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Proceedings 0/ the Ftrst Pacljic/Asla Offshore Mechamcs SympoSIUm

Seoul, Korea, 24-28 June, 1990


COPYright 1990 by The Intel natIOnal SocIety o/Offshore and Polm EnglneelS

ANALYSIS OF AXIAL RESPONSE OF PILES FOUNDED


IN CALCAREOUS SOILS
J P Carter,

L H Doi, and C. F Boey

Fnil"Pl'sit,l' of SytillP,I'
Sydney.-1l'8TR,UIA

ABSTRACf

The load-deformation behaviour and the strength of a


grouted pde foundatIon is pnmarily a function of the shear
behaviour of the interface between the cement grout and
Other factors that
the surrounding calcareous soil.
influence the response of these foundations are the
stlffnesses of the pIle sectIon and the SOlI medium and, of
course, the magnitude of the applIed load.

A modified load transfer (t-z) analysis for axially


loaded piles is presented in this paper. The method can
be used to predIct the full load-displacement behaviour of
a pile, and unlike the conventional t-z analysis It IS also
capable of mdicating the complete mechanism of load
transfer as well as t~e complete stress path at the pIle-soil
mterface. It is able to do thIS by assuming as input a
constitutive model for the pIle-soil interface that permits
coupling between the shear and normal modes of
deformation. The use of the technique is illustrated for a
driven and grouted pile in calcareous soiL

The fundamental shear behaVIOur of interfaces m


calcareous soils has been studied m depth in recent years
(e.g. Johnston, et al,. 1988; Boey, 1990). Special apparatus
has been constructed to test such interfaces under
conditions of constant normal stiffness (e.g. Ooi and Carter,
1987; Airey et aI, 1990) as thi~ condItIon more closely
represents the situation around a pile grouted mto the
surrounding medium. In the field, the radial stiffness of
the soil medIUm can be regarded, at least to a first
approximation, as fmite and constant. The results of tests
of this type have been used to formulate design guidelines
for grouted piles in calcareous soils (e.g. Randolph and
Jewell, 1989).

KEY WORDS: Pile foundatIons, Calcareous SOlIs, Offshore


structures, Interface models.
INTRODUCfION
Many fixed offshore platforms used for the recovery
of natural hydrocarbons are supported on pile foundatIons.
In a number of regIOns of the world, e,g. off the coasts of
India, Australia and in the PerSIan Gulf, the sub-sea soIl
condItions COnsISt of significant deposits of calcareous soils.
This soil type has posed a number of dIfficult problems
for deSIgners of these offshore platforms.
One of the
major problems IS the development of very low skm
fnctions on the SIdes of pIles dnven mto such soIl masses.
These low values of skm fnction are largely a result of
the crushmg of the SOlI around the piles during dnving,
whIch gives rise to low normal stresses actmg on the pIle
and hence low frictIonal shear resistance.
'

One of the most popular methods used to analyse the


behaviour of piles subjected to axial loadmg IS the load
transfer or t-z method, e.g. Coyle and Reese (1966),
O'Neill and Mahar (1982), Randolph (1985), Chow (1986).
In thls approach assumptions are made about the manner m
which shear transfer develops between the pile and the SOlI
with pile displacement. For the case of piles in calcareous
soils, these shear transfer relationships, or t-z curves, have
been based on the results of constant normal stiffness
(CNS) dIrect shear tests and model pile tests, e.g.
Randolph and Jewell (1989).
The CNS tests provide
Information on the shear behaVIOur of the grouted pile-soil
interface, but in determinmg the t-z curves account must
also be taken of the deformation of the SOlI medIUm
surrounding the pIle due to the transfer of shear stresses.
The latter IS usually calculated by assummg that the soIl
can adequately be represented as an elastic contmuum (e.g.
Randolph and Wroth, 1978).

Recently, some offshore platforms have been deSigned


to be supported on piles which are either fully or partIally
grouted into the calcareous medium.
In some cases,
pnmary piles are driven to the appropnate depth, and then
secondary piles are constructed by augermg a cylindncal
hole and groutmg a steel pipe msert below the pnmary
piles. In other cases the piles are dnven and then cement
grout IS injected through tubes that pass down the mSlde
~nd through the walls of the pile.
The latter are referred
to as dnven and grouted piles.

