

e.g. Hanna (1969), Nauroy and LeTirant (1983), Williams

(1980). It is thus reasonable to model the soil surrounding

the pile as an isotropic, linear elastic continuum and to

confine any non-linearity to the interface. As a further

approximatIon it is assumed that the response of the

continuum to shear tractions applied at the pile-soil

interface is independent of the response to normal tractions

applied across the interface, i.e. the two modes of

behaVIOur are uncoupled. This is an approximation and

264

not complete. However, the adoption of this simplifying

assumption is unlikely to introduce large errors, as verified

by Ooi (1989). Hence, the stress-deformation response of

the soil continuuum can be expressed incrementally as:

(displacement ).

[ :: ]

where dT

the elastic shear stiffness of the

interface,

the elastic normal stiffness of the

interface.

are stress divided by length

pile and the soil will commence whenever the shear

strength of the interface is reached. It is assumed that the

failure law for the interface has the same form as the

Mohr-Coulomb criterion, i.e.

incremental

stress

applied

shear

vertically

the

cylindrical

along

interface,

incremental normal stress applied

radially to the cylindrical interface,

increment of vertical displacement of

the continuum at the interface,

increment of radial displacement of the

continuum at the interface.

dO"

kn

where

'I'

Randolph and Wroth (l97lS) , and for a continuum with a

constant elastic shear modulus G it can be written as:

0"

tan 'I'

the friction angle.

and 'I' will not necessarily remain constant, but will vary

with the accumulated plastic shear displacement. For the

general case, the forms of variation assumed in this model

are such that the cohesive component of the shearing

resistance (eresumably arising in part from the interlocking

along the 'rough" interface, the "tooth" strength of the

roughness asperities, and also partly from bonding between

the cement grout and the surrounding soil) will decay

exponentially with plastic shear displacement. This implies

that the interface becomes damaged as it is sheared, and

the specific relation that is used to describe this behaviour

is:

where

rm = 2.5(1-v)L

the expansion of a long cylindrical cavity in an infinite

elastic medium, i.e.

10

7

where

Interface Behaviour

Following an extensive laboratory investigation of the

shear behaviour of interfaces (including tests WIth shearing

under conditions of constant normal stiffness), a set of

constitutive relations has been derived to describe the

monotonic shearing of interfaces in calcareous soils (Ooi,

1989; Boey, 1990). Apart from modelling the shear transfer

behaviour, these relations also include the possibility of

contraction across the interface and the coupling of the

normal displacements to the shearing.

The essential

features o~ thIs model are presented below.

wP

the frictional component of the interface shear strength is

mobilised from zero once slip commences.

This

assumption recognises that for bonded interfaces some

rupture must occur and a shearing surface must develop

before the full friction angle can be mobilised.

The

specific form of this relationship is written as:

elastic and at this stage there exists no coupling of the

shear and normal modes of behaviour. The stresses at the

interface can be related to the relative displacements by:

11

where

8

where dT

dO"

an empirical constant that determines

the rate of decay of the 'cohesive

strength with plastic shear displacement

(slip),

the plastic shear dISplacement (slip) of

the interface,

unit length (e.g. 1 mm).

incremental

shear

stress

applied

along

the

cylindrical

vertically

interface,

incremental

radial

stress

applied

radially across the cylindrical interface,

increment

of

vertical

shear

displacement between the pile and the

surrounding continuum,

increment

of

radial

displacement

between the pile and the continuum,

an empirical constant that determines

the rate at which frictional strength is

mobilised with plastic slip displacement.

determined by an appropriate flow rule. In this particular

model it is assumed that the plastic normal displacement of

the interface (i.e. the dilation or contraction) IS a function

of the accumulated plastic slip displacement and the

magnitude of the normal stress acting across the interface.

is

For

cement

grout-calcarenite

interfaces

there

experimental evidence (Boey, 1990) that the flow rule may

be described reasonably by the equation:

265

duP

= a

dwP

where

on the right hand side of equation 16 can be inverted.

