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Food Hydrocolloids 44 (2015) 478e490

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Food Hydrocolloids
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/foodhyd

Physical, functional, pasting and thermal properties of ours and


starches of six Nigerian rice cultivars
Kolawole O. Falade*, Akinpelu S. Christopher
Department of Food Technology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:
Received 6 May 2014
Accepted 10 October 2014
Available online 1 November 2014

Physical, functional, pasting and thermal properties of ours and starches of six Nigerian rice cultivars
(Faro 21, 40, 44, 46, 52, and 55) were investigated. Starches showed higher CIE L (96.37e99.81) value
than ours (81.09e90.03). Water (122.64e143.35%) and oil (59.97e72.98%) absorption capacities varied
signicantly among the cultivars. Starch yield varied between 41.21 and 52.57%, with Faro 52 showing
higher yield. Starch granules were small and polyhedral shaped, with average length and width of 5.37
e9.25 and 3.94e6.94 mm, respectively. The Faro 40 (5.49) and Faro 55 (2.80) exhibited highest and lowest
swelling power, respectively at 60  C. The Faro 52 (2376.0 cP) and Faro 44 (3988.5 cP) ours showed
highest and lowest peak viscosities, respectively. Amylose content of the rice starches varied from 20.68
(Faro 40) to 25.95 (Faro 55). Peak viscosity of starches (4893e6080 cP) was higher than ours, and
increased in the order: Faro 52 < Faro 21 < Faro 40 < Faro 55 < Faro 44 < Faro 46. The FTIR spectroscopy
of starches identied most of the a-1 / 4 glucosidic linkages within spectral absorption bands of 1149.55
e1023.00 cm1. Thermal properties of the rice starches ranged: gelatinization onset To (50.8e68.8  C),
gelatinization peak, Tp, (78.7e93.7  C), glass transition temperature Tg (35.2e50.2  C), gelatinization
conclusion Tc, (116.4e127.6  C), gelatinization enthalpy, DHG (7.58e17.35 J/g) and peak height index, DHG/
(Tp  To) (0.26e1.64). This study provides knowledge for the utilization of ours and starches isolated
from Nigerian rice cultivars that would be relevant for the postharvest value addition chain.
2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:
Rice cultivars
Physicochemical properties
Colour
Flours and starches
Thermal properties

1. Introduction
Rice is the most important cereal in the developing world and is
a staple food of over three billion people, constituting over half the
world's population (Cantral & Reeves, 2002; Ebuehi & Oyewole,
2008). In sub-Saharan Africa, over 20 million farmers grow and
produce about 4.8 million tonnes of rice (FAOSTAT, 2014). The demand for rice in sub-Saharan Africa is expected to grow substantially as the population is currently growing at the rate of 3e4% per
annum and rice consumption is growing faster than other foods
(Akinwale et al., 2011). About 20 species of the genus Oryza are
recognized, but nearly all cultivated rice is Oryza sativa L. A small
amount of Oryza glaberrima, a perennial species is grown in Africa
(Falade, Semon, Fadairo, Oladunjoye, & Orou, 2014; Yadav & Jindal,
2008; ). Rice is grown in paddies or on upland elds, depending on
the requirements of the particular variety; there is limited
mangrove cultivation. Different varieties are grown, some of which

* Corresponding author. Tel.: 234 807 318 7227.


E-mail address: kolawolefalade@yahoo.com (K.O. Falade).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2014.10.005
0268-005X/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

are considered traditional while new cultivars have been introduced within the last twenty years (Falade et al., 2014).
In recent years, rice, especially rice our, because of its unique
functional properties, is used in a number of novel foods such as
tortillas, beverages, processed meats, puddings, salad dressings and
gluten-free breads (Kadan & Ziegler, 1989; Kadan, Robinson,
Thibodeux, & Pepperman, 2001; Kadan, Bryant, and Miller, 2008;
McCue, 1997). These novel foods usually require rice ours and
starches having known physicochemical properties (Kadan,
Champagne, Ziegler, & Richard, 1997, 2008), which could indicate
market value, utilization and consumer preferences of rice cultivars
(Falade et al., 2014). Starch is generally regarded as the most
important constituent of rice which affects the pasting behaviour
and functionality (Zhou, Robards, Helliwell, & Blanchard, 2002).
The main variation in the composition of rice starch caused by the
relative proportions of the two fractions in the starch granules and
this, together with the chain length distribution and the frequency
and spacing of branch points within the amylopectin molecule (Lu,
Chen, & Lii, 1997), has a profound inuence on the physicochemical
properties of starch (Jane, Chen, & Lee, 1999). The pasting behaviour
of starch-water pastes is inuenced by the chemical and physical

K.O. Falade, A.S. Christopher / Food Hydrocolloids 44 (2015) 478e490

properties of the samples, including the amounts and types of


starch, and the presence of lipids, proteins and low molecular
weight solutes (Dang & Copeland, 2004).
A small proportion of rice crop is used as raw material for processed foods but the bulk is consumed as cooked rice. Processed
rice products may be derived from rough rice, brown rice, milled
rice, cooked rice, brokens, dry-milled our, wet-milled our and
rice starch among others. Rice our is an important ingredient in
the manufacture of puffed grains and breakfast cereals. In order to
control better production process, it is necessary to understand the
properties of rice our as well as their starches. Most Nigerian rice
cultivars are consumed as whole milled grains or as tuwo shinkafa,
which the our is mixed with boiling water and stirred to produce
dough with smooth consistency, and then eaten with accompaniment. Therefore, the developments of value added products such as
rice ours and starches would increase their utilization, and
improve the rice industry. There exists little or no available information on functional, pasting and thermal properties of ours and
starches of the selected Nigerian rice cultivars. Consequently, the
objective of this research was to investigate the functional, pasting
and thermal properties of ours and starches of six Nigerian rice
cultivars.

479

at 25  C for 24 h to soften the endosperms. The steep liquor was


drained off, then the endosperms were washed and ground with a
commercial blender (Philips HR2001, Holland), low speed at rst,
then at full speed for 1 min. The slurry was again dispersed in NaOH
solution (0.2%, 1 L), agitated with a magnetic stirrer (Stuart CB161,
Barloworld Scientic, Staffordshire, UK) for 20 min and allowed to
settle for 6 h and the supernatant was drained off. The process was
repeated for another 10 h with the yellow tailings skimmed off each
time until the supernatant gave a negative response to the Biuret
protein test (Cardoso, Putaux, Samios, and da Silveira, 2007). The
slurry was suspended in distilled water, the pH was adjusted to 7.0
with HCl (0.5 M) and passed through nylon screen (75 mm). Afterward, it was allowed to settle for another 6 h and the clear supernatant was discarded. The starch obtained as sediment was dried in
an air convection oven (Uniscope SM9053, Surgifriend medicals,
England) at 40  C for 48 h. The dried starch was pulverized into a
smooth owing powder using the dry mill of the commercial
blender (Philips HR2001, Holland). Samples were sealed in Ziploc
double zipper high density (26.8  27.3 cm, 100 mm) packages
(Ziploc Brand Products, WI, USA) and kept for analysis.
2.3. Determination of moisture, protein and fat contents of the rice
cultivars

2. Materials and methods


Paddy rice of Faro (Federal agricultural research oryza) 40, 46
and 55 (Upland cultivars) were obtained from National Cereals
Research Institute, Ibadan, while Faro 21, 44 and 52 (Lowland cultivars) were obtained from the from the Africa Rice Center Substation based at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture,
Ibadan. Nigeria and National Seed Centre, Ibadan.

Milled rice samples were ground into our with a commercial


blender (Philips HR2001, Holland). Moisture content was determined by gravimetric method using a cross ow Gallenkamp Size
two BS model OV-160 hot air oven (Gallenkamp, England, UK) at
102  C until constant weight (AOAC, 1990). Protein and fat contents
were determined using a standard Kjeldahl distillation and solvent
extraction methods, respectively (AOAC, 2011.11).