Most conventional load transfer analyses ignore directly


the interactIon between the shear deformatIons of the
interface and its volumetnc (or normal displacement)

263

behaviour. When an interface in this type of material is


sheared, contraction occurs in the direction normal to the
Under conditions of constant normal
shearing surface.
stiffness, this contractIon will be associated with a reductIon
in normal stress. For the case of a pile in calcareous sOlI,
shearing at the pile-soil interface will generally reduce the
radial normal stress on the pIle and thIS will accelerate the
reductIon in shear strength of the interface.

MODIFIED LOAD TRANSFER ANALYSIS

Problem Definition
The problem to be analysed is that of axial loading of
a pile grouted into a cemented calcareous soil. The pile
has an embedded length of L and a radius ro'
It is
modelled as an elastic column with an effective modulus Ep
and Poisson's ratio Pp' The soil surrounding the pile IS
assumed to be homogeneous and can be modelled as an
isotropIc, linear elastIC solid, with an elastic shear modulus
G and a Poisson's ratio P.
The mechanical behavIOur of
the 'interface between the soil and the pile is described by
the constitutive relations presented below. For simplicity,
it is also assumed that the pile is a solid section, but the
extension of the analysis to include hollow pile sections is
straightforward. In the analysis which follows, compressive
normal stress, dilation of the interface, and downward pile
displacement are considered positive quantities.

The aim of this paper is to describe an analytical


technique to predict the behaviour of piles grouted into
calcareous soils.
The approach to the problem has
involved the development of a constitutive model for the
interface and its incorporation into a load transfer analysis.
The constitutive model IS based on the theory of
elastoplasticity and allows for the complex interaction
between the shear and normal modes of behavIOur, and In
partIcular it allows for normal contraction with shearIng.
As such, the technique does not require the input of an
explicit t-z curve. Indeed, the t-z curve appropnate at
any gIven point along the pile is generated by integration
of the incremental constitutive relations for the interface
and the surro~ medium. This represents a rational
extension and a ,c.oDSiderable advance on the conventional
t-z method of :pile ,analysis.
The paper contains the
formulation for ,the new method, and example problems
illustrating ,its utility.

Governing Equations
As mentioned above, the elastic pile is treated as a
column which is dIvided into elements. An infinitesimal
element of length dz is characterised by ,an axial stiffness
Kp, given by:

Kp - EpAp/dz

where
CONVENTIONAL LOAD TRANSFER ANALYSIS

~
Ep

the cross-sectional area of the pile,


the effective Young's modulus of the
pile.

In the early development of this method Seed and


Reese (1957) conducted tests on instrumented piles in
saturated clays to understand the mechanics of the
interaction between the pile and the soil.
From these
tests, axial load transfer characteristics were deduced.
Since then, the load transfer method has been gradually
refined and recent work in this area has tended to be
theoretically more rigorous. Kraft et al (1981) indIcated
that the pre-peak load transfer curves may be constructed
from approximate. 'dosed form elastic solutions that had
been publisheCl earlier by Raimdolph and Wroth (1978).
However, .the post-peak ~ns. w.rene detemrined
empiricafiy. Kraft 'et .a1 {JI981y oS'llllmested the \Use of (diIrect
shear test results to construct these post-,peak load transfer
curves.
Randolpb (1.9~ adopted a phenomenological
approach by assuming a 'SCilfterung 'of 'the ,interface from
peak to residual that was :hwef.bohc in lthe slip
displacement.

The radial stiffness of the pile, S can be approximated


from the solution for radial pr~ure applied to a solid
elastic cylinder under conditions of zero axial strain (Le.
plane strain) and thus:

In 'these more 'ClOUIelliion:il approaches only the


relationship between lthe sbear stress developed at the
interface and the axial disp'lacement of the pile is addressed
directly. In effect, the ;radial response of the :pile-soil
interface is ignored, or at tbestits influence on the shear
behaviOur is accountedfoT indirectly in the choice of t-z
curve. In other words, zero radial displacement is assumed
at the pile-soil interface and any changes in radial stress
acting on the pile are specifically ignored.
This IS
probably reasonable for the response in the elastic range of
pile behaviour and it may also be reasonable for a total
stress analysis of the slip behaviour of piles in undrained
clays. However, in many materials the radial stress may
be far from constant during axial loading of the pile,
particularly if the interface either contracts (as in
calcaneous soils) or dilates (as in stronger rocks) during
shearing. For such cases the limitations of the conventional
load 'transfer analysis can be overcome by modifying the
approach and introducing an interface element that permits
the coupling of the shear and volumetric behaviour.

