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SQR 372 Engine structure characteristics

Engine technical parameter



Basic parameter
SQR372E three-cylinder water cooling, four-stroke, inline and
head-laid double camshaft

Type & model

Fuel system

Siemens VDO multi-point electric control gasoline injection system

Cylinder diameter


Piston stroke


Working volume


Compression ratio/compression


Combustion chamber type

Tent type

Ignition sequence/ignition advance



Fuel brand

No leaded petrol in high cleanliness not less than # (93)


Engine oil brand

SAE 10W/30 grade SF


Engine oil volume

Replacement of oil filter 2.9L


Lubricating mode

Combined typepressure+splashing

Engine technical parameter


Overall size

Basic parameter


Net mass



Intake valve opening angle

19before top dead center


Intake valve closing angle

59 after bottom dead center


Exhaust valve opening angle

62before bottom dead center


Exhaust valve closing angle

16after top dead center


Engine setting angle longitudinal




Engine setting angle transverse




Idle speed/idle speed stability



Rated power

38KW/6000 r/min


Max. torque



Min. fuel consumption


Main assembly structure characteristic and parameter

Starter :

Permanent magnetism deceleration

In case of air temperature -25, engine shall start smoothly in 30S

without special measure to be taken, whilst start test shall be allowed to
repeat three times; restart shall be conducted two minutes after first

Generator: 14V65A unit type AC generator

Spark plug: RC10YC4

Oil pump: Rotor type internal gear pump

Oil filter: unit type cycle type

Fuel pump: Motor pump inside fuel tank

Water pump: Centrifugal type vane pump

I. Crank con-rod mechanism structure characteristics

1. Engine group
1cylinder body

Portal shaped to ensure crankcase

Main bearing seat width:
Main shaft hole diameter:
Cylinder hole:72.00~72.01 divided
into two groups, 0.005 in one group
Main shaft hole verticality:1000.02
Cylinder center distance: 80
Upper plane plainness: 0.03
Tightening moment of main bearing
bolt: 703.5

2Cylinder cover
Function: to seal cylinder head and form
combustion chamber.
Combustion chamber shape:
tent shape (ridge shape)
Material: Aluminum alloy die-casting
Requirement: lower plane plainness: 0.03
Two fixed holes are equipped with cylinder
Valve guide assembly magnitude of
interference: 0.040~0.066
Liquid nitrogen frozen crushing;
Valve guide seat magnitude of interference :
0.121~0.087 frozen crushing
Tightening moment of cylinder cover bolt
shall be in three cycles:
30 2, 50 3 and 703.5Nm. Bolt hole
degreasing shall be tightened from middle to
both sides in a cross way.

3Cylinder washer and oil basin

Cylinder washer:
Non-reusable part
There is upper and lower side in
installation, with a upward sign.
Oil basin:
Stamping, in adoption of body in
taper shape to avoid engine oil
stress contact with
cylinder body bottom, covered by
gasket cement in stead of seal
washer. Oil release plug shall adopt
washer which can be magnetized.

2. Piston con-rod group

Piston shall be of planker type and aluminum
alloy liquid forging molding, with fan steel
mounted on pin seat.
Flat head piston with four valve drop pits on
the head; anode oxygenation; drop pit of
frontward sign3;
Skirt section in bucket shape; tinning
printing graphite
Assistant cylinder clearance:0.015~0.035
Clearance following grouping: 0.019~0.030
Sign X on the head71.975~71.981
Sign S on the head: 71.981~71.987
Weight grade: 1903g

2Piston ring
1st ring shall be bucket-shaped ring with
upward sign SR in case of installation.
Opening clearance: 0.25~0.40
2nd ring shall be cuniform ring:
External lower undercutting R 0.2
Upper leaning50
Opening clearance: 0.35~0.50
Side clearance between two air intake rings:
Oil ring shall be combined ring which is
plated with Cr008;
Opening clearance: 0.2~0.7
Side clearance: 0.012~0.17.

