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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 43, NO.

2, MARCH/APRIL 2007

453

Ground Fault Protection for Bus-Connected


Generators in an Interconnected 13.8-kV System
J. C. Das, Senior Member, IEEE

AbstractThis paper is based on modifications implemented in


the protection and grounding systems of a large paper mill and
describes selective ground fault protection for a 13.8-kV system
with multiple bus-connected generators, synchronous bus ties, and
utility interconnections. The ground fault current in the system is
reduced from the existing 3400 A to 500 A, and a hybrid grounding
system is implemented for each of the generators. As the ground
fault currents are reduced to limit the fault damage, the sensitivity
and selectivity of the ground fault protection become important.
Directional ground fault relays with coordinating pickup settings
are applied to achieve this objective. The new platform for directional elements (numerical relays) drives its performance from
sequence impedance measurements.
Index TermsDirectional ground fault relays, ground fault
directional elements, hybrid generator grounding, sequence impedance measurements.

I. I NTRODUCTION

HE system configuration and ground fault protection of


the 13.8-kV distributions are shown in Fig. 1. The overlapping zones of the phase fault protection are also shown.
Other protective relaying functions are not shown for clarity.
The emphasis is on the ground fault protective devices. Each
generator is hybrid grounded and has a neutral breaker.
Before the aspect of selective ground fault protection is
discussed, some explanation of the grounding system is relevant
to this paper. Until the recent modifications to the grounding
system, as shown in Fig. 1, the mill has operated for 35 years
with the following:
generators grounded through 2000-A/1000-A resistors;
one or two of the generators operated ungrounded (neutral
breakers open) to limit the ground fault current. Yet, at any
operating time, the system ground fault current could be
3400 A.
The original system may have been designed with high
ground fault currents so that the phase differential protections
operate positively on ground faults. During the last 35 years of
operation, luckily, no stator ground fault damage or insulation
failures of generator windings have occurred.

Paper PID-06-29, presented at the 2006 IEEE Pulp and Paper Industry
Conference, Jacksonville, FL, June 1923, and approved for publication
in the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS by the Pulp
and Paper Industry Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications Society.
Manuscript submitted for review June 18, 2006 and released for publication
October 30, 2006.
The author is with AMEC E&C Services, Inc., Tucker, GA 30084 USA
(e-mail: jay.das@amec.com).
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIA.2006.889899

The ground fault damage to stator windings of industrial


generators has been examined in [1]. Powell considers no generator neutral breaker and assumes that source-side and generator neutral currents are both 400 A. Considering that the
generator breaker is opened in six cycles by instantaneous
ground relaying in response to a generator zone ground fault,
greater fault energy (approximately four times) is released
into the fault from the ground fault current of 400 A from
the generator neutral circuit than the system with 400-A current. This is because generator current decays slowly in about
0.81.0 s depending on the generator single-line-to-ground
fault time constant. This paper then suggests high-resistance
grounding of the generator, with ground current limited to
10 A. This concept is enlarged in [2][5]. The following comments are of interest.
1) A single bus with generation and utility tie interconnection is considered in [2][5]. Practically, the generation is
dispersed throughout the system in a variety of configurations, for example, Fig. 1.
2) Wu et al. [6] show that when a neutral breaker is provided and trips simultaneously with generator breaker, the
source- and neutral-side fault currents are simultaneously
interrupted, and the fault energy release is equivalent to
that with hybrid grounding system with high-resistance
grounding through 10 A.
3) It is shown in [7] (see Fig. 2) that for high-resistance
grounded systems, the current through the grounding
resistor should be equal to the stray capacitance current
to prevent overvoltages, i.e.,
Rn =

Vln
3Ic

(1)

where Vln is the line-to-neutral voltage, Rn is the resistance introduced in the neutral circuit, and Ic is the
stray capacitance current of each line conductor. The stray
capacitance currents are displaced by 120 , and under no
ground fault condition, these currents sum to zero, and
the neutral does not carry any stray capacitance currents.
Under a ground fault condition, the stray capacitance
of the faulted phase is grounded, and the neutral again
does not carry any stray capacitance current and flows
straight to ground. Practically, some currents flow due to
asymmetry associated with the three phases.
In large distribution systems, the stray capacitance current
can be high (i.e., of the order of tens of amperes), and the
high-resistance grounding is not practical.