Thus it is clear that the stress increments dT and du can

be computed once the incremental axial displacement of

The values of the other

the pile, dw, is known.

displacement components can then be easily recovered, as

follows:

12

exp(k 3 uP/%)

duP

displacement of the interface,

the initial "dilation" angle for the

interface,

an empirical constant defining the rate

of contraction of the interface with

slip chsplacement,

an empirical constant defining the rate

of contraction of the interface with

normal stress,

atmospheric pressure.

io

k3

k4

Pa

takes a negative value, indicating that the interface actually

contracts with shearing. Furthermore, equation 12 suggests

that the interface will contract more as the normal stress is

increased, and this is in general agreement WIth the

experimental eVIdence (001, 1989; Boey, 1990).

where

D22

-kn ( kg + c* + (3 ) I f

c*

dWe

dT/K, ,

18

dUe

du/K 22

19

dWi

dw - dT/K"

20

dUi

(l/S p

21

1/K 22 )du

pile and the incremental pile displacements can be

determined umquely whenever the incremental pile

displacement, dw, is known.

In the conventional load transfer analysts, the pile is

usually discretlsed into a finite number of elements along

its length. In cases where end-bearing 'is important, the

base of the pile is often treated as a rigid punch acting on

the surafce of an elastic half -space. The base response is

linear until a prescribed ultimate base pressure is attained.

An arbitrarily small displacement is prescribed at the base

or head of the pile and iterations are then carried out until

all pile segments obey both equilibrium and the prescnbed

load transfer functions, within some defined tolerance. By

adopting this approach the incremental pile displacement is

always defined, and thus the stress mcrements, the

remaimng displacement increments, and the increments of

axial load in the pile can be determined. The complete

axial load-displacement curve for the pile can be computed

using a sufficient number of solution steps.

Solution

accuracy is thus governed by the number of elements or

segments used to represent the pile and the size of the

arbitrarily selected displacement steps.

kgkna I f

D 2,

17

-kgkn tan rp I f

D, 2

and

13

kg ( W<n tan rp + c* + (3 ) I f

D"

du/S p

aspect of this approach. Any softening of the interface

shear response will allow the elastic soil continuum to

unload, i.e. dT will be negative. This unloading enhances

the relative vertical displacement of the interface, which '

further increases the softening of its shear response. The

conventional load transfer analysis is unable to model this

type of behaviour.

stress-deformation response of the elastoplastic interface

Incrementally as:

[ ::] [

du

kg + W<n tan rp + c* + {3

{3

Compatibility

For the general case where pile slip occurs,

displacemenf compatIbility at the interface requires that the

following equatIOns should be satisfied:

14

15

this paper the same type of numerical solution procedure is

adopted.

The major difference between the two

approaches is that in the modified approach a constitutive

law is adopted for the interface behaviour and thus the t-z

curves are, in effect, generated during the analysis and do

not need to be prescnbed a priori, as in the conventional

approach.

By comblmng the above equatIOns it is found that

relatIOns can be derived between the tractIons acting on

the side of the pile and the axial displacement of the pile,

i.e.

[ I-+:

~]

-1

D,

,dw

SOIL

K"

[ :~:] [

by considering the example problem, depicted in Figure 1.

A steel pipe pile of diameter 2 m, length 50 m and wall

thickness 50 mm, is embedded in a mass of uncemented

16

266

60

""",

0c..

.Yo

z (m)

'"'"

Q)

L-

Vi

Calcareous

Soil G=3z MPa

v=O.25

L=50m

Pile

.I!S

0'

50

40

30

*E

20

""

0..

10

1:

Q)

.~

"0

--

""-+.I.rI

S~

Ep=2 GPa

vp=O.25

fA

--.::..:::..

EAR

--C::TC.<

TRES

:--

>

-10

0.00

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

CNS Tests (Normal Stiffness = 50 kPa/mm)

calcareous soil.

The Young's modulus <;>f an equivalent

solid pile is 2 GPa and its POIsson's ratio is assumed to be

0.25.

