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Saint Ferdinand College

College of Criminology
City of Ilagan, Isabela

EXPANDED TERTIARY EDUCATION EQUIVALENCY AND ACCREDITATION PROGRAM (ETEEAP)


MODULE ACTIVITY IN DACTYLOSCOPY, POLICE PHOTOGRAPHY, FORENSIC BALLISTICS, QUESTIONED
DOCUMENT,
POLYGRAPHY, LEGAL MEDICINE AND FORENSIC CHEMISTRY AND TOXICOLOGY
(CRIMINALISTICS)
Presented in these document are outline of Forensic Science or Criminalistics activities. The outline of course topic references
are provided in the learning modules in the Compilation Two: A Compiled Materials in Criminalistics as the main reference in
answering practical or situational scenarios provided in these learning module activities.
Competencies
in Forensic Science or Criminalistics: The ETEEAP Beneficiary shall be able to:
1. Explain/analyze the different ordinary and scientific methods of personal identification in relation to crime detection and investigation
2. Describe the recognition, development, and lifting and preservation of latent prints and fingerprint impressions
3. Apply the systematic procedures in crime scene photography and demonstrate the basic process of developing, printing, and enlarging
to films for court presentation
4. Explain the importance of forensic ballistic in crime investigation
5. Familiarize/apply the scientific procedures involved in the processing of forensic ballistics evidence
6. Know/discuss the relevance and role of questioned document examiners in crime detection
7. Know the basic role of polygraphy in crime detection and investigation
8. Apply the legal implication and limitation of polygraphy in criminal investigation and other aspects of law enforcement
9. Know/discuss the basic principles in the application of medical science in crime detection and investigation
10. Explain/apply the different aspect/methods of examination with regard to death, injuries, abortion, poisoning, etc. whether for
deception detection or not
11. Analyze the legal aspect of violent death, physical injuries, gunshot wounds, etc.
12. Know/familiarize with the procedures in the documentation of medico-legal cases

MODULE ACTIVITY IN DACTYLOSCOPY, POLICE PHOTOGRAPHY, FORENSIC BALLISTICS, QUESTIONED


DOCUMENT,
POLYGRAPHY, LEGAL MEDICINE AND FORENSIC CHEMISTRY AND TOXICOLOGY
(CRIMINALISTICS)
MODULE ACTIVITIES
OBJECTIVE:
This module aims to inculcate the importance of Forensic Science or Criminalistcis in Scientific Criminal Investigation.
PROCEDURE:
1. Read and analyze the facts of the situation below.
Situation:
On June 30, 2013 at about 6:00 AM and in a remote Barangay, a decent looking man was found dead with multiple
wounds. Approximately 3 meters away from the body are drop of dried stains and shoe impressions. Wallet with twenty pieces of
one thousand peso bill without any identification card and whatsoever was recovered. There are documents of unreadable writings
scattered in the area. Two wine bottles of unfamiliar contents were found. Three firearms with different caliber were also recovered
aside from 1 ice pick and 1 kitchen knife. Except for the disarranged two chairs and one table, all fixtures are in their proper
places.
Investigators identified four individuals believed to have information about the incident. However, one of them denied
involvement but the other three claimed responsibility but they cannot explain how it happened as none of them could give exact
and same recount or narration on the incident

2. Answer the succeeding questions below


I.