2.1. Parboiling and milling of the rice cultivars

2.4. Physical properties

The parboiling of rice paddy was carried out using the procedure
described by Biswas and Juliano (1988) with slight modication.
After cleaning and manual de-stoning, batches of rough rice were
soaked for 24 h at 60  C, drained and pressure-parboiled for
15 min at 120  C (1.0 kg/cm2) in an autoclave (LDZX-50 KB,
Shanghai Shen). The parboiled rice was sun dried to a moisture
content of 14% (w/b) prior to dehulling. The parboiled rice was
milled (single pass) with a friction-type laboratory milling machine
(Yanmar HS 1000 EH, Japan). The outlet pressure and ow rate in
the milling machine were also xed by trial and error before each
milling to obtain the desired degree of milling. The milled rice was
kept in sealed polyethylene bags and stored at 25  C.
The % milling yield was calculated.

2.4.1. Physical characteristics of rice kernels


Length (L) and width (W) of randomly selected 150 paddy and
unbroken milled rice grains were measured using a digital veneer
calliper (1200 Digital Caliper Carrera Precision, China) with accuracy
of 0.01 mm. Also, the average length/width (L/W) ratio was
calculated. Aspect ratio (AR) and total volume (Vt) of the rice kernels were calculated: AR W/L (Mohsenin, 1986), Vt p d2(hd) /
44/3p(d/2)3 (Oikonomopoulou, Krokida, & Karathanos, 2011),
respectively, where Vt (m3) is the total volume of each rice kernel,
d (m) the diameter and h (m) the height of the cylindrical part of the
rice kernel.

% Milling Yield

Mass of rough rice grain


 100
Mass of brown rice

The degree of milling (DOM) is the amount of bran that has been
removed from kernels during the milling process (Bello, Baeza, &
Tolaba, 2006).

Degree of Milling

Mass of rice bran


 100
Mass of rice

2.2. Isolation of the rice starches using the alkaline extraction


method
The starch was extracted from dehulled rice by alkali extraction
of the protein described by Lawal et al. (2011) with slight modications. Milled rice (1 kg) was steeped in NaOH solution (0.2%, 1 L)

2.4.2. Determination of one thousand grain weight


A thousand grain weight of randomly selected rice kernels was
determined using an analytical balance (OHAUS Discovery DV 241C,
Pine Brook, NJ, USA).
2.4.3. Determination of the colour parameters of rice ours and
starches
The Commission Internationale de lEclairage (CIE) L, a and b
parameters of rice ours and starches were determined using a
Chroma Meter (CR-410, Konica Minolta, Japan) having optical
sensor lens at 2 observer. The following colour traits were assessed
by the equipment: L (lightness) axis e 0 is black, while 100 is white;
a (red e green) axis e positive values are red while negative values
are green and 0 is neutral; b (yellow-blue) axis e positive values are
yellow while negative values are blue. The instrument was calibrated with a standard white tile (L* 93.75, a* 5.36, b* 8.50).
Multiple measurements of L*, a* and b* parameters was determined
using the colourimeter on the samples. From the data obtained,

480

K.O. Falade, A.S. Christopher / Food Hydrocolloids 44 (2015) 478e490

q
Chroma
(DC Da2 Db2 ),
colour
intensity
q
2
2
2
(DE DL Da Db ) and hue angle (Hue angle Tan1b/
a) were calculated (Hunt, 1991).
2.5. Functional properties of rice ours and starches
2.5.1. Determination of loose and packed bulk densities
A measuring cylinder (100 mL) was lled with the sample to the
100 mL mark and the weight was obtained with a digital weighing
balance (OHAUS Discovery DV 241C, Pine Brook, NJ, USA). Loose and
packed bulk densities of the paddy, brown, our and starch of rice
were determined using similar procedure, but packed density was
with additional tapping (50) of the edge of the work bench prior
to re-weighing. The densities were calculated as the ratio of the
bulk weight to the volume (g/mL).
2.5.2. Determination of water (WAC) and oil (OAC) absorption
capacities
Water and oil absorption capacities of rice ours and starches
were determined according to the procedure of Sosulski (1962).
One gram of sample was suspended in 10 mL distilled water (or
rened soybean oil) in a weighed centrifuge tube. The suspension
was vortexed three times and 10 min rest periods were allowed
between each mixing. This suspension was centrifuged at 2000 g
for 30 min and the supernatant was decanted, and the tubes were
air-dried. The bound water was calculated from the increase in the
weight of the samples. Water (or oil) absorption capacity was
expressed as percentage of water (or oil) adsorbed by 100 g of
sample.
2.5.3. Determination of swelling power and solubility
Swelling power and solubility of isolated rice starches were
determined using the method described by Osundahunsi, Fagbemi,
Kesselman, and Shimoni (2003). A starch-water slurry (0.35 g in
12.5 mL distilled water) was heated in a water bath at 60  C for
30 min with constant agitation. The slurries were then centrifuged
at 3500 g for 20 min. The supernatant was decanted in preweighed evaporating dish and dried at 100  C for 20 min. The
difference in weight of the evaporating dish was used to calculate
the solubility. Swelling power was calculated by weighing the
residue after centrifugation and dividing by the original weight of
the starch on a dry weight basis.
2.5.4. Determination of gel consistency
Gel consistency was determined using the method described by
Cagampang, Perez, and Juliano (1973). Rice our/starch (0.1 g) of
different samples was taken in test tubes of 18  150 mm dimensions. Ethanol (0.2 mL; 95%) containing thymol blue (0.025%)
and 2 mL of potassium hydroxide (0.2 N) was added to samples. The
samples were heated in boiling water bath for 10 min and then
cooled in ice water bath for 20 min. Gel consistency was measured
by the length of cold gel in test tubes held horizontally on graph
paper after 30 min.
2.5.5. Determination of the alkaline spreading value
Alkali spreading value of the rice kernels was determined using
the method of Bhattacharya and Sowbhagya (1972). The test was
conducted in Petri plates containing 4e6 raw milled rice grains and
potassium hydroxide (1.7%) solution. The plates were incubated
overnight at 28 1  C, and the score (based on a 7-point scale) was
given on the basis of degradation of rice grains, which included the
amount of residual chalky substance in the degraded grain, the
diameter of the collar and the consistency of the collar. The highest

score was given for complete degradation of kernels in potassium


hydroxide solution and vice versa.
2.5.6. Determination of amylose content
Amylose content (%) was determined using a spectrophotometer (Spec UNICO 1100 RS, United products and Instruments Inc.)
at 620 nm using the iodine binding method of Juliano (1971) and
Hoover and Ratnayake (2002). Amylopectin was determined from
deduction of amylose from 100%.
2.6. Pasting properties of rice ours and isolated starches
A rapid visco analyser (RVA super 4, Newport Scientic Pty. Ltd.,
Narrabeen, Australia) was used for the determination of the pasting
properties of the ours and starches of rice. The mixture of 3.5 g
sample and 3.5 mL distilled water was stirred in the sample canister
at 960 rpm for 10 s to prevent sedimentation and then at 160 rpm
for the remainder of the test. The temperature prole was started
from 50  C for 1 min followed by raising the temperature linearly to
95  C in 3 min 42 s, holding for 2 min 30 s, then cooling the system
to 50  C in 3 min 48 s, and ending the process in about 13 min. The
viscosity breakdown ratio was dened as the ratio of trough to peak
viscosity (Waramboi, Dennien, Gidley, & Sopade, 2011).
2.7. Fourier transform infrared spectrocopy (FTIR)
The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy was used to
identify the functional groups present in rice starch samples using
the compressed alkali metal halide pellet method described by
Widjanarko et al. (2011). A mixture of 0.1 g starch sample was
ground with 0.1 g anhydrous KBr in a crucible to obtain a homogenous mixture. The mixture was compressed in a hydraulic press to
form a transparent pellet. The pellet was scanned at infra-red absorption area of 450e4000 cm1 in an Infra-red Spectrum (BX
Perkin Elmer, USA).
2.8. Differential scanning calorimetry
Thermal properties of rice starches were determined using
differential scanning calorimeter (DSC-204 (Netzsch, Germany)
according to the method of Mweta (2009). About 1.0 mg starch
sample was weighed into pierced DSC aluminium pans and distilled
water added to make a starch:water ratio of 1:3. The pans were
hermetically sealed and samples left to stand for 1 h at 25 2  C for
moisture equilibration. The sealed pans were heated from 20  C to
130  C under nitrogen gas at a heating rate of 10  C min1 to
gelatinise the starch samples. An empty aluminum pan was used as
reference and the calorimeter was calibrated with indium. From the
DSC thermograms, the onset temperature (To), peak temperature
(Tp), conclusion temperature (Tc) and enthalpy of gelatinisation
(DHG). Temperature range and peak height index (PHI) were also
calculated as Tc  To and as the ratio DHG/(Tp  To), respectively.
2.9. Starch granule morphology
Light microscopy method described by Falade and Okafor (2013)
was used in assessing the morphology of rice starch samples. About
0.1 mg of starch sample was dispersed in 2 mL double-distilled
water containing one drop of Safranin red stain. One drop of the
suspension was placed on a clean slide and covered. The slide was
viewed under 40 and 100 magnications (Olympus BX 51,
Tokyo, Japan). Imaging of the starch morphology was obtained with
a Viewnder Studiolite Version 1.0 software connected to the microscope. The granule size was obtained by measuring the diameters of 20 random granules and taking the average. Size