0093-9994/$25.00 2007 IEEE

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 43, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2007

Fig. 1. Distribution system (13.8 kV) for selective ground fault protection. Only ground fault relays and overlapping zones of phase differential relays are shown.
The generators have phase differential protection (not shown) and ground differential relays 87GN.

For the system under discussion, the stray capacitance


current was calculated to be close to 80 A [8]. The
13.8-kV distribution has 60 000 ft of shielded cable
and approximately 200 load centers. A high-resistance
grounded system is adopted when the stray capacitance
current can be limited to approximately 1015 A.
4) In general, the plant generation is considered more reliable than the utility source, and coordination is required
for external faults so that no nuisance trip of the plant
generators occurs.
Although there are a total of five grounded sources in the
distribution system, i.e., three generators and two utility transformers, the entire plant load can be served with two sources
in service, i.e., one utility tie transformer and generator G2
(Fig. 1). Grounding of each source through 100-A resistors
was decided, and this choice is further discussed in this paper.
Thus, the maximum fault current in the system is limited to
500 A. Although the generators are provided with a neutral
breaker, a hybrid grounding system is chosen to prevent the
possibility of overvoltages when the neutral breaker opens
simultaneously with the line breaker; however, no rigorous
study is conducted. The high-resistance portion of the hybrid
grounding system remains permanently connected to the neutral and is not disconnected when the neutral breaker trips. It is
designed to limit the current to 8 A, considering the capacitance

of generator windings, surge capacitor, and bus connections,


when the generator line breaker is opened (Fig. 1).

II. P HASE F AULT D IFFERENTIAL R ELAYS


The phase differential protection shown in Fig. 1 in various
zones may not pickup on ground fault currents as the sensitivity
is low, and hence, low-level ground fault currents cannot be
detected. Consider the high-impedance-type differential protection shown in Fig. 1. The minimum pickup current can be
calculated from the following expression:
Imin =

x=n



Ix + IR + I1 N

(2)

x=1

where
Imin
n
Ix
IR
I1
N

minimum fault current to trip the relay;


number of breakers;
secondary excitation current of the current transformers (CTs) at a voltage equal to the pickup value of the
differential relay;
current in differential relay at pickup voltage;
current in the Thyrite unit of differential relay at
pickup voltage;
CT ratio.

DAS: GROUND FAULT PROTECTION FOR BUS-CONNECTED GENERATORS IN AN INTERCONNECTED 13.8-kV SYSTEM

Fig. 2. Optimum grounding resistor for high-resistance grounded systems to


prevent overvoltages.

This calculation shows that the differential relay will not pick
up at currents below 300400 A.
The phase differential protection zones shown for cable
protection in Fig. 1 have microprocessor-based multifunction
protective relays (MMPRs) with fiber-optic interface and intertripping. The pickup sensitivity for ground faults of these relays
is 0.5-A secondary current, and considering the CT ratios, it
varies from 300 to 200 A.
Thus, phase fault differential relays are not adequate for the
ground fault protection.
III. G ENERATOR G ROUND D IFFERENTIAL R ELAYS
The generators have MMPRs, which have ground fault
differential function, i.e., 87GN. The lowest setting on these
relays is 16 A. As the generator is grounded through a 100-A
resistor, approximately 84% (considering zero tolerances on the
set pickup values) of the stator winding from the line end is
protected, assuming a linear variation of voltage from the lineto-neutral terminals of the winding. For a ground fault toward
the neutral end of the windings, neither 87GN nor 51G will be
operated. Although the probability of a fault decreases as the
voltage toward the neutral is reduced and the generator insulation system is not graded, i.e., the neutral is fully insulated, it is
not desirable to leave 16% of the windings unprotected.
The common practice of grounding the generators through
a 400-A resistor protected a larger percentage of the stator
windings; i.e., it will protect 96% of the windings with the same
16-A pickup setting. Thus, reducing the grounding current
compromises some protection. If a fault occurs toward the
neutral end, it will remain undetected, will persist for a long
time, and can cause core damage [9]. The Appendix describes
how protection of a greater portion of the stator windings

