Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 9

Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and Design of Technical Applications!

- adapts seamlessly to phones, pads and desktops!

Ads by Google Steam Flow Calculation HVAC Duct Fluid Flow


Search

- "Search is the most efficient way to navigate the Engineering ToolBox!"

Major loss in Ducts, Tubes and Pipes


Major loss - head loss or pressure loss - due to friction in ducts, pipes and tubes
Sponsored Links

Flow Meters Wholesale


alibaba.com/Flow-Meters

Find Quality Products from Verified


Suppliers. Get a Live Quote Now!
Pressure and Pressure Loss
According the Energy Equation for a fluid the total energy can be summarized as elevation energy, velocity energy and pressure energy. The Energy
Equation can then be expressed as:
p1 + v12 / 2 + g h1 = p2 + v22 / 2 + g h2 + ploss (1)
where
p = pressure in fluid (Pa (N/m 2), psi (lb/in2))
ploss = pressure loss (Pa (N/m 2), psi (lb/in2))
= density of the fluid (kg/m 3, slugs/ft3)
v = flow velocity (m/s, ft/s)
g = acceleration of gravity (m/s2, ft/s2)
h = elevation (m, ft)
For horizontal steady state flow v1 = v2 and h1 = h2, - (1) can be transformed to:
ploss = p1 - p2 (2)
The pressure loss is divided in
major loss due to friction and
minor loss due to change of velocity in bends, valves and similar.
The pressure loss in pipes and tubes depends on the flow velocity, pipe or duct length, pipe or duct diameter, and a friction factor based on the
roughness of the pipe or duct, and whether the flow us turbulent or laminar - the Reynolds Number of the flow. The pressure loss in a tube or duct due
to friction, major loss, can be expressed as:
ploss = (l / dh) ( v2 / 2) (3)
where
ploss = pressure loss (Pa, N/m 2)
= friction coefficient
l = length of duct or pipe (m)
dh = hydraulic diameter (m)
(3) is also called the D'Arcy-Weisbach Equation. (3) is valid for fully developed, steady, incompressible flow.

Head and Head Loss


The Energy equation can be expressed in terms of head and head loss by dividing each term by the specific weight of the fluid. The total head in a
fluid flow in a tube or a duct can be expressed as the sum of elevation head, velocity head and pressure head.
p1 / + v12 / 2 g + h1 = p2 / + v22 / 2 g + h2 + hloss (4)
where
hloss = head loss (m, ft)
= g = specific weight (N/m 3, lb/ft3)
For horizontal steady state flow v1 = v2 and p1 = p2, - (4) can be transformed to:

hloss = h1 - h2 (5)
where
h = p / = head (m, ft)
The head loss in a tube or duct due to friction, major loss, can be expressed as:
hloss = (l / dh) (v2 / 2 g) (6)
where
hloss = head loss (m, ft)

Friction Coefficient -
The friction coefficient depends on the flow - if it is
laminar,
transient or
turbulent
and the roughness of the tube or duct.
To determine the friction coefficient we first have to determine if the flow is laminar, transient or turbulent - then use the proper formula or diagram.
Friction Coefficient for Laminar Flow
For fully developed laminar flow the roughness of the duct or pipe can be neglected. The friction coefficient depends only the Reynolds Number - Re and can be expressed as:
= 64 / Re (7)
where
Re = the dimensionless Reynolds number
The flow is
laminar when Re < 2300
transient when 2300 < Re < 4000
turbulent when Re > 4000
Friction Coefficient for Transient Flow
If the flow is transient - 2300 < Re < 4000 - the flow varies between laminar and turbulent flow and the friction coefficient is not possible to determine.
Friction Coefficient for Turbulent Flow
For turbulent flow the friction coefficient depends on the Reynolds Number and the roughness of the duct or pipe wall. On functional form this can be
expressed as:
= f( Re, k / dh ) (8)
where
k = absolute roughness of tube or duct wall (mm, ft)
k / dh = the relative roughness - or roughness ratio
Roughness for materials are determined by experiments. Absolute roughness for some common materials are indicated in the table below

Surface

Absolute Roughness - k
-3

10 (m)

(feet)

Copper, Lead, Brass, Aluminum (new)

0.001 - 0.002

3.3 - 6.7 10-6

PVC and Plastic Pipes

0.0015 - 0.007

0.5 - 2.33 10-5

Epoxy, Vinyl Ester and Isophthalic pipe

0.005

1.7 10-5

Stainless steel

0.015

5 10-5

Steel commercial pipe

0.045 - 0.09

1.5 - 3 10-4

Stretched steel

0.015

5 10-5

Weld steel

0.045

1.5 10-4

Galvanized steel

0.15

5 10-4

Rusted steel (corrosion)