K.O. Falade, A.S. Christopher / Food Hydrocolloids 44 (2015) 478e490

distributions of the starch granules were estimated by classifying


the size of starch granules into four groups: large (>25 mm), medium (10e25 mm), small (5e10 mm) and very small (<5 mm)
(Mweta, 2009).

481

reported a starch yield of 70.02e73.77%. Variations in starch yields


from rice could be probably due to the initial moisture content of
the dehulled rice, processing conditions and residual protein.
3.3. Moisture contents of rice ours and starches

2.10. Statistical analysis


Data were analysed using Statistix (Analytical Software, Tallahassee, USA) for Window 2.2 Program. Means were obtained by
Analysis of variance and separated where difference were observed,
using Statistix Window 2.2 program. Signicant differences in
means were established at p  0.05.
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Total milling recovery and degree of milling (DoM) of rice
cultivars
The total milling recovery is an important index in the economics of rice milling operations. Total milling recovery of Faro 21,
Faro 40, Faro 44, Faro 46, Faro 52 and Faro 55 was 49.10, 50.05,
50.15, 45.74, 50.05 and 68.25%, respectively. Highest and lowest
milling recovery were recorded in Faro 55 (68.24%) and Faro 46
(45.74%), respectively. The low milling recovery in Faro 46 was
related to its high degree of milling (29.20), signifying that much of
the bran layers was removed. The degree of milling (DoM) of Faro
21, Faro 40, Faro 44, Faro 46, Faro 52 and Faro 55 was 15.13, 21.10,
18.10, 19.30, 18.13 and 17.80%, respectively. The DoM recovery varied between 15.31 and 29.20. Agidi et al. (2009) while working with
other Nigerian rice cultivars with varying steam pressures during
the parboiling process recorded a total milling recovery of
44.70e71.30%. However, Farahmandfar, Farahmandfar, Ghasemi,
and Zarei (2010) reported a total milling recovery of
60.71e71.39%. The disparity between the total milling recovery
recorded by different investigators could be ascribed to natural
diversities in rice cultivars, parboiling operations and the efciencies of equipment used during milling operations.
3.2. Yield of rice starches
The starch yield obtained from the rice cultivars varied from
41.21% (Faro 40) to 57.57% (Faro 52). The starch yield of Faro 21, Faro
40, Faro 44, Faro 46, Faro 52 and Faro 55 was 50.22, 41.25, 48.30,
56.30, 57.60 and 49.40%, respectively. Ashogbon and Akintayo
(2012a, 2012b), while working on other Nigerian local rice varieties and using the same alkaline protein extraction method, reported a similar yield (45.70e65.00%). However, Lawal et al. (2011)

Moisture content of the rice ours varied between 10.05 (Faro


55) and 10.99% (Faro 40). However, Gunaratne, Bentota, Cai,
Collado, and Corke (2011) reported higher moisture contents
(12.3e13.7%) for rice ours from Sri Lanka. Moisture content of rice
starches ranged from 8.29 (Faro 46) to 9.56% (Faro 40). Difference in
moisture contents of the ours and starches of each rice cultivar
was possibly due to the removal of water binding proteins in the
nal starch. The lower moisture content suggests that the isolated
rice starch would have greater shelf stability than the our as a
result of lower water activity amongst other factors. Fat and protein
contents of the rice starches varied from 0.04 to 0.35 and
0.35e0.48%, respectively. Protein content of rice starch depends on
the method of isolation (Singh et al., 2000) but should not exceed
0.5%.
3.4. Physical characteristics of rice paddy and milled rice
Average length of rice paddy ranged from 8.98 mm (Faro 40) to
9.76 mm (Faro 52) while the average width ranged from 2.53 mm
(Faro 40) to 2.73 mm (Faro 55). The Faro 21, Faro 44 and Faro 52
were signicantly longer (p  0.05) than other cultivars (Table 1).
Packed bulk density, a very useful parameter for the design of silos
and storage bins for grains, was higher in Faro 55 (0.65 g/mL) and
lower in Faro 44 (0.53 g/mL). Similar result (0.56e0.64 g/mL) was
reported by Bhattacharya et al. (2006). The Faro 55 showed
signicantly higher paddy packed bulk density than other cultivars.
The high paddy packed bulk density of Faro 55 could be due to its
low L/W ratio (3.31); the more round the grain, the less the porosity
and the higher the compactness represented by the bulk packed
density. Consequently, Faro 44 with the lower packed bulk density
would require larger storage space and invariably more storage
costs per weight than Faro 55. The 1000-kernel weight of Faro 55
(28.99 g/1000 kernel) paddy was signicantly higher than others.
This could be attributed to the high bulk density of the paddy.
However, Faro 40 (25.37 g) had the lowest 1000 kernel weight.
Average length, width and length/width ratio of the milled rice
cultivars were in the range 6.33e6.80 mm, 2.21e2.34 mm and
2.81e3.04, respectively (Table 1). Length of the milled grain varied
between 6.33 mm (Faro 40) and 6.80 mm (Faro 52). Ebuehi and
Oyewole (2008) reported relatively similar values for Ofada rice
with average length and width of 6.95 mm and 2.04 mm

Table 1
Physical and functional characteristics of paddy and milled rice of the Nigerian rice cultivars.
Cultivar

Commodity

L (mm)

Faro
Faro
Faro
Faro
Faro
Faro

21
40
44
46
52
55

Paddy
Paddy
Paddy
Paddy
Paddy
Paddy

9.66a
8.98b
9.67a
9.09b
9.76a
9.04b

0.57
0.44
0.46
0.47
0.50
0.51

2.56bc
2.53c
2.59bc
2.73a
2.61b
2.74bc

0.13
0. 20
0.59
0.14
0.13
0.13

3.78a
3.57b
3.80a
3.34c
3.75a
3.31c

Faro
Faro
Faro
Faro
Faro
Faro

21
40
44
46
52
55

Milled
Milled
Milled
Milled
Milled
Milled

6.74a
6.33c
6.62b
6.58b
6.80a
6.59b

0.29
0.35
0.43
0.39
0.49
0.37

2.21b
2.23b
2.21b
2.34a
2.31ab
2.34ab

0.14
0.83
0.38
0.14
0.41
0.13

3.06a
2.93c
3.04ab
2.82d
2.99b
2.82d

rice
rice
rice
rice
rice
rice

W (mm)

L/W ratio

Aspect ratio

Total volume
(mm3)

Loose bulk
density (kgm3)

Packed bulk
density (kgm3)