455

Fig. 3. Generator differential ground fault protection (87GN) using a product


type of electromagnetic relay. The figure shows stability on external single-lineto-ground fault.

toward the neutral can be implemented for low-resistance


grounded generators.
The 51G, i.e., the standby generator ground fault function,
must coordinate with downstream ground fault protection and
should not trip the generator unless the fault is on the generator
bus. Thus, it will be less sensitive compared to 87GN function
depending on downstream coordination for selective tripping.
A common practice in the industry has been to use an
electromechanical relay for generator differential ground fault
protection, which is commonly called the product type of
relay. Fig. 3 shows such a scheme, with stability on external
200-A single-line-to-ground fault. The CT ratios are externally
matched through an auxiliary transformer, i.e., 1/15 in Fig. 3.
The relaying class accuracy on these auxiliary transformers is
rarely greater than C20 (C30 with special design), and these are
subjected to saturation. The CT burden on the high current side
will be reflected as the square of turns ratio on the primary side,
i.e., multiplied by a factor of 225 in Fig. 3. With the auxiliary
CT connections, as shown in Fig. 3, for an external fault, the
operating coil carries 0.33-A current in the opposite direction
to the operating current, giving certain margin of stability. The
time of operation depends on multiple of tap products and time
dial settings. It can be of the order of several seconds even
with sensitive settings. These product types of relays are not
suitable because of: 1) unacceptable operating times at low
current levels and 2) sensitivity of pickup settings. Nuisance
trips have occurred in many installations, with misapplied
auxiliary transformers.
There is no auxiliary current matching CT for 87GN function
in the MMPRs, as shown in Fig. 1. The protective relays
internally make corrections for the mismatch. The accuracies
with internal correction of the mismatch are 5% on pickup

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 43, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2007

TABLE I
RELAY OPERATION FOR SELECTIVE GROUND FAULT TRIPPING

TABLE II
AREA OF SHUTDOWN FOR FAULT LOCATIONS SHOWN IN FIG. 1

Fig. 4. Selective coordination of ground fault relays in 13.8-kV distribution


system, as shown in Fig. 1.

51G, generator 3, breakers ST1, ST2, and ST4: 20 A;


51G, generators 1 and 2, breakers UT2 and UT4: 25 A.
These low pickup settings require a reliable directional
ground fault relay.
settings, inclusive of internal relay algorithms. The time delay
setting of one cycle [1] on 87GN function even with MMPRs is
too optimistic, and nuisance trips have occurred. A prominent
manufacturer of these relays recommends six-cycle time delay
on 87GN function to account for CT saturation on external
faults.
IV. S ELECTIVE G ROUND F AULT C OORDINATION
Table I shows the tripping matrix for selective ground fault
clearance, and Table II shows the area of shutdown for the
respective fault locations in Fig. 1. It can be seen that without
the provision of directional ground fault relays, as shown in
Fig. 1, selective tripping cannot be obtained.
Fig. 4 shows that coordination is achieved throughout the
distribution system including the utility ground fault relays. The
low pickups of the protective devices are of interest, namely:
50G, all 13.8-kV feeder breakers: 5 A, instantaneous
(all transformers in the downstream distribution system
have delta-connected 13.8-kV windings, permitting these
settings);
67N, breakers UT2 and UT4: 10 A;
67N, breakers ST1, ST2, and ST4: 16 A;