;in 'VJhich P is ,the 100al load In the ,pile, (J is the radi~l


stress acting on its cyhndrical surface, and w ,and .u are 'the
vertical and radial displacements at the cylindricll!l pile
surface.
The negative sign is ,required ,in equation 3
because compressive radIal stress and dilative radial
displacement have been defined as positive quantities.

Sp =

(~p

where ~

+ Gp)/ro

the Lame modulus of the pile material,


the elastic shear modulus of the pile
material.

.m the pile to axia'l 'Rna wadial loading can


thus be ,described '.incrementally as follows:

The lI'espl!Jl!lSe

([ 'dP ] = ,[ Kp
,do'

0:]

-sp

~[

dw

du

Soil Behaviour

It IS now well established that failure due to axial


loading of a pile is very localised at the pile-soil interface,
e.g. Hanna (1969), Nauroy and LeTirant (1983), Williams
(1980). It is thus reasonable to model the soil surrounding
the pile as an isotropic, linear elastic continuum and to
confine any non-linearity to the interface. As a further
approximatIon it is assumed that the response of the
continuum to shear tractions applied at the pile-soil
interface is independent of the response to normal tractions
applied across the interface, i.e. the two modes of
behaVIOur are uncoupled. This is an approximation and

264

thus, in the strict sense, the elastic continuum analogy is


not complete. However, the adoption of this simplifying
assumption is unlikely to introduce large errors, as verified
by Ooi (1989). Hence, the stress-deformation response of
the soil continuuum can be expressed incrementally as:

The units of ks and


(displacement ).

[ :: ]
where dT

i.e. the "dilation" of the interface,


the elastic shear stiffness of the
interface,
the elastic normal stiffness of the
interface.
are stress divided by length

Plastic yielding (or slip) of the interface between the


pile and the soil will commence whenever the shear
strength of the interface is reached. It is assumed that the
failure law for the interface has the same form as the
Mohr-Coulomb criterion, i.e.

incremental
stress
applied
shear
vertically
the
cylindrical
along
interface,
incremental normal stress applied
radially to the cylindrical interface,
increment of vertical displacement of
the continuum at the interface,
increment of radial displacement of the
continuum at the interface.

dO"

kn

where

'I'

The expression for KJ.{ is derived from the work of


Randolph and Wroth (l97lS) , and for a continuum with a
constant elastic shear modulus G it can be written as:

0"

tan 'I'

the cohesion intercept,


the friction angle.

Once yielding commences the strength parameters c


and 'I' will not necessarily remain constant, but will vary
with the accumulated plastic shear displacement. For the
general case, the forms of variation assumed in this model
are such that the cohesive component of the shearing
resistance (eresumably arising in part from the interlocking
along the 'rough" interface, the "tooth" strength of the
roughness asperities, and also partly from bonding between
the cement grout and the surrounding soil) will decay
exponentially with plastic shear displacement. This implies
that the interface becomes damaged as it is sheared, and
the specific relation that is used to describe this behaviour
is:

where
rm = 2.5(1-v)L

The expression for K22 is derived from the theory for


the expansion of a long cylindrical cavity in an infinite
elastic medium, i.e.

10
7

where
Interface Behaviour
Following an extensive laboratory investigation of the
shear behaviour of interfaces (including tests WIth shearing
under conditions of constant normal stiffness), a set of
constitutive relations has been derived to describe the
monotonic shearing of interfaces in calcareous soils (Ooi,
1989; Boey, 1990). Apart from modelling the shear transfer
behaviour, these relations also include the possibility of
contraction across the interface and the coupling of the
normal displacements to the shearing.
The essential
features o~ thIs model are presented below.

wP

In contrast to the cohesive strength, it is assumed that


the frictional component of the interface shear strength is
mobilised from zero once slip commences.
This
assumption recognises that for bonded interfaces some
rupture must occur and a shearing surface must develop
before the full friction angle can be mobilised.
The
specific form of this relationship is written as:

The behaviour of the interface prior to yielding is


elastic and at this stage there exists no coupling of the
shear and normal modes of behaviour. The stresses at the
interface can be related to the relative displacements by:

11

where
8

where dT
dO"

the initial cohesion,


an empirical constant that determines
the rate of decay of the 'cohesive
strength with plastic shear displacement
(slip),
the plastic shear dISplacement (slip) of
the interface,
unit length (e.g. 1 mm).

incremental
shear
stress
applied
along
the
cylindrical
vertically
interface,
incremental
radial
stress
applied
radially across the cylindrical interface,
increment
of
vertical
shear
displacement between the pile and the
surrounding continuum,
increment
of
radial
displacement
between the pile and the continuum,

the maximum friction angle,


an empirical constant that determines
the rate at which frictional strength is
mobilised with plastic slip displacement.