0.27
0.29
0.31
0.22
0.26
0.19

0.27c 0.01
0.28b 0.02
0.27c 0.05
0.30a 0.01
0.27c 0.01
0.30a 0.01

63.42ab
58.44b
71.60a
69.48ab
66.35ab
69.60ab

0.01
0.02
0.29
0.01
0.01
0.01

0.51cd
0.52bc
0.47d
0.56ab
0.53bc
0.59a

0.01
0.03
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.01

0.56c
0.56c
0.53d
0.62b
0.57c
0.65a

0.01
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.01

27.54
25.37
25.99
27.58
27.66
28.99

0.40
0.23
0.31
0.12
0.20
0.31

Long
Medium
Long
Medium
Medium
Medium

0.23
0.32
0.30
0.22
0.29
0.19

ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND

34.34a
33.35a
33.87a
38.41a
38.15a
38.50a

0.06
0.65
0.09
0.01
0.11
0.01

0.84a
0.82a
0.82a
0.83a
0.81a
0.81a

0.02
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.02
0.02

0.88a
0.89a
0.89a
0.88a
0.85a
0.88a

0.01
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.03
0.02

21.37b
20.97b
21.27b
21.83b
21.17b
23.13a

1.19
0.20
0.46
0.45
0.30
0.25

Long
Medium
Long
Medium
Medium
Medium

Means in a column with the same letter are not signicantly different (p > 0.05). Means of 150 replicates for physical dimensions.

1000-kernel
Weight (g)

Grain
type

482

K.O. Falade, A.S. Christopher / Food Hydrocolloids 44 (2015) 478e490

Table 2
Colour parameters of ours and starches of Nigerian rice cultivars.
L

DE

DC

Cultivar

Commodity

Faro
Faro
Faro
Faro
Faro
Faro

21
40
44
46
52
55

Flour
Flour
Flour
Flour
Flour
Flour

87.43b
81.09e
90.03a
85.21d
86.54c
86.85c

0.02
0.29
0.63
0.11
0.21
0.09

0.05d
2.39a
0.01d
0.17c
0.27c
0.70b

0.01
0.02
0.01
0.05
0.02
0.13

8.96c
10.20bc
8.77d
10.24bc
10.37b
11.44a

0.05
0.02
0.04
0.35
0.13
0.47

4.57d
10.78a
3.47e
6.53b
5.20c
4.73d

0.00
0.27
0.26
0.16
0.23
0.07

2.03c
2.70b
3.10a
1.62d
1.49d
0.71e

0.05
0.00
0.04
0.35
0.13
0.19

89.69a
76.82e
89.89a
89.05b
88.50c
86.50d

0.08
0.08
0.03
0.25
0.13
0.52

Faro
Faro
Faro
Faro
Faro
Faro

21
40
44
46
52
55

Starch
Starch
Starch
Starch
Starch
Starch

97.11bc
96.37c
97.61b
99.24a
99.81a
98.91a

1.06
0.57
0.06
0.35
0.37
0.12

0.14b
0.24a
0.13b
0.15b
0.13b
0.16b

0.07
0.66
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.00

1.64e
2.64b
1.87d
2.30c
2.55b
2.89a

0.02
0.25
0.05
0.10
0.03
0.11

1.69c
0.77d
1.47c
2.60b
3.09a
2.21b

0.36
0.24
0.02
0.30
0.36
0.07

1.45a
0.44e
1.24b
0.93c
0.77d
0.71d

0.01
0.16
0.04
0.06
0.01
0.19

85.26a
84.82a
86.03a
86.17a
87.01a
86.76a

2.58
1.18
0.10
0.29
0.28
0.23

Hue angle

Means in a column with the same letter are not signicantly different (p > 0.05). Means of 3 replicates.

Table 3
Functional properties of rice our and starches the Nigerian rice cultivars.
Cultivar

Moisture
content (%)

Loose bulk
Packed bulk
Water absorption Oil absorption
density (g/mL) density (g/mL) capacity (%)
capacity (%)

Gel consistency Alkaline


(mm)
spread value

Swelling
power (%)

Solubility
(%)

Faro
Faro
Faro
Faro
Faro
Faro

21
40
44
46
52
55

Flour
Flour
Flour
Flour
Flour
Flour

10.32bc
10.99a
10.36bc
10.70ab
10.34bc
10.05c

0.22 0.54ab
0.15 0.51bc
0.20 0.46c
0.04 0.60a
0.01 0.57ab
0.01 0.46c

0.04
0.02
0.03
0.01
0.03
0.02

0.70b
0.69b
0.65b
0.79a
0.78a
0.71b

0.05
0.01
0.04
0.02
0.01
0.04

126.56b
126.95b
143.35a
129.90b
122.69b
126.74b

2.37
1.58
2.37
1.58
6.31
1.57

60.74b
72.98a
65.24b
59.97b
66.98b
62.48b

1.56
1.56
0.77
1.54
6.20
1.55

39.00b
27. 00c
16.00d
64.00a
39.00b
16.00d

1.41
1.41
0.00
0.00
1.41
0.00

3.57ab 1.81
4.43a 0.78
3.43ab 1.61
1.86c 0.89
2.29bc 1.38
3.86a 1.06

ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND

ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND

Faro
Faro
Faro
Faro
Faro
Faro

21
40
44
46
52
55

Starch
Starch
Starch
Starch
Starch
Starch

9.45a
9.56a
8.79ab
8.29b
8.93ab
8.78ab

0.08
0.13
0.21
0.70
0.04
0.01

0.36a
0.34a
0.31a
0.30a
0.33a
0.30a

0.00
0.04
0.02
0.01
0.00
0.01

0.43a
0.40a
0.41a
0.43a
0.43a
0.42a

0.01
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.00

97.19bc
106.15a
106.34a
96.50bc
103.77ab
93.73c

1.56
1.56
6.20
5.40
0.77
0.77

150.19a
151.48a
133.76ab
119.39bc
112.55c
117.85bc

0.00
6.25
1.54
13.11
8.54
8.52

16.00d
96.00a
17.00d
76.50b
56.00c
55.00c

0.00
11.31
1.41
0.70
11.31
1.41

ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND

3.70b 0.76
5.49a 0.04
4.80a 0.06
3.17bc 0.10
2.85bc 0.27
2.80c 0.04

7.89a 2.23
4.73ab 2.23
4.70ab 2.21
3.11b 0.00
3.14b 0.00
4.70ab 2.21

Means in a column with the same letter are not signicantly different (p > 0.05).

Table 4
Pasting properties of ours and starches of Nigeria rice cultivars.
Cultivar

Commodity

Peak viscosity
(cP)

Trough viscosity
(cP)

Breakdown viscosity
(cP)

Final viscosity
(cP)

Setback viscosity
(cP)

Peak time
(min)

Pasting Temp.

( C)

Faro
Faro
Faro
Faro
Faro
Faro

21
40
44
46
52
55

Flour
Flour
Flour
Flour
Flour
Flour

3201.53b
2399.50d
3982.50a
2962.50c
2376d
2880.50c

32.53
62.93
30.41
50.20
59.40
2.12

2565b
1618.50e
3062.50a
1992c
1712.50d
2003.50c

26.87
10.61
50.20
32.53
19.09
13.44

636c
781b
920a
970.50a
663.50c
877.00ab

5.66
52.32
80.61
17.68
40.31
11.31

5210c
4542d
6456a
5972b
4086e
5303c.50

93.34
188.09
31.82
29.70
45.25
72.83

2645d
2923.50c
3394b
3980a
2373.50e
3200b

66.47
177.48
82.02
2.83
21.17
59.39

6.53a
6.10b
6.37ab
6.20b
6.23ab
6.23ab

0.00
0.14
0.14
0.00
0.24
0.05

86.40a
84.00c
82.35e
83.08d
84.7 3b
82.73de

0.00
0.00
0.14
0.25
0.04
0.60

Faro
Faro
Faro
Faro
Faro
Faro

21
40
44
46
52
55

Starch
Starch
Starch
Starch
Starch
Starch

5176c
5331.5bc
5918a
6080.50a
4893d
5490.50b

118.79
24.75
57.98
48.79
114.55
21.92

2176.5e
3658.5c
4036.50a
3788.5b
2304.50d
2335d

26.16
38.89
8.48
44.54
74.95
4.24

2999.5b
1673f
1882e
2292d
2589c
3155.5a

92.63
14.14
49.49
93.33
39.60
26.16

5783d
6570b
7581a
6068c
5458.5e
5697de

101.82
35.35
32.52
18.38
212.84
95.46

3606.5a
2911.5d
3545ab
2279.5e
3154.50c
3362.5b

75.66
3.54
41.01
26.16
137.89
91.22

4.67c
5.33a
5.17b
5.10b
4.47d
4.53d

0.00
0.00
0.05
0.05
0.09
0.00

75.98b
79.10a
73.88c
80.00a
79.53a
79.53a

0.04
0.00
0.53
0.07
0.60
0.67

Means in a column with the same letter are not signicantly different (p > 0.05). Means of 3 replicates.