0.15 - 4

5 - 133 10-4

New cast iron

0.25 - 0.8

8 - 27 10-4

Worn cast iron

0.8 - 1.5

2.7 - 5 10-3

Rusty cast iron

1.5 - 2.5

5 - 8.3 10-3

Sheet or asphalted cast iron

0.01 - 0.015

3.33 - 5 10-5

Smoothed cement

0.3

1 10-3

Ordinary concrete

0.3 - 1

1 - 3.33 10-3

Coarse concrete

0.3 - 5

1 - 16.7 10-3

Well planed wood

0.18 - 0.9

6 - 30 10-4

Ordinary wood

16.7 10-3

The friction coefficient - - can be calculated by the Colebrooke Equation:


1 / 1/2 = -2,0 log10 [ (2,51 / (Re 1/2)) + (k / dh) / 3,72 ] (9)
Since the friction coefficient - - is on both sides of the equation, it must be solved by iteration. If we know the Reynolds number and the roughness the friction coefficient - - in the particular flow can be calculated.
A graphical representation of the Colebrooke Equation is the Moody Diagram:
The Moody Diagram - The Moody diagram in a printable format.
With the Moody diagram we can find the friction coefficient if we know the Reynolds Number - Re - and the
Relative Roughness Ratio - k / dh
In the diagram we can see how the friction coefficient depends on the Reynolds number for laminar flow - how the friction coefficient is undefined for
transient flow - and how the friction coefficient depends on the roughness ratio for turbulent flow.
For hydraulic smooth pipes - the roughness ratio limits zero - and the friction coefficient depends more or less on the Reynolds number only.
For a fully developed turbulent flow the friction coefficient depends on the roughness ratio only.

Example - Pressure Loss in Air Ducts


Air at 0 oC is flows in a 10 m galvanized duct - 315 mm diameter - with velocity 15 m/s.
Reynolds number are expressed as:
Re = dh v / (10)
where
Re = Reynolds number
v = velocity
= density
= dynamic or absolute viscosity
Reynolds number calculated:
Re = (15 m/s) (315 mm) (10-3 m/mm ) (1.23 kg/m 3) / (1.79 10-5 Ns/m 2)
= 324679 (kgm/s2)/N
= 324679 ~ Turbulent flow
Turbulent flow indicates that Colebrooks equation (9) must be used to determine the friction coefficient - -.
With roughness - - for galvanized steel 0.15 mm, the roughness ratio can be calculated:
Roughness Ratio = / dh
= (0.15 mm) / (315 mm)
= 4.76 10-4
Using the graphical representation of the Colebrooks equation - the Moody Diagram - the friction coefficient - - can be determined to:
= 0.017
The major loss for the 10 m duct can be calculated with the Darcy-Weisbach Equation (3) or (6):
ploss = ( l / dh ) ( v2 / 2 )
= 0.017 ((10 m) / (0.315 m)) ( (1.23 kg/m 3) (15 m/s)2 / 2 )
= 74 Pa (N/m 2)
Sponsored Links

A-Plast AB - Extrusion
a-plast.com

We are the pipe specialists Both soft


and hard materials
Related Topics
Fluid Mechanics - The study of fluids - liquids and gases. Involves various properties of the fluid, such as velocity, pressure, density and
temperature, as functions of space and time.

Fluid Flow and Pressure Drop - Pipe lines - fluid flow and pressure loss - water, sewer, steel pipes, pvc pipes, copper tubes and more
Ventilation - Systems for ventilation and air handling - air change rates, ducts and pressure drops, charts and diagrams and more