During yielding of the interface, plastic flow will be


determined by an appropriate flow rule. In this particular
model it is assumed that the plastic normal displacement of
the interface (i.e. the dilation or contraction) IS a function
of the accumulated plastic slip displacement and the
magnitude of the normal stress acting across the interface.
is
For
cement
grout-calcarenite
interfaces
there
experimental evidence (Boey, 1990) that the flow rule may
be described reasonably by the equation:
265

duP

tan io (1 - exp(-k 4 u/Pa


= a

dwP
where

Except in a limiting case of interface softening, the matrix


on the right hand side of equation 16 can be inverted.
Thus it is clear that the stress increments dT and du can
be computed once the incremental axial displacement of
The values of the other
the pile, dw, is known.
displacement components can then be easily recovered, as
follows:

12

exp(k 3 uP/%)

duP

the plastic component of the normal


displacement of the interface,
the initial "dilation" angle for the
interface,
an empirical constant defining the rate
of contraction of the interface with
slip chsplacement,
an empirical constant defining the rate
of contraction of the interface with
normal stress,
atmospheric pressure.

io
k3

k4

Pa

For the grout-calcarenite interface, the "dilation" angle io


takes a negative value, indicating that the interface actually
contracts with shearing. Furthermore, equation 12 suggests
that the interface will contract more as the normal stress is
increased, and this is in general agreement WIth the
experimental eVIdence (001, 1989; Boey, 1990).

where

D22

-kn ( kg + c* + (3 ) I f

c*

-k, Co exp(-k, uP/Ub)

dWe

dT/K, ,

18

dUe

du/K 22

19

dWi

dw - dT/K"

20

dUi

(l/S p

21

1/K 22 )du

The solution for both the incremental stresses on the


pile and the incremental pile displacements can be
determined umquely whenever the incremental pile
displacement, dw, is known.
In the conventional load transfer analysts, the pile is
usually discretlsed into a finite number of elements along
its length. In cases where end-bearing 'is important, the
base of the pile is often treated as a rigid punch acting on
the surafce of an elastic half -space. The base response is
linear until a prescribed ultimate base pressure is attained.
An arbitrarily small displacement is prescribed at the base
or head of the pile and iterations are then carried out until
all pile segments obey both equilibrium and the prescnbed
load transfer functions, within some defined tolerance. By
adopting this approach the incremental pile displacement is
always defined, and thus the stress mcrements, the
remaimng displacement increments, and the increments of
axial load in the pile can be determined. The complete
axial load-displacement curve for the pile can be computed
using a sufficient number of solution steps.
Solution
accuracy is thus governed by the number of elements or
segments used to represent the pile and the size of the
arbitrarily selected displacement steps.

kgkna I f

D 2,

17

NUMERICAL SOLUTION PROCEDURE

-kgkn tan rp I f

D, 2

and

13

kg ( W<n tan rp + c* + (3 ) I f

D"

du/S p

An inspection of equation 20 reveals one interesting


aspect of this approach. Any softening of the interface
shear response will allow the elastic soil continuum to
unload, i.e. dT will be negative. This unloading enhances
the relative vertical displacement of the interface, which '
further increases the softening of its shear response. The
conventional load transfer analysis is unable to model this
type of behaviour.

Equations 8 to 13 may be combined to express the


stress-deformation response of the elastoplastic interface
Incrementally as:

[ ::] [

du

kg + W<n tan rp + c* + {3

{3

Compatibility
For the general case where pile slip occurs,
displacemenf compatIbility at the interface requires that the
following equatIOns should be satisfied:
14

15

In the modified load transfer approach presented in


this paper the same type of numerical solution procedure is
adopted.
The major difference between the two
approaches is that in the modified approach a constitutive
law is adopted for the interface behaviour and thus the t-z
curves are, in effect, generated during the analysis and do
not need to be prescnbed a priori, as in the conventional
approach.