PRELIMINARY MATTERS
A. Collection of Evidentiary Matters
1. Based on the facts of the above case situation, list down as many items that could be of help in knowing what really
happened
ITEMS
Drop dried stain
Firearms of different caliber

Deadman
Wouds

ITEMS

ITEMS
table
20 pieces one thousand peso bill

Ice pick
Kitchen knife
Two wine bottles

Shoe impression
Wallet
Chairs

Document of unreadable writings


Unfamiliar contents in wine bottles
Four identified individual

ITEMS
Latent prints
Finger prints of the f
individual
Shoe impression

B. Forensic Science or Criminalistics: Its Function as an Aid to Criminal Investigation


1. How can the following field of Forensic Science or Criminalistcis assist in solving Criminal cases? Write your answer to
the given question in the space provided
For example:
FIELD FORENSIC SCIENCE OR
CRIMINALISTICS
1. Questioned Document

SPECIFIC CRIMINAL CASE WHERE


HOW FORENSIC SCIENCE
FORENSIC SCIENCE CAN BE APPLIED
SOLVING CRIMINAL C
Death threat note or any crime involving the Examine the writing character
use of writing or document
document to identify the possible

Start answering here:


FIELD FORENSIC SCIENCE OR
CRIMINALISTICS

SPECIFIC CRIMINAL CASE WHERE


FORENSIC SCIENCE CAN BE APPLIED

HOW FORENSIC SCIENCE


SOLVING CRIMINAL C

1. Dactyloscopy
2. Police photography
3. Forensic ballistics
4. Questioned Document
5. Polygraphy
6. Legal Medicine
7. Forensic Chemistry or Toxicology

To identify the finger print of a person There was a principle that no two
involved in the crime scene
same finger print
To photograph the possible evidence located It served as the permanent record
at the crime scene
scene.

To determine if the recovered firearm was If the firearm was used in commit
used in the commission of the crime
it will identify the possible suspec
said firearm was registered or licen
To determine if the recovered documents If can possible determine if th
belongs to the victims as the suspects suicidal or homicidal.
penmanship.
To determine if the suspect was/were telling It will identify the possible susp
the truth.
because the polygraph machine ca
the person tells a lie.
To identify the cause of death
It will determine the circumstance
death is accidental or intentional.
To determine if the recovered blood stains It will determine the possible sus
belong to the victim or the suspects and if the recovered blood attains.
contents of the bottle of wine was really wine
or the toxic one.

2. Of the items listed, state what area of Forensic Science or Criminalistics (i.e. Dactyloscopy) would you involve in each of
the identified items and how it could help to enlighten what happened? Write your answer in each of the blank column
For example:
AREA IN CRIMINALISTICS
SPECIFIC ITEMS
Legal Medicine
Dead man

PURPOSE
To determine the cause of death

Note: Start answering here


AREA IN CRIMINALISTICS
8. Dactyloscopy

SPECIFIC ITEMS
Fingerprint

PURPOSE
To identified the fingerprint of a person.

9. Police Photography
10. Forensic Ballistics
11. Questioned Document

camera
firearm
papers

12. Polygraphy
Lie detector
13. Legal Medicine
deadman
14. Forensic Chemistry or Toxicology Blood stains

To photograph the crime scene


To study the motion of projectile
To identify if the documents belongs to the
suspects
To determine if the suspect/s was telling the tr
To determine the cause of death
To determine if the blood stains belongs to the
suspect

3. Based on the above listed items, write your answer to the given question inn the provided space.
For example:
In Legal Medicine
What item/s is/are If the item/s is/are for examination, Who will examine the
collected?
what are the matters to consider in item/s?
order to preserve the traces of
evidence?
Dead body
The body should not be cremated or Medico
Legal
embalmed until autopsy is conducted
Officer/Medical
Officer/Physician
Note: Start answering here
In Dactyloscopy
What item/s is/are What is the proper
collected?
collecting those items?
Finger prints

Why there is a need to examine the i

To determine the circumstances behin


death is accidental or intentional and
cause of death

method

in How will you protect the Why do you have to apply the af
item/s?
method of collection and what is t
protecting the item/s
Using the fingerprint kit, carefully take Upon taking the finger print It is necessary to apply the prope
the finger print of the dead body and also using the finger print card, collection because it can lead or identif
the suspect/s
put it in a folder for the or perpetrators of the crime.
future reference.