(3) piston pin and pinhole

Piston pin seat hole: 1.20.1out of
Piston pin seat hole shall be divided
into different groups in case of
piston grouping, with group sign
printed on piston head:
A represents 18.001-18.0035
B represents 18.0035-18.006
Piston pin shall be divided into two

Semi-floating piston pin

Weight of piston pin: 67g;
Material: 15Cr(20Cr);
Semi-floating: Small end of connecting rod
heated to 150C in installation




Material: 40Cr35CrMn
Small end hole: 18 -0.026
Big end hole: 40



Bearing thickness: 1.5-0006

Bearing material: AlSn12Si2.5Pb1.7Piston forward
Con-rod length: 117.50.035


Weight of con-rod: 365g383g

cover heave

Divided into six groups: 3g/per group

(1.26) side sign of light-heavy
Interference cooperation between
con-rod bolt and rod body;
Connecting rod bolt torque:

Diagram 4

Assembly sign

Piston con-bar group

Considerations in assembly:
heavecon-rod cover, forward
sign on con-rod (CAC brand) and
forward sign on piston
head(dot)shall be at the same
direction (forward), with piston
con-rod assembly formed
following installation. Piston and
piston pin shall not be grouped

Piston forward

cover heave

Diagram 4

Con-rod weight group
Con-rod grouping as per weight:
Weight of con-rod assembly (not including bush) shall be 3749g,
whilst con-rod total weight is divided into six groups without weight
removal, with weight difference of each group 3g; weight of loop rod
and con-rod on same set shall be in the same weight group, with group
number group 1-6 printed on side of con-rod.
Weight grouping:








Installation of piston con-rod

In case of con-rod assembly installation:
Choose con-rod in one group. SQR372
engine con-rod shall be in six groups,
with weight difference between each
group 3g; con-rod small end hole
dimension, bearing hole dimension shall
not be grouped; whilst con-rod small end
hole and piston pin hole shall be applied
with interference cooperation with
magnitude of interference 0.0220.043mm.
Con-rod small end and piston pin shall
be semi-floating type.

Piston pin



3 Crankshaft flywheel group

1Crankshaft: full supporting; material:
QT800-2for later use
Ignition sequence: 1-2-3
Crank inclination: 240
Crank radius: R=S/2=33.25
Main shaft neck: 42 00.016
Main shaft bearing:1.5 00.006
Con-rod shaft neck: 37 00.016
Con-rod bearing: 1.5 00.006
Lengthwise thrust plate: on 3rd bearing;
Lengthwise play:0.089~0.211
Joint with oil pump:milled
Joint with timing belt pulley: timing sign
Joint with flywheel: six bolt opening pins
Front&rear oil seal: support by shelf with
oil return groove.

Store energy of expansion stroke
Let piston go through dead point
Power output
Start engine
Determine ignition time
Measure engine rotation speed
Moment inertia
Static balance
Dynastic balance and uniqueness following
crankshaft installation
Bounce on the surface

Crankshaft installation
Main bearing:
Upper bearing shall have fuel hole and
fuel groove, whereas lower bearing has
no fuel hole and fuel groove; clean
bearing back
Main shaft:
There shall be number and forward
directional sign on main
shaft cover;
Thrust plate:
Installed on 3rd bearing, with fuel groove
side facing crank.
Main shaft bolt:
with tightening moment in two
times: 70
See right diagram for tightening


Diagram 5

II. Air distribution mechanism

Function and constitution:
Turn on and turn off valve on time as per
engine working cycle.
Firstly, punctuality;
Secondly, unification and evenness;
Valve group: valve, oil seal, valve spring,
valve seat and locking block;
Valve drive group: timing pulley and timing
belt, exhaust & intake camshaft and driving
&driven gear, tappet pillar and adjusting
Diagram 23

1. Valve group
Adjusting washer

Material: 4Cr9Si2
Valve rod: 5
/O /0.02
Valve cone angle: 4530'
Valve length: intake 76.53
exhaust 76.89
Valve pipe and valve seat: immerse in
liquid nitrogen for ten minutes and then
press it in as required.

Adjusting washer
Valve tappet pillar
Valve locker
Valve spring upper seat
Valve spring
Valve oil seal
Valve spring lower seat

4Valve adjusting washer:

2Valve spring
Steel wire diameter: 3.2
Spring internal diameter: 16.2
Verticality: 1.2
Free length: 37
Closing valve: In case of
compression force11088Nm
spring length: 32.5
Opening valve: In case of
compression force 350
spring length: max 23

3Valve tappet pillar

material: 20CrMo



Washer material: 20CrMo

Heat treatment: carbonization
Phosphorizing treatment
Thickness: 2.28~2.80
Each 0.02 in one group
Thickness typed by laser,
choose thickened adjusting washer as
per valve clearance, side with character
Valve clearance: intake: 0.180.05
exhaust: 0.25 0.05

2. Valve transmission group 1 Crankshaft timing pulley

Turn crankshaft to position of 1st

cylinder top dead center, with
timing sign on crankshaft timing
gear aiming at that on oil pump
housing as shown in left diagram.