V. D IRECTIONAL G ROUND R ELAYS


Selection and application of the directional ground protection
is therefore the key issue in coordinated ground fault protection.
Single-phase-to-ground and double-phase-to-ground faults
are unsymmetrical faults. All the sequence component currents and sequence voltages, i.e., positive, negative, and zero
sequence, are produced. Fig. 5(a) and (b) shows the interconnections of sequence networks and sequence current flows for
a single-line-to-ground fault, i.e.,
I0 = I1 = I2 =
Ia = 3I0 =

1
Ia
3

3Va
(Z1 + Z2 + Z0 ) + 3Zf + 3Rn

(3)
(4)

where I0 , I1 , I2 , and Ia are the zero-sequence, positivesequence, negative-sequence, and phase-to-ground fault currents; Z1 , Z2 , and Z0 are the sequence impedances; and Zf
is the fault impedance. Va is the prefault voltage to neutral at
the fault location, Ia is the single-line-to-ground fault current,
and Rn is the neutral resistor.
Fig. 6 shows the zero-sequence network of Fig. 1 for a singleline-to-ground fault at F1. When the neutrals are grounded

DAS: GROUND FAULT PROTECTION FOR BUS-CONNECTED GENERATORS IN AN INTERCONNECTED 13.8-kV SYSTEM

457

Fig. 6. Zero-sequence network for a single-line-to-ground fault at F1 in Fig. 1.

and in zigzag transformers is not a proper current polarization


source [10].
This is obvious when the zero-sequence impedance connections of these transformers are examined. With these classic
relays, the sequence quantity for each application must be
selected for the application.
Modern ground directional relays (GDRs) consist of a combination of three directional elements, namely:
1) zero-sequence current polarized;
2) negative-sequence voltage polarized;
3) zero-sequence voltage polarized.

Fig. 5. (a) Sequence current flows for a single-line-to-ground fault.


(b) Interconnections of sequence impedances.

through resistances, these impedances predominate, and all


other sequence impedances can be ignored in the calculations.
Thus, the ground fault current anywhere in the 13.8-kV system
is 500 A, and a rigorous computer calculation with all the
sequence impedances modeled shows only a minor difference;
i.e., a fault at bus 1 gives 499-A ground fault current, and
the sequence impedances in per unit at 100-MVA base are as
follows:
Z0 = 2.5116 + j0.0290
Z1 = 0.0005 + j0.0233
Z2 = 0.0008 + j0.0221.

(5)

Directional elements use a reference against which the


quantities are compared; this reference is also known as the
polarizing quantity. These references are either zero-sequence
or negative-sequence quantities. With mutual inductance problems between transmission lines, use of negative-sequence
quantities provides further security.
Classic relays used current or voltage polarization or both,
which are derived from external sources. Fig. 7 shows an
open-delta-connected potential transformer (PT) for voltage
polarization of the directional element.
A proper source for the external current polarization is
required. While a CT in the neutral circuit of a deltawye
transformer provides a suitable polarization source, a CT in
the wyewye-connected grounded or ungrounded transformers

The selection logic makes it possible to select one or two or


the best choice logic for the application.
The zero-sequence voltage polarization does not require
external PTs in modern GDRs. This voltage can be internally
generated from wyewye PT inputs (but not from open-deltaconnected PT inputs).
External zero-sequence current source is not necessarily
required. The relay algorithm calculates the sequence components from the line current inputs.
Fig. 8 shows a much simplified logic diagram for the ground
directional element of the relay for low-resistance grounded
generators. Inputs from zero-sequence and negative-sequence
voltages are shown at NAND gate 3. The low-resistance logic
operating from neutral channel current is also shown. The
logic for the negative-sequence voltage-polarized and currentpolarized elements are similar and not shown in Fig. 8. Note
that although the positive-sequence, negative-sequence, and
zero-sequence currents are equal in magnitude on a single-lineto-ground fault, the sequence voltages will be much different,
as the sequence impedances have large variations (5).
In Fig. 8, Z0 is measured by the relay based on
Z0 =

Re [3V0 (IN < 0 ) ]


.
|IN |2

(6)

Similarly, in the negative-sequence logic, Z2 is calculated by


Z2 =

Re [V2 (I2 < 1 ) ]


|I2 |2

(7)

where 0 and 1 are the zero-sequence and positive-sequence


line angles, respectively; i.e., from (5), 0 1 (the resistance

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 43, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2007

Fig. 7. Zero-sequence voltage source for polarization of ground fault directional relay and phase vectors on single-line-to-ground fault.