Related Documents
Minor Loss Resistance in Ventilation Ducts - Air velocity, minor loss coefficient and minor loss in ventilation ductworks
Equation of Mechanical Energy - The equation of mechanical energy in terms of Energy per Unit Mass, Energy per Unit Volume and Energy
per Unit Weight involving head
Dynamic, Absolute and Kinematic Viscosity - Dynamic, absolute and kinematic viscosity - and how to convert between CentiStokes (cSt),
CentiPoises (cP), Saybolt Universal Seconds (SSU) and degree Engler
Density, Specific Weight and Specific Gravity - An introduction and definition of density, specific weight and specific gravity - formulas
with examples
Pressure Loss in Schedule 40 Steel Pipes - Water flow and pressure loss in schedule 40 steel pipes - Imperial and SI units - gallons per
minute, liters per second and cubic meters per hour
Ductwork Sheet Metal Gauges - Sheet metal gauges used in ductwork
Colebrook Equation - Calculate friction loss coefficients in pipes, tubes and ducts
Moody Diagram - Moody Diagram to estimate friction coefficients
Air Ducts Minor Loss Coefficient Diagrams - Minor loss coefficient diagrams for air ductwork, bends, expansions, inlets and outlets - SI
units
Reynolds Number - An introduction and definition of the dimensionless Reynolds Number - with online calculators
Darcy-Weisbach Equation for Pressure and Head Loss - The Darcy-Weisbach formula can be used to calculate pressure or head loss due
to friction in ducts, pipes and tubes
Resistance and Equivalent Length of Fittings - Equivalent length of fittings like bends, returns, tees and valves in hot water heating
systems - equivalent length in feet and meter
Major loss in Ducts, Tubes and Pipes - Major loss - head loss or pressure loss - due to friction in ducts, pipes and tubes
Pressure Loss of Water Due to Friction in Copper Tubes - Pressure Loss (psi/ft) of Water Due to Friction in Copper Tubes Types K, L and M
Copper Tube - ASTM B88
System Curve and Pump Performance Curve - To select a proper pump for a particular application it is necessary to utilize the system
curve and the pump performance curve
Air Ducts Friction Loss Diagram - Major loss diagram air ducts - SI units
Steel Pipes - Maximum Water Flow Capacities - Maximum water flow capacity of steel pipes - dimensions ranging 2 - 24 inches
Roughness & Surface Coefficients of Ventilation Ducts - Surface coefficients to calculate friction and major pressure loss in ventilation
ducts - concrete, galvanized steel, corroded steel and more
Energy and Hydraulic Grade Line - The hydraulic grade and the energy line are graphical presentations of the Bernoulli equation
Air Ducts Friction Loss Diagram - Major loss diagram air ducts - Imperial units ranging 10 - 100 000 cfm
Air Ducts Friction Loss Diagram - Major loss diagram air ducts - Imperial units ranging 10 000 - 400 000 cfm
Hydraulic Diameter - Hydraulic diameter of ducts and tubes

Tag Search
en: major loss head pressure ducts tubes

Search the Engineering ToolBox


Search

- "Search is the most efficient way to navigate the Engineering ToolBox!"

Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension - Online 3D modeling!

Add standard and customized parametric components - like flange beams, lumbers, piping, stairs and more - to your SketchUp model with the
Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension/Plugin - enabled for use with the amazing, fun and free SketchUp Make and SketchUp Pro . Add the
Engineering ToolBox extension to your SketchUp from the Sketchup Extension Warehouse!

Translate the ToolBox


Arabic - Chinese (Simplified) - Chinese (Traditional) - Dutch - French - German - Italian - Japanese - Korean - Portuguese - Russian - Spanish - - Select
Your own language . .

About the ToolBox


We appreciate any comments and tips on how to make The Engineering ToolBox a better information source. Please contact us by email
editor.engineeringtoolbox@gmail.com
if You find any faults, inaccuracies, or otherwise unacceptable information.
The content in The Engineering ToolBox is copyrighted but can be used with NO WARRANTY or LIABILITY. Important information should always be
double checked with alternative sources. All applicable national and local regulations and practices concerning this aspects must be strictly followed
and adhered to.

Advertise in the ToolBox


If you want to promote your products or services in the Engineering ToolBox - please use Google Adwords.

Home
Acoustics
Air Psychrometrics
Basics
Combustion
Drawing Tools
Dynamics
Economics
Electrical
Environment
Fluid Mechanics
Gas and Compressed Air
HVAC Systems
Hydraulics and Pneumatics
Insulation
Material Properties
Mathematics
Mechanics
Miscellaneous
Physiology
Piping Systems
Process Control
Pumps
Standard Organizations
Statics
Steam and Condensate
Thermodynamics
Water Systems

Ads by Google

Pipe Flow Calculator


Formula to Calculate
Heat Loss Calculator
Unit Converter
Temperature

0.0
o

Convert!
Length

1.0
m
km
in

ft
yards
miles
nautical miles

Convert!
Volume

1.0
m3
liters
in3
ft3
us gal

Convert!
Velocity

1.0
m/s
km/h
ft/min
ft/s
mph
knots

Convert!
Pressure

1.0
Pa (N/m 2)
bar
mm H2O
kg/cm 2
psi
inches H2O

Convert!
Flow

1.0
m 3/s
m 3/h
US gpm
cfm

Convert!

Free Industry Magazines


Chemical Engineering

Offshore

Military & Aerospace Electronics

Share this Page!

Shortcut to Home Screen?

Share

+2 Share this on Google+


Tweet

The Engineering ToolBox


bimSystems
- organizing design and development of technical systems!

mee ickets
- summarize meetings and keep track of tasks to be done - with tickets!
the Travlet
- tracking and sharing expenses between participants!
Sponsored Links

Pressure Vessel
Designer?

1st blog on vessel design


and FEA share your
passion and get
inspired

analyzeforsafety.com

98