Timing sign

diagram 21

2Camshaft timing pulley
Material: powder metallurgy
Timing sign

Teeth number: 44
Key groove: leveling tooth root
Installation: exhaust camshaft
Notice: in case of timing
pulley installation, no spark
plug shall be installed; firstly
ensure top dead center sign of
camshaft timing gear aimed at
sign on head of cylinder as
shown in right diagram.

Diagram 20

3Exhaust camshaft

Camshaft timing
pulley dowel pin

Hexagon inter bolt

Joint flange

Hexagon shaft neck

Locking bolt

Exhaust camshaft
gear sign position

Exhaust timing
dowel pinhole position

Exhaust camshaft assy.

Diagram 16
Exhaust camshaft gear
Diagram 15

Material: Quench cast iron

Supporting: three bearings
Lubricating: pressure feed lubricating
Lift: 7.1(exhaust)

4Exhaust camshaft gear as well

as its installation
Exhaust camshaft gear:
Installation of exhaust camshaft
Y The side with pit sign 5
shall face backward;
Y Cover shaft neck with dowel
Y Align key groove and use
four blots to joint flange ;
Y Inclination between pin and
key groove 105
Y Lock 24 lock nut with
locking moment1005Nm

Timing gear dowel


Intake camshaft
Intake camshaft
secondary gear.
Intake camshaft
baffle ring

elastic washer

Intake camshaft
main gear assy.
Drive ring

Intake camshaft assy.

diagram 14

Material: Quench cast iron

48 dents of main and secondary gear
Lift: 7.25(intake)

Intake camshaft gear

Key groove relative fixed pin position:
Prior to amendment:

Prior to amendment:

Drive ring
fixed pin

Signal gear of camshaft position sensor shall

be installed on intake camshaft integrity
casting, in a inclination363 with 1st

Drive ring
fixed pin

Exhaust & air intake

camshaft timing drive
gear installation sign

See following diagram for

installation sign
Timing sign

Air intake camshaft gear

shall be main gear and secondary gear
In case of installation:
Rotate secondary gear to open tension spring ring, whilst mesh
shall furnished in alignment of main and secondary tooth

III. SQR372 cooling system

Constitution and circulating water way






Function of cooling system

1. Function:
In engine expansion stroke, spread heat of heating part in high-temperature
produced by fuel burning into air, so as to ensure engine in a temperature range
of normal working (85~115C).
By medium cycle flow, carry away part heat efficiently and conduct heat
interchange with air.
2. Type:
Centrifugal pump, compulsive circulating water-cooling type.
3. Water way:
Small cycle:
Water pump water pipe water jacket thermostat water pump;
Large cycle:
Water pump water pipe water jacket thermostat radiator water pump
4. Fan: double temperature switch, ECU control and two-speed single electrical
fan, with low speed ON at 94C and OFF at 91 Chigh speed ON ay 105C,
and switch to low speed at 101C. Cooling fan shall open automatically in case
of turn-on A/C to cool condenser with wind.

Right usage and maintenance of cooling system

5. Coolant:
50% glycol + 50% soft water
Fluid volume
Replacement and cleaning
6. Radiator:
Type and material
Secondary overflow tank
(expansion tank)

7. Thermostat
8. System
Pressure adjusting cover
Air release plug

Cooling system trouble

phenomenon and non-cooling
system cause

Trouble phenomenon
Besides temperature display, there is
other phenomenon.
1. Engine knocking;
2. Too high exhaust temperature with
red exhaust pipe
3. Engine inability with distinct power
Non-cooling system cause
1. Car drives along wind blowing
direction for a long time;
2. Gear haul, running at low gear for a
long time;
3. Insufficient tire air pressure;
4. Clutch slippage;
5. Mixed gas too thin;
6. Earlier/later ignition time;

Cooling efficiency analysis

I. Medium selection
Common and inexpensive liquid in
high density and high fluidity water
and alcohol

II. Pressurization pump

Improve medium flow rate and carry
heat away

III. Improve air flow rate and carry

away heat from radiator
Employ fan

IV. Increase radiator area

Add pipe and vane on radiator

V. Enlarge temperature difference

between medium
Enlarge temperature difference
between coolant and air 115C
whilst pressurizing on cooling system