respectively. All the grains were longer than the Ofada rice cultivar
length (5.48e6.31 mm) and width (2.02e2.37 mm) reported by
Adekoyemi et al. (2012). Using the characterization principle of
Codex Alimentarius Commission (1990) for milled rice, Faro 21 and
Faro 44 fell within the long grain category, having length to width
ratio  3 while the other cultivars fell within the medium grain
category. Consequently, with enhanced processing facilities, Faro 21
and Faro 44 stand a good chance of competing in the world rice
market which favours long grain cultivars.
The 1000-kernel weight of milled rice kernels ranged between
20.97 (Faro 40) and 23.13 g/1000kernels (Faro 55). Our results
agreed with the value of 21.64 g/1000 kernel reported by

Varnamkhasti et al. (2008) on Iranian rice varieties. The bulk density of the rice cultivars increased after milling, owing to the
removal of less dense fractions (Table 1). This property increased
when the volume was reduced by dehulling: volume reduction was
higher than the mass reduction, assuming that the material
removed in each unity operation was of lower specic gravity.
Similar views were expressed by Bhattacharya and Sowbhagya
(2006) and Correa, Silva, Jaren, Junior, and Arana (2007). Bulk
density did not vary signicantly among the varieties after milling.
The total volume occupied by each rice kernel is an important
design variable in the postharvest storage and transportation. Total
volume occupied by each rice kernel varied from 33.35 mm3 (Faro

K.O. Falade, A.S. Christopher / Food Hydrocolloids 44 (2015) 478e490

Fig. 1. Pasting viscosities of Nigerian rice ours.

Fig. 2. Pasting viscosities of Nigerian rice starches.

483

484

K.O. Falade, A.S. Christopher / Food Hydrocolloids 44 (2015) 478e490

Table 5
Granule morphology and DSC thermal properties of Nigerian rice starches.
Cultivar

Faro 21

Length

Width

Granule shape

Mean
(mm)

Min
(mm)

Max
(mm)

Mean
(mm)

Min
(mm)

Max
(mm)

6.81bc 3.15

1.30

12.50

5.69ab 2.38

1.00

10.00

ab

bc

Faro 40
Faro 44

7.75 2.85
6.61bc 2.70

2.50
2.50

12.50
12.50

5.31 2.39
5.13bc 1.98

3.00
1.00

11.00
9.00

Faro 46
Faro 52

9.25a 3.98
5.00c 1.72

1.30
1.30

15.00
8.80

6.94a 3.28
3.94c 1.53

1.00
1.00

13.00
6.00

Faro 55

5.37c 3.09

1.30

12.50

4.38

bc

1.00

10.00

2.61

Spherical and
polyhedral
Polyhedral
Spherical and
polyhedral
Polyhedral
Spherical and
polyhedral
Polyhedral

DHG

DTG

(J/g)

(Tc- To)

PHI
(DHG/(Tp  To)

7.58

65.8

0.41

39.40
45.00

8.66
19.29

56.0
56.6

0.38
0.29

122.50
116.40

43.00
45.50

12.94
14.47

71.70
55.20

1.64
0.68

127.60

50.10

17.35

60.90

0.26

To
( C)

Tp
( C)

Tc
( C)

Tg
( C)

60.90

88.10

126.70

35.20

68.80
66.20

87.90
78.70

124.80
122.80

50.80
61.20

88.50
86.90

66.70

93.70

Means of 20 replicates for the starch granule morphology. Means in a column with the same letter are not signicantly different (p > 0.05).

Fig. 3. Starch granule morphology of Nigerian rice cultivars stained with Safranin.

40) to 38.50 mm3 (Faro 55). Similar low total volume was observed
from the dimensions of its paddy which had a total volume
58.44 mm3 compared with Faro 55 which had 69.60 mm3.
3.5. CIE L, a and b, and other colour parameters of rice ours and
starches
The CIE L parameter of the rice ours, which indicates whiteness/lightness, ranged from 81.09 (Faro 40) to 90.03 (Faro 44). The
Faro 44 (90.03) our showed signicantly higher lightness than
other cultivars. The Faro 40 our was darker probably due to the
presence of colour pigments on the kernels (Table 2). Calculated
chroma (DC) values of rice our varied from 0.71 (Faro 55) to 3.10
(Faro 44), with no signicant difference among the ours. Also,
colour intensity (DE) varied from 3.47 (Faro 44) e 10.78 (Faro 40).
Hue angle was in the range 76.82 (Faro 40) e 89.89 (Faro 44).
Generally, the objective colour evaluation showed that Faro 44
showed signicantly higher (p  0.05) lightness, chroma, colour
intensity and hue angle than other rice ours.

The CIE L value of the isolated rice starches (96.37e99.81) was


higher than the ours (81.09e90.03). Boudries et al. (2009) stated
that L values higher than 90 indicated satisfactory whiteness for the
starch purity. The Faro 40 and Faro 52 starches showed lower and
higher L values respectively. Similar trend of low L value was
observed in Faro 40 our, an occurrence possibly due to the
leaching of colour pigments into the starch during the extraction
process. Generally, the isolated starches could be utilized in product
formulations without adverse colour impartation. Calculated
chroma (DC) of the starches varied from 0.44 (Faro 40) to 1.43 (Faro
21). Also, calculated colour intensity (DE) varied from 0.77 (Faro 40)
to 3.09 (Faro 52), while the hue angle varied 84.82 (Faro 40) to 87.01
(Faro 52). There was no signicant difference (p  0.05) between
the hue angles of the isolated starches. Differences in L, a, b colour
parameters of the rice ours and their corresponding starches
could be due to the discolouration of parboiled rice as a result of
Maillard browning and the diffusion of hull and bran pigments into
the endosperm during soaking (Bhattacharya, 2004; Lamberts
et al., 2006).

K.O. Falade, A.S. Christopher / Food Hydrocolloids 44 (2015) 478e490

485

Fig. 4. DSC glass transition thermograms of Nigerian rice starches.