The calcareous soIl IS assumed to have an elastic

shear modulus G that increases lmearly WIth depth from

zero at the surface, such that ItS value at a depth z below

the surface is G = 3z MPa, where z IS measured in metres.

A value of 0.25 has been assumed for POIsson's ratio of the

soil, and this is considered to be constant with depth. The

maXImum base resistance of the pile is assumed to be

1 MPa and acts over the gross area of the pile.

This

ultimate base resistance is assumed to be mobilised at a

base displacement of 100 mm.

maintained throughout the shearing.

The fact that

softening may occur when the normal stiffness rather than

the normal stress is constant, has important consequences

for the behaviour of pile foundations, as will be discussed

below.

The modified t-z analysis has been used to predict the

response of piles in deposits of the calcareous soil. Three

different cases have been analysed m order to mvestigate

the influence of the normal stress on the pile behaviour.

Three different distributions of initial normal stress have

been assumed, and these are listed below.

between the pile and the soIl was represented by the

model described above. The assumed values for the model

parameters are as follows:

ks = 2500 kPa/mm

Co = 0

k, = 0

k3 = 05

kn

\Om

k2

k4

Case 1:

Case 2:

Case 3:

Initial normal stress = 5.0z kPa

Initial normal stress = 50 + 5.0z kPa

considered realistic varIatIOns for steel tube pIles dnven

into calcareous sediments. Case 3 has been mcluded to

demonstrate one of the benefIts to be gained from

employing driven and grouted plIes m this type of

sediment. The pressure applIed by the grouting process IS

assumed to remain "locked in" as an imtlal normal stress at

the soil-pIle (or more accurately the SOIl-grout) interface.

Of course, this normal stress may change as aXIal load IS

applied to the pile, as IS demonstrated below.

10000 kPa/mm

37 0

01

2

consider the case of a direct shear test conducted under

condItions of constant normal stiffness of 50 kPalmm

(equivalent to a pile of 2 m dIameter m an elastic soil

with a shear modulus of 25 MPa). In the dIrect shear test

the imtIal normal stress IS assumed to be 50 kPa. For

these condItions the interface model predicts the behaviour

The predictIons indicate that

depicted in FIgure 2.

contractIon of the mterface occurs with mcreasing shear

displacement, a feature that IS commonly observed in tests

on calcareous SOlIs.

Furthermore, this contraction under

the conditIon of constant normal stiffness is accompanied

by reductions in normal stress.

These reductions have

some important consequences. Possibly the most important

is the reduction m fnctlonal reSIstance and hence the shear

strength of the interface. This effect can be seen clearly

in FIgure 2, where the shear stress applied to the mterface

passes through a peak and then softens WIth further

shearing. It should be emphasised that thIS softening is a

drrect consequence of contractions and reductions in normal

stress during shearmg.

By definitIon, these changes in

normal stress would not be observed in a conventional

dIsplacement for the three cases consIdered, and for

statIcally applied loading, are plotted m FIgure 3. Clearly

the mitial normal stress actmg at the pile-sOlI mterface has

a very sIgmflcant mfluence on the predIcted response of

the pile. In all cases the load-dIsplacement behaVIOur IS

non-linear. Each curve rises to a peak and after the peak

the tendency to shed load with further dIsplacement is

indicated. The validity and accuracy of these predictions

beyond the peak are yet to be established. The tendency

to shed load is a potentially unstable situation, both

physically and numerically. Numerical predictions of this

situation must always be viewed with some Susplclon, at

least untIl they are rigorously valIdated.

ObVIously, a

bifurcatIOn m the response IS pOSSIble. However, It can be

stated that softemng of the pIle-SOlI mterface, caused

267

Z

-'<

'-"~

~

c"

..2c

'"

co

""CJ:]

Ol-"

-'t

~

a::

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

150

140

130

'"

c 120

a..

~

'-' 110

Q)

100

'0.

90

c

80

0

III

70

III

Q)

L.

....III 60

50

L.