IV SQR372 lubricating system

1. Function:
Lubricating, cooling, cleaning, anti-erosion, seal and buffering
2. Component:
Centralized filter assembly, oil pump, safety valve, pressure limiting valve,
secondary main oil way, oil filter, main oil way, oil pressure switch,
crankshaft oil way, vertical oil way, pressure limiting hole, camshaft oil
way, oil-air separator and crankcase ventilation device.
3. Oil:
Oil capacity(L)
2.9new oil filter
Oil brand
SAE 10W/30grade SF

Lubricating oil way diagram

Lubricating method diagram

Oil-air separator
Intake& exhaust camshaft oil way

Crankcase ventilation

Lean oil way

Cylinder body
limit hole
Oil pressure

Vertical oil way

Main oil way
Subsidiary oil way
Safety valve
Oil pump

Oil vapor
Oil basin

Centralized filter assembly

Oil release plug

Lubricating mode & main parts

4. Lubricating mode:

External gear

Pressure feed lubricating+splash lubricating =

combined type lubricating
Pressure feed lubricating position:

Internal gear pump

Shaft neck with large bearing;

Splash lubricating position:
Position which cannot be lubricated by pressure
feed lubricating, shall adopt oil splash at
pressure lubricating end.
2) Oil filter:
5. Main part:
1) Internal gear pump:
Stable pressure, low noise; long life span

Full flow type, unit

replacement;with replacement
time as per Instruction

Main part of lubricating system

3) Safety valve:
Installed on oil pump, to protect oil pump
and limit pump output pressure and
pressure on secondary oil way.
4) Bypass valve:
Ensure continuous oil supply in lubricating
system, installed in filter.
5) Pressure switch:
Oil pressure warning switch, with warning
lamp ON in case of pressure lower than
80KPa at engine idle speed; installed on
vertical oil way.
6) Pressure limiting hole
Limit oil pressure of air distribution
mechanism; press stamping into vertical oil
way on cylinder body.

7) Central hole on intake and

exhaust camshaft, a longitudinal
oil way of air distribution
mechanism; sealed by press-in
friction ball. Transverse oil way
shall be camshaft cap oil groove.
8) Oil basin:
Stamping, pyramidal groove and
sealed by glue.
9) Oil draining screw plug:
Magnetic seal washer

Lubricating system trouble diagnosis and analysis

I. Requirement on lubricating system

1. Necessary oil volume, oil quality and
viscosity (adherence)
2. Any and all friction surfaces shall be
lubricated; more attention shall be paid to
friction secondary surface which is difficult
to lubricate (cylinder wall, valve lever and
3. Surface with large bearing (axial diameter)
shall transport lubricating oil by some
II. Main trouble diagnosis and analysis of
lubricating system
1. Too low engine pressure
Trouble phenomenon:
Warning of oil alarm: warning by sound and
light synchronously;
Trouble cause: (oil pressure falling suddenly):
Insufficient oil volume, with sudden oil
Oil pump out of work;
Centralized filter assy. Drop-off;
Inefficiency of each valve, and oil discharge;

Diagnosis method: notice: do not start

engine in a hurry .
Inspect oil volume;
Inspect each valve;
Inspect pressure sensor;
Inspect gauge;
Inspect belt;
Inspect filter assy. and pump, etc.
2. Too high oil pressure
Trouble phenomenon:
Several oil leakages on engine;
Warning of main oil way high-pressure
Trouble cause:
Inefficient oil pump safety valve (blocked);
Inefficiency of main oil way safety valve
Oil blockage: too small a bearing clearance;
Low oil temperature, improper brand and
thicker viscosity
Diagnosis method:
Inspection aimed at the cause

Lubricating system trouble diagnosis and analysis (III)

3. Diagnosis and analysis of lubricating oil deterioration

Deterioration phenomenon:
Aging observe oil drip, whilst normal one shall be translucent, with dark center
and translucent around as semi-aging, and all dark as aging.
Acidificationacidification shall be discovered by observing cauterization of shaft
bearing and piston in disassembly inspection, whilst test paper method shall be a
reliable method to inspect acidification. Generally in case of engine oil aging in a
degree to be replaced, acidification shall not be achieved.
Emulsification observe oil drip; in case of oil water emulsion state, the oil shall be
mixed with some water.
DilutionDetermined by deterioration or viscosity inspection
Deterioration cause:
Oil in use for a long time;
Crankcase ventilation failure;
Serous down flow of exhaust gas and mixed gas;
Inferior engine oil or fuel in use;
Translucent Semi-aging Aging
Inner leakage of cylinder body
Diagnosis method:
Regular maintenance and careful examination