3.6. Functional properties of rice our and starches


3.6.1. Water (WAC) and Oil (OAC) absorption capacity of rice ours
and starches
The WACs of the rice ours determined at 25  C ranged from
122.64 to 143.35% (db) (Table 3). Williams et al. (2009) reported an
average of 1.0 g H2O/g our for the WAC of Australian rice ours.
However, higher values (2.5 g H2O/g our) were recorded at higher
temperatures (70  C) as a result of the swelling of starch granules
by same authors. Mweta (2009) reported that the WAC of starches
is temperature dependent. The major chemical compositions that
enhance the water absorption capacity of ours are proteins and
carbohydrates, since these constituents contain hydrophilic parts,
such as polar or charged side chains (Lawal & Adebowale, 2004).
The WAC of rice starches varied from 93.73% (Faro 55) to
106.64% (Faro 44). Kim et al. (2010) reported higher water binding

capacity of 112.7% and 115.6% for high amylose Thailand and Goamy
rice starches, respectively. Difference in WAC between the cultivars
could be due to differences in starch structure giving rise to varying
internal associative forces maintaining granule structure and, degree of engagement to form hydrogen and covalent bonds between
starch chains and hence the degree of availability of water binding
sites. Higher densities have been reported for larger granules of
potato starch over those of yam and maize starches (Zuluaga,
Baena, Mora, & PonceDleon, 2007).
The OAC of the rice ours, a reection of their emulsifying capabilities in product formulations, ranged from 59.97% (Faro 46) to
72.98% (Faro 40). However, OAC of Faro 40 was not signicantly
higher than other cultivars (Table 3). The OAC is important since oil
acts as avour retainer and increases the mouth feel of foods
(Aremu et al., 2007). Variations in the presence of non-polar side
chains, which might bind the hydrocarbon side chains of oil among

Table 6
FTIR functional group identication in isolated starches.
Sample

Group frequency (cm1)

Functional group assignment

Faro 21

3368.13e2928.57
1152.30e1023.00
853.27e578.93
3763.73e2923.07
1152.30e1020.61
3406.59e2923.07
1152.30e1023.36
3417.58e2906.59
1155.04e1026.10

Presence of -CeH stretch, eOH group


Presence ofeC]O group, mostly aldehyde group, L-glucose, cyclodextrins
Presence of -CeOH bending vibrations
Presence of -CeH stretch, eOH group
Presence ofeC]O group, mostly aldehyde group, L-glucose, cyclodextrins
Presence of -CeH stretch, eOH group
Presence ofeC]O group, Octyl b- D glucopyranoside, Dodecyl- b- D glucopyranoside, L-glucose, cyclodextrins
Presence of -CeH stretch, eOH group
Presence ofeC]O group, Heptyl b- D glucopyranoside, Octyl- b- D glucopyranoside, L-glucose, D-glucose
anhydrous, cyclodextrins
Presence of -CeH stretch, eOH group
Presence of eC]O group, Heptyl b- D glucopyranoside, Octyl- b- D -glucopyranoside, L-glucose, cyclodextrins
Presence of -CeH stretch, eOH group
Presence of eC]O group, Heptyl b- D glucopyranoside, Octyl- b- D glucopyranoside, L-glucose, amygdalin, cyclodextrins

Faro 40
Faro 44
Faro 46

Faro 52
Faro 55

3752.74e2934.06
1157.78e1028.84
3703.29e2939.56
1149.55e1023.36

1.00
0.86*
0.42
0.98**
0.00
0.87*

1.00
0.37
1.00
0.91*
0.28 1.00
0.19 0.79 0.21
1.00
0.99** 0.33 0.91* 0.22 1.00

the ours, explain differences in the oil binding (Adebowale &


Lawal, 2004), an occurrence suspected to be due to the presence
of oil soluble purple phyto-chemicals present in the endosperm.
The major chemical component affecting oil absorption capacity is
protein, which is composed of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic
parts. Non-polar amino acid side chains can form hydrophobic interactions with hydrocarbon chains of lipid (Jitngarmkusol,
Hongsuwankul, & Tananuwong, 2008). The low OAC of the rice
ours could be important in the development of low oil uptake
frying batters and other fried products in which low oil uptake is a
desirable attribute. Rice based batters showed outstanding frying
properties and substantially reduced oil uptake when compared
with the wheat our based batter (Shih, Daigle, & Clawson, 2001)

1.00
0.02
0.15
0.58
0.04
0.29
0.14
0.08
0.30
0.06
0.03
0.04

1.00
0.08
0.02
0.55
0.38
0.78
0.65
0.12
0.87*
0.53
0.67

1.00
0.60
0.29
0.80
0.24
0.20
0.47
0.09
0.61
0.21

1.00
0.08 1.00
0.33 0.41
1.00
0.54 0.57 0.25
0.27 0.81* 0.26
0.58 0.07 0.01
0.36 0.67
0.17
0.65 0.47 0.20
0.28 0.81
0.24

3.6.2. Loose and packed bulk density of rice ours and starches
Packed bulk density represents the highest attainable density
with compression. Loose and packed bulk densities of rice ours
varied from 0.46 to 0.60 g/mL and 0.65e0.79 g/mL, respectively.
The Faro 46 and Faro 52 ours showed signicantly higher loose
and packed bulk densities (p  0.05) than other cultivars (Table 3).
Also, loose and packed bulk densities of the cultivars showed
similar trends. Loose and packed bulk densities of the isolated
starches varied from 0.30 to 0.36 and 0.40e0.43 g/mL, respectively.
Loose and packed bulk densities of the isolated starches did not
vary signicantly among the rice cultivars.

*n Signicant correlations at 10%; **n Signicant correlations at 5%.

1.00
0.48
0.53
0.34
0.26
0.56
0.06
0.72
0.70
0.69
0.71
0.15
0.67
1.00
0.22
0.71
0.21
0.07
0.53
0.40
0.28
0.05
0.12
0.06
0.00
0.04
0.14
1.00
0.79
0.34
0.55
0.14
0.35
0.84*
0.53
0.03
0.55
0.46
0.41
0.45
0.29
0.47
1.00
0.75
0.94*
0.36
0.90**
0.12
0.04
0.60
0.22
0.02
0.09
0.03
0.18
0.03
0.04
0.06
1.00
0.19
0.76
0.21
0.78
0.11
0.39
0.61
0.80
0.41
0.30
0.81*
0.61
0.76
0.69
0.47
0.60

DC
DE
b
a
Gel consistency L
Trough Breakdown Final viscosity Setback Peak time Pasting temp. Moisture content Packed bulk density WAC OAC
Peak

Table 7
Pearson Correlation matrix between the functional and pasting properties of Nigerian rice our.

1.00
0.97**
0.41
0.88*
0.42
0.64
0.32
0.33
0.58
0.89*
0.43
0.27
0.78
0.57
0.66
0.65
0.44
0.57

Hue angle

K.O. Falade, A.S. Christopher / Food Hydrocolloids 44 (2015) 478e490

Peak
Trough
Breakdown
Final viscosity
Setback
Peak time
Pasting Temp.
Moisture content
Packed bulk density
WAC
OAC
Gel consistency
L
a
b
DE
DC
Hue angle

486

3.6.3. Swelling power, solubility and amylose content of rice


starches
Swelling power of the starches ranged 2.80 (Faro 55) and 5.49%
(Faro 40). The low swelling power of Faro 55 could be due to its
low WAC (Table 3). When starch dispersions are heated, granules'
swelling and starch polymers solubilization occur, which inuence
the properties of both continuous and dispersed phases. Our results were similar to the swelling power (2.5e7.0%) reported for
the Mexican rice cultivars (Chavez-Murillo et al., 2012). Li and Yeh
(2001) observed that granules' swelling increased with increased
temperature. Same authors posited that rice starch granules reach
peak swelling values at 75  C, above which granule disruption
occurs. Mandala and Bayas (2004) have positively related swelling
power and granule size to the amount of soluble solids leached
outside the granules during heating. Rheological behaviour of
starch systems is also inuenced by granules swelling and
consequently by their volume fraction and their rigidity. When
starch granules are swollen enough and can be deformed under
applying shear force, pseudoplastic behaviour will be observed. On
the contrary, when granules are rigid and they are not so readily
deformed, dilatancy will be observed (Bagley & Christianson,
1982).
Solubility of the rice starch, which indicated the ability of the
starch solids to disperse in aqueous solution, varied from 3.11 (Faro
46) to 7.89% (Faro 21). The Faro 21 starch showed signicantly
higher solubility than the other ve cultivars (Table 3). Similar
result was reported by Yu et al. (2012) who reported a range of
6.28e7.06% for non-waxy rice cultivars.
Amylose content of Faro 21, 40, 44, 46, 52 and 55 were 21.86,
20.68, 21.23, 22.25, 25.28 and 25.95% respectively. Rice were
grouped based on their amylose content into waxy (0e2%), very
low (3e9%), intermediate (20e25%) and high (>25%) (Cruz &
Khush, 2000). Rice with high amylose content showed high volume expansion during cooking and cook dry, less tender and
become harder upon cooling (Juliano, 1985) while low amylose
varieties cook moist and sticky. Both Faro 52 and 55 cultivars
showed high amylose content (>25%) while Faro 21, 40, 44 and 46
showed intermediate (20e25) amylose content. Difference in
amylose content of the rice cultivars could be due to different