C

40

Q)

..c

30

VJ

20

10

0

......--:1

CIISE

/'

V

/"

./

./

/

I/,

Ir.A~

./

/ /

V/ .,;V/

l

? ?

rf.A

E 1

If'

If

20

40

60

80

100

120

I

I\

J 1

I \

I /\

De~

th

= 49. 5m

I / \

\

1I

II

"'- .............

II

II

fC)5m,

~

If

o

L.;)

I;)m

.:----

5.' m

20

40

Predicted Load-Deflection Behaviour

Analysis - Case 3

shearing, IS solely responsIble for the shedding of load.

Although the results beyond the peak must be regarded as

tentative, in Case 1 it appears that the softening is

eventually arrested. In this case, the post-peak softening

of the interface is offset to some degree by the further

mobIlIsation of base resistance with continued pile

dIsplacement, and eventually the rate of mobIlisation of

base reSIstance exceeds the rate of load shedding caused by

softening along the pIle shaft.

For thIs

problem all curves mdicate a softening response due to the

reductions in normal stress with shearing of the pile-soil

interface.

CONCLUSIONS

A modified load transfer (t-z) analysis for axIally

loaded piles has been presented in this paper. Not only

can the method be used to predict the full

load-displacement behaviour of a pile, but unlike the

conventional t-z analySIS It is also capable of indicating the

complete mechanIsm of load transfer as well as the

complete stress path at the pile-soil mterface. It is able

to do this by assummg a model for the interface that

permIts coupling between the shear and normal modes of

deformation. The normal stress acting on the pile has

been shown to have a significant influence on the pile

behaviour. In partIcular, the loss in normal stress at an

mterface in calcareous soil can result in softening of the

interface shear behaviour, and possibly also m the overall

pile response.

mteraction between the pIle and the soil has a sIgnificant

effect on the ultImate axIal capacity of the pIle.

The

maximum pOSSIble capacity would apply in the case, of a

rigid pile, and can be computed by assuming that no

reductIOns in the initial normal stress occur along the shaft,

I.e. the maximum possible shear strength is mobilised

simultaneously at all point~ along the pile shaft. However,

because the pile has a fimte axial stiffness, progressive

faIlure of tne pIle shaft actually occurs and as a

consequence the shaft capacity is reduced. The maximum

possible capacities, and the capacities computed by the

modified t-z analysis for Cases 1, 2 and 3 are listed

below.

Maximum Possible

CaEacity

(MN)

Case 1

Case 2

Case 3

14.8

29.6

41.4

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Computed

Capacity

(MN)

UniverSIty of Sydney, the CSIRO-University of Sydney

Collaborative Research Scheme and the Australian Research

Council.

4.4

10.2

16.7

REFERENCES

and the soil-structure interaction IS a feature that IS also

predicted by the conventional load-transfer methods.

"Investigation of the Interface Behaviour of Piles m

Calcareous Soil", Proc. PACOMS-90, Seoul, Korea.

does not require the explicit specification of a t-z curve.

Indeed, the constitutive model assumed for the interface is

capable of predicting the appropriate t-z relationships at

Examples of the t-z curves

the pile-soil interface.

generated for Case 3 at various depths are plotted in

Figure 4. Clearly, the appropriate t-z relationship is a

Calcarenite", PliO. Thesis submitted to the Uruversity of

Sydpey, Australia.

'

Chow, Y.K. (1986), "Analysis of Vertically Loaded Pile

Groups", Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods Geomechanics,

268

Piles", Ph.D. Thesis, University of Sydney, Australia.

Stiffness, Direct Shear Device for Static and Cychc

Loading", Geotechnical Testing Journal, ASTM, Vol. 10,

No.1, pp 3-12.

Axially Loaded Piles in Clay", Jnl Soil Mechs. Foundn.

Divn, ASCE, Vol. 92, No. SM2, pp. 1-22.

Hanna, T.R. (1969), "The Mechanics of Load Mobilisation

in Friction Piles", Jnl of Materails, JMLSA, Vol. 4, No.

4, pp. 924-937.

Johnston, I.W., Carter, J.P., Novello, E.A and

(1988), "Constant Normal Stiffness Testing

Rankm Calcarenite", Proc. Int. Conf. on

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