Fig. 8. Partial logic diagram of a modern MMPR.

predominates). The asterisk shows the conjugate of the


current.
Fig. 8 shows that IN should be greater than the positivesequence current multiplied by a settable factor a0N and its
settings 50NFP or 50NRP , which are the set currents for the
directional logic to operate. The setting of a0N = IN /I1 increases the security of directional element and prevents nuisance tripping for zero-sequence currents of system unbalance,
CT saturation, etc. For industrial systems, the unbalance currents will be small, and the setting should be lower than the
intended pickup of zero-sequence current settings.

For an output F 32N or R32N to assert, the measured Z0 in


the forward or reverse direction must overcome the set forward
or reverse thresholds (Fig. 9). These are controlled by the
following equations:
Z0 F setting 0, forward threshold



 3V0 


0.75 Z0 F 0.25 
IN 

(8)

DAS: GROUND FAULT PROTECTION FOR BUS-CONNECTED GENERATORS IN AN INTERCONNECTED 13.8-kV SYSTEM

459

B. Double-Line-to-Ground Fault

Fig. 9.

Directional element characteristics of MMPR in Fig. 8.

TABLE III
SEQUENCE CURRENTS SEEN BY THE DIRECTIONAL GROUND RELAYS FOR
SINGLE-LINE-TO-GROUND FAULT IN FIG. 1 (IN THE DIRECTION
OF THE O PERATION OF THE R ELAY )

A double-line-to-ground fault gives high positive-sequence


and negative-sequence currents, i.e., of the order of 58 kA.
The positive-sequence and negative-sequence currents are equal
and at a phase difference of 180 . The zero-sequence current is
small, i.e., 66 A. The voltages of faulted phases are zero, and
those of the unfaulted phase rise to 20.7 kV. Thus, the positivesequence, negative-sequence, and zero-sequence voltages are
all equal in magnitude, i.e., approximately 7 kV. The zerosequence voltage-polarized algorithm of the relay will not
operate, and the negative-sequence polarization will operate
positively.
As the fault currents in phases are high, the directional phase
function in the same GDR (not discussed in this paper) and also
other discrete differential relays are operative. Yet, negativesequence option in directional ground fault function can be
made operative as a further backup.
C. Bench Testing

Z0 F setting > 0, forward threshold



 3V0 

1.25 Z0 F 0.25 
IN 

(9)

Z0 R setting 0, reverse threshold



 3V0 


0.75 Z0 R + 0.25 
IN 

VII. C ONCLUSION
(10)

Z0 R setting < 0, reverse threshold



 3V0 
.

1.25 Z0 F + 0.25 
IN 

The relays were bench tested and had a pickup accuracy better than 99% to 101% of the set values even at low directional
current setting of 10 A. CT errors must be considered. The ratio
correction of class C accuracy CTs is limited to 10% at any
current from 1 to 20 times the rated secondary current at the
standard specified burden or any lower standard burden used
for specific accuracy.

(11)

VI. D IRECTIONAL G ROUND E LEMENT


O PERATING L OGIC S ELECTION
A. Single-Line-to-Ground Fault
Table III shows the sequence currents seen by each relay
at its location. For a zero resistance fault in the resistance
grounded system, i.e., Zf = 0, the zero-sequence and positivesequence voltages are approximately equal to line voltage (full
displacement of neutral-to-ground potential), and the negativesequence voltage is approximately zero. With some resistance
to the fault, the positive-sequence and zero-sequence voltages
will be reduced, and the negative-sequence voltage will be 180
out-of-phase with the positive-sequence voltage. The sequence
currents are used for setting zero-sequence voltage logic (not
shown in Fig. 8).
As the relay is totally blocked in one direction of operation, only one threshold setting, i.e., forward or reverse, needs
be made.