1. In Police Photography
What item/s is What are the preliminary matters to In the given scenario,

How do you photograph each of the o

are
consider before taking photographs?
photographed?
Any items of Before taking photographs the weather
evidentiary such conditions must be considered first
as
firearm,
icepick knife, etc
2. In Forensic Ballistics
What item/s is/are What is the proper
collected?
collecting those items?
Fire arm

how will you photograph


the scene?
The crime scene was wide , Photograph each other items one after
so you must photograph right after it was collected.
the four sides of the scene,
then at the place where the
dead body was found.

method

in How will you protect the Why do you have to apply the af
item/s?
method of collection and what is t
protecting the item/s
Using an object lift the fire arm at its Put the fire arm in a paper It is necessary to apply said method be
trigger frame.
envelop and tag.
lift a latent prints on the fire arm tha
identification of the perpetrator.

3. In Questioned Document
What
item/s What is the proper How will you protect Why do you have to apply
is/are
method
in the item/s?
the aforementioned method
collected?
collecting
those
of collection and what is the
items?
reason of protecting the
item/s
Papers
and Collect
it
with After collecting put it in To avoid contamination
documents
gloves to avoid a paper envelop and tag
contamination
4. In Polygraphy
What can the field Before the conduct of the test, what
of polygraphy do to should be secured 1st?
enlighten
you
about the incident
To determine if a The condition of a person who undergone

If the item/s is/are submitted fo


examination, what can be determ

It can determine if said documents


victim or the suspect.

What is the rule on What can be detected during the tes


admissibility of the test and
why recommend for the
test
Is not admissible in a court When a person she/he is telling the tru

person is telling the the polygraph test examination


truth or lying
5. In Legal Medicine
What item/s is/are Before the conduct of the test, what
collected?
should be secured 1st?
Dead body
The body should not be cremated or
embalmed until the autopsy is conducted.

to anovel violating the right


of accused

Who will examine the Why there is a need to examine the ite
item/s?
Medico
legal
officer/ To determine the circumstances whethe
medical officer/ physician
accidental or intentional and the poss
death.

6. In Forensic Chemistry and Toxicology


What item/s is/are collected?
Who will examine the item/s?
Blood dried stain
Forensic chemist/ med tech
Bottles of unfamillar content

II.

Forensic chemist/ med tech

Why there is a need to examine the item


To determine if the blood dried stain in th
belongs to the suspect or the victim
To determine the chemical substance
bottle to find a possible solution to the cr

IDENTIFICATION, DETERMINATION OF CAUSE OF DEATH AND FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS OR


THEORY
A. Identification and Determination of Cause of Death
1. Is it possible to identify the dead man? If your answer is in the negative discuss your answer (use extra sheet if necessary)
YES
If your answer in question no. 1 is in the affirmative, list down as many items that can be used in identifying the dead man
ITEMS USE TO IDENTIFY
THE DEAD MAN
Drop dried stain
Fire arms of different caliber

ITEMS USE TO IDENTIFY


THE DEAD MAN
Dead man
Wounds

ITEMS USE TO IDENTIFY THE


DEAD MAN
table
20 pieces one thousand bill

ITEMS USE TO
THE DEAD
Finger print
tattoo

Ice pick
Kitchen knife
Two wine bottles

Shoe impression
Wallet
Chairs

Document of unreadable writing


Unfamiliar contents in wine bottle
Four identified individual

Identifying mark

2. Is it possible to identify if the cause of death is natural, suicidal, accidental or homicidal? If your answer is in the negative
discuss your answer (use extra sheet if necessary)
YES
If your answer in question no. 2 is in the affirmative, check and give reason why it is possible or why it is not possible that
the cause of death is natural, accidental, suicidal or homicidal:
For example:
Cause of Death
Intentional

Possible
/

Check if
Not Possible

Reason/s
The circumstances surrounding the environment at the time when the
found indicates that there was struggle

Start answering here:


Cause of Death
Natural
Accidental
Suicidal
Homicidal

Check if
Possible
Not Possible
/
/
/
/

Reason/s

Multiple gushed wounds


Found ice pick, 1 kitchen knife, two bottle of wine of unfamiliar conten
Yes, there is a recovered fire arm/ice pick, kitchen knife,dried stain, sh
etc

3. Is it possible to identify the people behind the incident without the other four persons previously identified? If your answer
is in the negative discuss your answer (use extra sheet if necessary)
- YES
4. If your answer in question no. 3 is in the affirmative, check what items below and how it can possibly be used in
identifying the people behind the incident:

For example:
ITEM/S
Dried stains

Please Check
/

How could the item/s be possibly used in identifying the people behind the incid
If it is human, blood type is determined it can be use as a guide in determining the owner of th

Start answering here:


ITEM/S
1. Dead man
2. Wounds
3. Drop of dried stains
4. Shoe impressions
5. Wallet
6. Bottles of wine
7. Unfamiliar contents in wine bottle
8. Documents of unreadable writings
9. 20 pieces of one thousand peso bill
10. Firearms of different caliber
11. Ice pick
12. Kitchen knife
13. Chairs
14. Table
15. Four identified individuals
16. Others (Please specify)

Please Check

How could the item/s be possibly used in identifying the people b


incident?
Determine Possible cause causes of his/her death
Determine if the wound inflicted if serious or just a simple one
Blood type is determined to identify the owner of the stain
Identify the size of feet
Determine the identity of the victim
Identify the saliva of the victim or the perpetrator
Specify possible number of person involved
Identify the author of the letter
A possible cause of the crime
Instrument used in perpetrating the crime
To determine the identity of the person who committed the crime
An object used in commission of the crime
Identify how many persons are involved
Whether there is an occasion when the crime is committed
Dictate possible facts about what really happen

B. Hypotheses (Assumptions) or Theories


1. Based on the facts of the given case scenario, listed below are some of the formulated hypotheses (assumptions). As to the
possible cause of death, identify which of the formulated hypotheses (assumptions) could be due to natural, accidental,
suicidal or homicidal by writing your answer opposite each hypothesis (assumptions)

Hypothesis (Assumption)
1. Before the killing, there could have been a celebration, for unknown reason altercation ensued and somebody caused the
wound
2. The scene of the incident could have already been tampered by the one who caused the wound to make it appear that there
was a. This is to confuse the authorities
3. The dead man could have been killed somewhere else other than the place where he was found
4. Homicidal
5. There could have been struggle among and between the dead man and the perpetrators prior to the incident
6. The dead man could have been suffering from terminal illness to which he opt to kill himself
7. The dead man could have a serious problem and had a drinking spree to which he might have challenged everyone thus
fighting ensued
8. The wounds could have been unintentionally inflicted by someone
9. The wounds could have been inflicted when the man was already dead for purposes of insurance claim
10. The dead man could have been kidnapped and when the demand was not given, the wounds were inflicted

Caus
Ac

Ho

Ho
Ho
Ho
N
S

Ac
S
ho

Note: You can give other hypothesis (assumption) other than what is already given
Hypothesis (Assumption)

Cau

2. Of the given hypotheses (assumptions) or based from the hypothesis (assumption) which you have formulated, select one
or more of these hypotheses (assumptions) and list down as many items presented in the given case scenario that can later
substantiate your theory of the case
For example:

Selected Hypothesis (Assumption)


Items that can substantiate the theory of the ca
Before the killing, there could have been a celebration, for unknown 1. Two wine bottles
reason altercation ensued and somebody caused the wound
2. The dead man was well dressed
Start answering here:

Selected Hypothesis (Assumption)


The dead man could have a serious problem and had a drinking spree
to which he created a ruckus that ignited the fighting.
The killing was done through rape

Items that can substantiate the theory of the ca


Alcohol bottles, knife
Blood stains, pubic hair