K.O. Falade, A.S. Christopher / Food Hydrocolloids 44 (2015) 478e490

factors such as genotype, environmental conditions, and cultural


practice (Kim and Wiesenborn, 1995), and is affected by the climatic conditions and soil type during growth (Asaoka, Okuno, &
Fuwa, 1985; Morrison, Milligan, & Azudin, 1984). Amylose content
plays a key role in the digestion of starches, as starches with low
amylose content digests easily than that of high amylose content
(Riley et al., 2004).
3.7. Pasting properties of rice ours and starches
Peak viscosity of the six Nigerian rice ours varied from 2376.0
to 3988.5 cP (Table 4). Similar range of peak viscosity
(2532e3104 cP) was reported for ours of long grain US rice (Kadan
et al., 2008). However, the nal viscosity of the Nigerian rice ours
was higher (6456e4086 cP) than those reported by same authors
for ours of long grain US rice (3616.8 cP e 3091.32 cP). The higher
nal viscosity of the rice cultivars in our study indicated that they
have a higher tendency to retrograde after cooling due to the recrystallization of leached amylose molecules. Similar assertion
was reiterated by (Wu, Chang, Pan, & Huang, 2011). Among the
cultivars, pasting temperature of the rice ours under study did not
vary signicantly from 82.4 (Faro 44) to 86.4  C (Faro 21). The
higher pasting temperature of Faro 21 suggested higher energy
costs would be required during cooking. Also, the peak time for
Faro 21 our (6.53 min) was signicantly higher than other cultivars. Peak viscosity of the rice starches varied from 4893 cP (Faro
54) to 6080 cP (Faro 46). The Faro 44 and Faro 46 starches showed
signicantly higher while the Faro 52 (4893 cP) showed signicantly lower peak viscosity than other cultivars. At constant shear
rate, the starches of Faro 46 and Faro 44 would demonstrate a
greater resistance to shear stress and would be able to carry a
higher viscous load that could be encountered during mixing
operations.
Final viscosity (5458.5e7581.0 cP) of isolated starches from all
the rice cultivars increased upon cooling. In this study, Faro 44
(7581.0 cP) starch displayed signicantly higher nal viscosity
than others. Breakdown viscosity of the starches ranged from
1673.0 (Faro 40) e 3155.5 cP (Faro 55). Breakdown viscosity is a
measure of the vulnerability or susceptibility of the cooked starch
to disintegration. The higher the breakdown viscosity, the lower
the ability of the starch sample to withstand heating and shear
stress during cooking (Adebowale, Olu-Owolabi, Olawunmi, &
Lawal, 2005; Ashogbon and Akintayo, 2011). Thus, Faro 40 starch
might be able to withstand more heating and shear stress than
other cultivars which possess higher breakdown values. The
setback viscosity is a measure of the re-crystallization of gelatinized starch during cooling (Ashogbon and Akintayo, 2011).
Setback viscosity of the rice starches varied from 2279.5 (Faro 46)
to 3605.5 cP (Faro 21), with Faro 21 showing signicantly higher
value (Table 4). This indicated that Faro 21 starch might have a
greater tendency to retrogradation than other cultivar. Pasting
temperature of the isolated rice starches varied from 73.9 to
80.0  C. This range was consistent with the ndings of Huaisan,
Uriyapohgson, Rayas-Duaetz, Ali, and Srijesdarute (2009) who
previously reported a pasting temperature range of 79.1e79.5 C
for Asian rice gels.
Flours and starches of the rice cultivars showed patterns characteristics of rise in viscosity until peak, with subsequent decrease
in viscosity at holding and thereafter a rise up to nal viscosity
(Figs. 1 and 2). Peak paste viscosity of the ours and starches
showed sharp peak curves. Pasting behaviours in starch-based
systems have been classied as types A, B, C and D (Chen, Schols,

487

& Voragen, 2003). After peak paste viscosity, the ours showed
differences in their patterns of pasting properties (Fig. 1), which can
be grouped to predict the cooking and other food utilization
properties of the cultivars. Based on the breakdown ratio, Faro 21
our showed slightly shear thinning (Type C) while ours of Faro
40, 44, 46, 52, and 55 cultivars showed moderately shear thinning
(Type B) behaviours (Fig. 1). However, starches of Faro 21, 52 and 55
showed highly shear thinning (Type A) behaviours while the Faro
44, 42 and 46 showed moderately shear thinning (Type B) behaviours (Fig. 2). Both rice ours and starches did not show Type D
behaviours. Some researchers proposed that types C and D pasting
classes were changeable by increasing the starch concentrations.
Pasting behaviours that result from interactions between starch
and non-starch components (e.g. as in sorghum) or high-amylose
starches may not change by increasing starch concentrations
(Waramboi et al., 2011). Also, surface lipids and proteins, rehydration time, method of sample preparation (e.g. milling and particle
size), presence of impurities, pH, type of cultivar, and presence of
endogenous enzymes can affect starch swelling, pasting and gelatinization properties (Chen et al., 2003; Mahasukhonthachat,
Sopade, & Gidley, 2010a, 2010b).
3.8. Thermal properties of the rice starches
Glass transition, identied by DSC, corresponds to a rearrangement of the solid amorphous matrix involving the
breaking of bounds and creation of new ones. The glass transition temperature for the rice starches ranged between 79.4 and
105.0  C (Table 5). The change in the heat capacity (Cp) through
Tg, occurred because the glassy and amorphous states had
different physical properties, including Cp. The glass transition
temperature Tg (35.2e50.2  C) and gelatinization onset, To

(50.8e68.8 C) varied with cultivar. These were similar to the
values (61.1e71.47  C) previously reported by Singh, Kaur,
Sandhu, Kaur, and Nishinari (2006). Gelatinization peak (Tp)
and gelatinization conclusion (Tc) of the starches varied from
78.7 to 93.7  C and 116.4e127.6  C, respectively. These were
consistent with the ndings of Lawal et al. (2011) who reported
Tp (81.5e88.5  C) and Tc (147.1e156.2  C) for starches isolated
from West African rice cultivars. The high gelatinization peak
recorded by the DSC was also consistent with the high pasting
temperatures obtained from the RVA data. Gelatinization
enthalpy (DHG) varied between 7.58 and 19.29 J/g. The Faro 21
showed a lower value and displayed a single endotherm
(Fig. 4a), however, other rice starches displayed a biphasic endotherms (Fig. 4bef). Vandeputte, Derycke, Geeroms, and
Delcour (2003a, 2003b) and Lawal et al. (2011) reported gelatinization temperatures of 7.7e19.2 and 18.0e29.1 J/g,
respectively.
3.9. Starch granule morphology
Starch granules of the rice cultivars were found to be small, with
an average length and width range of 5.37e9.25 mm and
3.94e6.94 mm respectively (Table 5). These were consistent with
the granule size classication of Lindeboom, Chang, and Tyler
(2004). The shapes of the granules were spherical and polyhedral
with some granules forming aggregates (Fig. 3aef). These size and
shape of the granules were intrinsic properties and had an inuence on the functional and pasting proles of the rice starches as
previously discussed.