1) The stray capacitance current in the distribution system should be carefully calculated. A high-resistance
grounded system can be implemented only when the stray
capacitance currents are generally not more than 10 A.
In most distribution systems, this limit will be exceeded,
and high-impedance grounding of the generators will be
impractical.
2) When considering low-resistance grounding, the ground
fault current should be examined with respect to the
sensitivity of the protection schemes. A section of the
stator windings toward the neutral is left unprotected, and
if a fault occurs in this section, severe damage can occur,
as persistent fault currents of the order of 45 A can cause
core damage.
3) A greater percentage of the stator winding can be
protected using protective schemes, as given in the
Appendix.
4) The selectivity of the ground fault protection should
be carefully considered when the ground currents are
lowered in a distribution system. Approximately 70% of
all the faults start as ground faults, and it is imperative
that nuisance trips do not occur. Directional/differential
ground fault relays become imperative to achieve this
objective.
5) Settings of modern GDRs operating on sequence quantities will provide effective protection. Proper settings
require a study to calculate the sequence quantities as

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 43, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2007

Fig. 10. Distribution of third-harmonic voltage. (a) Normal operation, no


ground fault. (b) Ground fault at the neutral terminal. (c) Ground fault close
to the neutral.

Fig. 12. (a) Low pickup stator winding ground fault protection in a 100-A
resistance grounded generator using a special FFAC device. (b) Low pickup
stator winding ground fault protection in a 100-A resistance grounded generator
using an auxiliary CT and overcurrent relay.

A PPENDIX

Fig. 11. High-resistance grounded generator directly connected through a


step-up transformer.

seen by the relays. This paper demonstrates how these


evaluations have been made in an operating mill and
proven on bench testing.

A 100% generator stator winding protection for highresistance grounded systems is based on the distribution of
third-harmonic voltages under normal operating and fault conditions. Third-harmonic voltages vary with the generator design, as well as with real and reactive power outputs. Fig. 10
shows such a distribution. A differential relay sensing the
difference between the generator neutral and generator line
terminals is more effective as compared to a simple voltage
relay at the neutral terminal [12]. The protection systems based
on third-harmonic voltage work well with generators connected
through a step-up transformer (Fig. 11). The delta windings of
the generator step-up transformer and unit auxiliary transformer

DAS: GROUND FAULT PROTECTION FOR BUS-CONNECTED GENERATORS IN AN INTERCONNECTED 13.8-kV SYSTEM

confine third harmonics to a limited zone. Also, the stray


capacitance currents from the utility source or auxiliary distribution do not contribute to the high-resistance grounding stray
current calculations. The utilities high resistance ground their
generators, and 100% stator winding protection is provided.
In low-resistance grounded multiple bus-connected generators with intervening impedance, the distribution of the thirdharmonic voltages under normal operation and ground fault
conditions cannot be precisely defined, and this system of
protection cannot be effectively applied.
This paper shows that 16% of the stator winding (discounting the relay tolerances) toward the neutral end remains
unprotected.
Although no protective device is commercially available to
extend the winding protection toward the neutral, a simple
system, as shown in Fig. 12, can be used.
Fig. 12(a) shows an analog fundamental frequency alarm
device with an input filter, contact closing at 0.03-A set-point
output, in terms of primary ground current. The fundamental
frequency alarm control (FFAC) is a nonstandard device of
special manufacture.
An on-delay timer is introduced and gated with neutral
breaker status contacts. The auxiliary relay 94 trips the neutral
breaker. The timer is set to coordinate with 51G and 87GN
settings. This will protect 97.5% of the stator windings, and the
tolerances on the pickup of the alarm unit are 0.2%.
Fig. 12(b) shows an overcurrent relay, with digital signal
processing, permitting selection of fundamental frequency,
root mean square, and average sensing. The low pickup is
obtained by selecting a relay of 1-A rating, although the auxiliary CT secondary current is 6 A at maximum ground fault
current of 100 A. This requires that the overcurrent relay should
have adequate overload capability. At minimum setting of
0.1-A pickup, 98.4% of the stator winding is protected. The
auxiliary CT has a maximum input of 1.2 A and output of 6 A;
therefore, it can be a revenue metering class 0.3 accuracy to
limit ratio error.
In Fig. 1, a setting of 10 V on 59N function connected in the
secondary of the grounding transformer in the high-resistance
grounding system will detect a low-level fault of approximately
4 A. Some voltage will be developed under normal operating
conditions due to third-harmonic currents, and this voltage was
measured to be 34 V. The voltage setting on 59N should
override it. A time delay of 810 s can be provided, so that
higher level currents picked up by 87GN are first cleared.
These schemes will achieve the desirable objective of reducing the generator ground current as well as protecting more than
95% of the generator winding from the generator line end.