Pile Stress-Displacement Relations


By comblmng the above equatIOns it is found that
relatIOns can be derived between the tractIons acting on
the side of the pile and the axial displacement of the pile,
i.e.
[ I-+:

~]

-1
D,

,dw

TYPICAL SOLUTIONS FOR PILES IN CALCAREOUS


SOIL

K"

[ :~:] [

The solution procedure described above is illustrated


by considering the example problem, depicted in Figure 1.
A steel pipe pile of diameter 2 m, length 50 m and wall
thickness 50 mm, is embedded in a mass of uncemented

16

266

60

""",

0c..
.Yo

z (m)

'"'"
Q)
L-

Vi

Calcareous
Soil G=3z MPa
v=O.25

L=50m

Pile

.I!S

0'

50

40

30

*E

20

""
0..

10

1:
Q)

.~
"0

--

""-+.I.rI
S~

Ep=2 GPa
vp=O.25

fA

--.::..:::..
EAR

--C::TC.<

TRES

:--

NOR AL D SPLA EMHT

>

-10
0.00

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

Horizontal shear displacement (mm)

Figure 1 DefInition of Example Problem

Figure 2 Predictions of Typical Shear BehaVIOur m


CNS Tests (Normal Stiffness = 50 kPa/mm)

calcareous soil.
The Young's modulus <;>f an equivalent
solid pile is 2 GPa and its POIsson's ratio is assumed to be
0.25.
The calcareous soIl IS assumed to have an elastic
shear modulus G that increases lmearly WIth depth from
zero at the surface, such that ItS value at a depth z below
the surface is G = 3z MPa, where z IS measured in metres.
A value of 0.25 has been assumed for POIsson's ratio of the
soil, and this is considered to be constant with depth. The
maXImum base resistance of the pile is assumed to be
1 MPa and acts over the gross area of the pile.
This
ultimate base resistance is assumed to be mobilised at a
base displacement of 100 mm.

direct shear test in whIch the initial normal stress is


maintained throughout the shearing.
The fact that
softening may occur when the normal stiffness rather than
the normal stress is constant, has important consequences
for the behaviour of pile foundations, as will be discussed
below.
The modified t-z analysis has been used to predict the
response of piles in deposits of the calcareous soil. Three
different cases have been analysed m order to mvestigate
the influence of the normal stress on the pile behaviour.
Three different distributions of initial normal stress have
been assumed, and these are listed below.

In the predictions of the pile behavIOur, the interface


between the pile and the soIl was represented by the
model described above. The assumed values for the model
parameters are as follows:

ks = 2500 kPa/mm
Co = 0
k, = 0
k3 = 05

kn
\Om
k2
k4

Case 1:
Case 2:
Case 3:

Initial normal stress = 2.5z kPa


Initial normal stress = 5.0z kPa
Initial normal stress = 50 + 5.0z kPa

where z is measured in metres. Cases 1 and 2 may be


considered realistic varIatIOns for steel tube pIles dnven
into calcareous sediments. Case 3 has been mcluded to
demonstrate one of the benefIts to be gained from
employing driven and grouted plIes m this type of
sediment. The pressure applIed by the grouting process IS
assumed to remain "locked in" as an imtlal normal stress at
the soil-pIle (or more accurately the SOIl-grout) interface.
Of course, this normal stress may change as aXIal load IS
applied to the pile, as IS demonstrated below.

10000 kPa/mm

37 0
01
2

In order to illustrate the behavIOur of this interface,


consider the case of a direct shear test conducted under
condItions of constant normal stiffness of 50 kPalmm
(equivalent to a pile of 2 m dIameter m an elastic soil
with a shear modulus of 25 MPa). In the dIrect shear test
the imtIal normal stress IS assumed to be 50 kPa. For
these condItions the interface model predicts the behaviour
The predictIons indicate that
depicted in FIgure 2.
contractIon of the mterface occurs with mcreasing shear
displacement, a feature that IS commonly observed in tests
on calcareous SOlIs.
Furthermore, this contraction under
the conditIon of constant normal stiffness is accompanied
by reductions in normal stress.
These reductions have
some important consequences. Possibly the most important
is the reduction m fnctlonal reSIstance and hence the shear
strength of the interface. This effect can be seen clearly
in FIgure 2, where the shear stress applied to the mterface
passes through a peak and then softens WIth further
shearing. It should be emphasised that thIS softening is a
drrect consequence of contractions and reductions in normal
stress during shearmg.
By definitIon, these changes in
normal stress would not be observed in a conventional