488

K.O. Falade, A.S. Christopher / Food Hydrocolloids 44 (2015) 478e490

Table 8
Pearson Correlation matrix between the functional, pasting and thermal properties of Nigerian rice starches.
Peak
Peak
Trough
Breakdown
Final viscosity
Setback
Peak time
Pasting Temperature
Moisture content
Packed bulk density
WAC
OAC
Gel consistency
Swelling power
Solubility
Granule length
Granule width
L
a
b
DE
DC
Hue angle
To ( C)
Tp ( C)
Tc ( C)
Tg ( C)
DHG (J/g)
DTG (Tc  To)
PHI(DHG/(Tp  To)
*

1.00
0.76
0.35
0.59
0.41
0.60
0.18
0.66
0.15
0.14
0.10
0.02
0.15
0.26
0.65
0.67
0.01
0.18
0.17
0.12
0.17
0.04
0.34
0.28
0.24
0.77
0.40
0.49
0.45

Trough Breakdown Final


visc

Setback Peak
time

Pasting Moisture Packed


WAC
temp
content bulk density

1.00
0.87*
0.82*
0.45
0.93**
0.22
0.28
0.57
0.49
0.18
0.27
0.64
0.37
0.68
0.52
0.29
0.36
0.12
0.42
0.11
0.33
0.06
0.58
0.06
0.41
0.20
0.03
0.30

1.00
0.39
0.69
0.48
0.10
0.11
0.29
0.78
0.10
0.66
0.71
0.59
0.31
0.21
0.36
0.26
0.47
0.01
0.64
0.24
0.26
0.03
0.18
0.47
0.87*

1.00
0.22
0.22
0.36
0.47
0.82*
0.46
0.55
0.09
0.02
0.49
0.17
0.80
0.45
0.75
0.30
0.30
0.76
0.17
0.51
0.19
0.19
0.47

1.00
0.75
0.34
0.89*
0.18
0.09
0.71
0.81*
0.34
0.37
0.81*
0.34
0.49
0.26
0.43
0.66
0.05
0.52
0.28
0.46
0.17
0.63
0.27
0.01
0.01
0.33
0.10

1.00
0.14
0.78
0.68
0.01
0.69
0.61
0.38
0.20
0.77
0.01
0.30
0.21
0.52
0.26
0.36
0.63
0.18
0.38
0.33
0.80
0.10
0.43
0.34
0.27
0.22

1.00
0.22
0.05
0.69
0.51
0.50
0.34
0.82*
0.12
0.75
0.58
0.59
0.61
0.16
0.68
0.14
0.65
0.06
0.47
0.13
0.19
0.13
0.02
0.17

1.00
0.42
0.35
0.80
0.03
0.54
0.66
0.20
0.27
0.76
0.63
0.14
0.65
0.05
0.68
0.62
0.02
0.28
0.66
0.65
0.44
0.65

1.00
0.61
0.51
0.30
0.86*
0.00
0.11
0.12
0.68
0.78
0.22
0.83
0.44
0.52
0.75
0.29
0.27
0.30
0.06
0.58
0.50

1.00
0.31
0.07
0.72
0.19
0.04
0.24
0.38
0.55
0.12
0.41
0.17
0.28
0.43
0.75
0.49
0.20
0.04
0.73
0.28

OAC

1.00
0.10
0.78
0.74
0.32
0.28
0.97
0.61
0.47
0.88
0.21
0.96**
0.39
0.21
0.51
0.19
0.66
0.07
0.40

Gel
Swelling Solubility Granule
consistency power
length

1.00
0.12
0.57
0.39
0.15
0.06
0.64
0.74
0.03
0.89*
0.12
0.07
0.45
0.12
0.54
0.27
0.00
0.39

1.00
0.23
0.35
0.17
0.87
0.77
0.23
0.91
0.10
0.79
0.52
0.54
0.20
0.13
0.24
0.40
0.36

1.00
0.08
0.08
0.66
0.01
0.60
0.51
0.59
0.58
0.28
0.03
0.66
0.01
0.49
0.13
0.52

1.00
0.95**
0.29
0.28
0.24
0.29
0.03
0.55
0.53
0.09
0.19
0.35
0.40
0.64
0.67

n Signicant correlations at 10% ; **n Signicant correlations at 5%.

3.10. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy


The major functional groups in the samples displayed absorbance peaks within a frequency band 350- 4000 cm1. The functional groups identied from each sample are highlighted in
Table 6. Most of the a-1 / 4 gylcosidic linkages for the isolated
starches were found within the spectral absorption bands
1149.55e1023.00 cm1. Nikonenko, Buslov, Sushko, and Zhbankov
(2002) stated that the characteristic of polysaccharides with
1 / 4 glycosidic linkage is the appearance of absorption bands in
the 1175-1140 cm1 spectral range as compared to the spectra of
their constituent monomers, which can be a spectroscopic manifestation of glycosidic linkage formation; a fact used in identifying
different structural transformations of polysaccharides with
participation of glycosidic linkage. All of the starch samples showed
the presence of cyclodextrins, an indication of possible partial
breakdown of the long amylose/amylopectin chains during pH
balancing using acids or drying.
Pearson correlation of the measured parameters for rice ours
and starches are shown in Tables 7 and 8, respectively. For the ours
(Table 7), peak viscosity showed signicant (p < 0.05) correlation
with trough viscosity (0.97) while trough viscosity showed significant (p < 0.05) correlation with CIE L (0.81). Breakdown viscosity
correlated signicantly (p < 0.05) with pasting temperature (0.90).
Also, colour intensity showed signicant (p < 0.05) correlation with
CIE L (0.98), and hue angle showed signicant (p < 0.05) correlation
with CIE a (0.99). For the rice starches, trough viscosity showed
signicant (p < 0.05) with breakdown viscosity (0.87). Breakdown

viscosity correlated signicantly (p < 0.05) with peak time (0.89),


WAC (0.81) and swelling power (0.81), while swelling power
showed signicant correlation with breakdown viscosity (0.81),
peak time (0.82) and packed bulk density (0.86). Chroma correlated
with gel consistency (0.89), while gel consistency correlated with
pasting temperature (0.82).

4. Conclusion
Physical, functional and physicochemical attributes of the rice
varied with cultivar and product ie our or starch. Generally, the
rice cultivars showed low to high milling recovery, and moderate
starch yield. The Faro 21 and Faro 44 were categorised as long grain
rice while other were medium sized. The CIE L, a, b colour parameters varied from ours to starches, starches exhibited higher degree of whiteness than the corresponding ours. Aside from Faro 40
ours, other showed lighter colours. Isolated starches showed high
lightness values and should not impart colour when utilized in
product formulations. The isolated starches had restricted swelling
and solubility patterns, presumably due to their granular characteristics. However, all the starch granules were small in size,
spherical and mostly polyhedral in shape. Pasting properties of the
ours and corresponding starches also varied among the cultivars.
Thermal properties of the isolated starches showed high gelatinization peaks (Tp) but low glass transition temperatures (Tg); giving a
clue into their behaviour under heating cycles expected in industrial processes.

K.O. Falade, A.S. Christopher / Food Hydrocolloids 44 (2015) 478e490

Granule
width

1.00
0.21
0.02
0.42
0.17
0.29
0.47
0.66
0.06
0.27
0.53
0.37
0.81*
0.68

1.00
0.67
0.36
0.97**
0.11
0.93
0.53
0.25
0.56
0.19
0.50
0.19
0.50

1.00
0.29
0.71
0.62
0.69
0.49
0.00
0.11
0.66
0.50
0.41
0.23

1.00
0.21
0.92
0.38
0.24
0.61
0.08
0.59
0.21
0.29
0.00

DE

1.00
0.04
0.86
0.62
0.26
0.58
0.17
0.32
0.26
0.52

DC

1.00
0.08
0.29
0.43
0.14
0.70
0.01
0.37
0.03

489

Hue
angle

To
( C)

Tp
( C)

Tc
( C)

Tg
( C)

1.00
0.23
0.15
0.48
0.18
0.72
0.07
0.18

1.00
0.10
0.30
0.50
0.14
0.81*
0.93

1.00
0.38
0.47
0.30
0.33
0.11

1.00
0.05
0.21
0.32
0.35

1.00
0.45
0.53
0.38

Acknowledgements
Authors are grateful to the University of Ibadan for the Senate
Research Grant (SRG/FT/2010/7A) awarded to conduct this research.

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