461

R EFERENCES
[1] L. J. Powell, The impact of system grounding practices on generator
fault damage, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 923927,
Sep./Oct. 1998.
[2] IEEE/IAS Working Group Report, Grounding and ground fault protection of multiple generator installations on medium voltage industrial and
commercial power systems: Part 1, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl.,vol. 40, no. 1,
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[3] , Grounding and ground fault protection of multiple generator installations on medium voltage industrial and commercial power systems:
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[4] , Grounding and ground fault protection of multiple generator installations on medium voltage industrial and commercial power systems:
Part 3, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 2428, Jan./Feb. 2004.
[5] , Grounding and ground fault protection of multiple generator installations on medium voltage industrial and commercial power systems:
Part 4, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 2932, Jan./Feb. 2004.
[6] A. Wu, Y. Tang, and D. Finney, MV generator low resistance grounding
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pp. 672679, Mar./Apr. 2004.
[7] Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book, Westinghouse
Electric Corporation, East Pittsburg, PA, 1964.
[8] D. S. Baker, Charging current data for guesswork-free design of
high resistance grounded systems, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. IA-15,
no. 2, pp. 136140, Mar./Apr. 1979.
[9] J. R. Dunki-Jacobs, The reality of high resistance grounding, IEEE
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[10] Applied Protective Relaying, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Coral
Springs, FL, 1982.
[11] A. Guzman, J. Roberts, and D. Hou, New ground directional elements
operate reliably for changing system conditions, in Proc. 51st Annu.
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Aug. 1981.

J. C. Das (SM80) received the B.A. degree in


mathematics and the B.E.E. degree from Panjab University, Chandigarh, India, in 1953 and 1956, respectively, and the M.S.E.E degree from Tulsa University,
Tulsa, OK, in 1982.
He is currently a Staff Consultant with Electrical
Power Systems, AMEC E&C Services, Inc., Tucker,
GA. He is responsible for power system studies, including short circuit, load flow, harmonics, stability,
arc flash hazard, grounding, and protective relaying.
He conducts courses for continuing education in
power systems. He has authored or coauthored more than 40 technical publications. He is the author of Power System Analysis (Marcel Dekker, 2002). His
interests include power system transients, harmonics, power quality, protection,
and relaying.
Mr. Das is a member of the IEEE Industry Applications Society and the IEEE
Power Engineering Society. He is a member of the Technical Association of
the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI) and the International Council on Large
Electric Power Systems (CIGRE), a Fellow of the Institution of Electrical
Engineers, U.K., a Life Fellow of the Institution of Engineers (India), and a
member of the Federation of European Engineers (France). He is a Registered
Professional Engineer in the States of Georgia and Oklahoma, a Chartered
Engineer in the U.K., and a European Engineer. He is a member of the Power
Distribution Subcommittee of the Pulp and Paper Industry Committee of the
IEEE Industry Applications Society. He received the IEEE Pulp and Paper
Industry Committee Meritorious Engineering Award in 2005.