The variations of pile head load with pIle head


dIsplacement for the three cases consIdered, and for
statIcally applied loading, are plotted m FIgure 3. Clearly
the mitial normal stress actmg at the pile-sOlI mterface has
a very sIgmflcant mfluence on the predIcted response of
the pile. In all cases the load-dIsplacement behaVIOur IS
non-linear. Each curve rises to a peak and after the peak
the tendency to shed load with further dIsplacement is
indicated. The validity and accuracy of these predictions
beyond the peak are yet to be established. The tendency
to shed load is a potentially unstable situation, both
physically and numerically. Numerical predictions of this
situation must always be viewed with some Susplclon, at
least untIl they are rigorously valIdated.
ObVIously, a
bifurcatIOn m the response IS pOSSIble. However, It can be
stated that softemng of the pIle-SOlI mterface, caused

267

Z
-'<

'-"~

~
c"
..2c

'"
co

""CJ:]

Ol-"

-'t
~

a::

18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

150
140
130
'"
c 120
a..
~
'-' 110
Q)
100
'0.
90
c
80
0
III
70
III
Q)
L.
....III 60
50
L.
C
40
Q)
..c
30
VJ
20
10
0

......--:1

CIISE

/'

V
/"
./
./

/
I/,

Ir.A~

./

/ /
V/ .,;V/
l
? ?

rf.A

E 1

If'

If

20

40

60

80

100

120

Pile head displacement (mm)

I
I\

J 1
I \
I /\

De~

th

= 49. 5m

I / \
\
1I
II
"'- .............
II
II
fC)5m,
~

If
o

L.;)

I;)m

.:----

5.' m

20

40

Pile displacement (mm)

FIgure 3 Influence of InitIal Normal Stress on


Predicted Load-Deflection Behaviour

Figure 4 TypIcal t-z Curves Generated by the


Analysis - Case 3

exclUSIVely m the present analysis by contractIon with


shearing, IS solely responsIble for the shedding of load.
Although the results beyond the peak must be regarded as
tentative, in Case 1 it appears that the softening is
eventually arrested. In this case, the post-peak softening
of the interface is offset to some degree by the further
mobIlIsation of base resistance with continued pile
dIsplacement, and eventually the rate of mobIlisation of
base reSIstance exceeds the rate of load shedding caused by
softening along the pIle shaft.

function of location (depth) along the pile.


For thIs
problem all curves mdicate a softening response due to the
reductions in normal stress with shearing of the pile-soil
interface.
CONCLUSIONS
A modified load transfer (t-z) analysis for axIally
loaded piles has been presented in this paper. Not only
can the method be used to predict the full
load-displacement behaviour of a pile, but unlike the
conventional t-z analySIS It is also capable of indicating the
complete mechanIsm of load transfer as well as the
complete stress path at the pile-soil mterface. It is able
to do this by assummg a model for the interface that
permIts coupling between the shear and normal modes of
deformation. The normal stress acting on the pile has
been shown to have a significant influence on the pile
behaviour. In partIcular, the loss in normal stress at an
mterface in calcareous soil can result in softening of the
interface shear behaviour, and possibly also m the overall
pile response.

It is also evident from FIgure 3 that the structural


mteraction between the pIle and the soil has a sIgnificant
effect on the ultImate axIal capacity of the pIle.
The
maximum pOSSIble capacity would apply in the case, of a
rigid pile, and can be computed by assuming that no
reductIOns in the initial normal stress occur along the shaft,
I.e. the maximum possible shear strength is mobilised
simultaneously at all point~ along the pile shaft. However,
because the pile has a fimte axial stiffness, progressive
faIlure of tne pIle shaft actually occurs and as a
consequence the shaft capacity is reduced. The maximum
possible capacities, and the capacities computed by the
modified t-z analysis for Cases 1, 2 and 3 are listed
below.

Maximum Possible
CaEacity
(MN)
Case 1
Case 2
Case 3

14.8
29.6
41.4

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Computed
Capacity
(MN)

Support for thIS work was prOVIded by grants from the


UniverSIty of Sydney, the CSIRO-University of Sydney
Collaborative Research Scheme and the Australian Research
Council.

4.4

10.2
16.7

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269