Chapter 8 Vapor Power Cycle: Steam Power Plant
273
CHAPTER 8
VAPOR POWER CYCLE:
STEAM POWER PLANT
Steam power plants are commonly used for power generation. They follow a closed cycle plant that is called the vapor power cycle. Steam is the working fluid in these plants. The standard basic vapor power cycle is Rankine cycle.
274
LECTURE NOTES ON THERMODYNAMICS
8.1 VAPOR POWER CYCLE
8.1.1 RANKINE CYCLE – THE IDEAL CYCLE FOR VAPOR POWER CYCLE
Many of the impracticalities associated with the Carnot cycle can be eliminated by superheating the steam in the boiler and condensing it completely in the condenser, as shown schematically on a Ts diagram in Fig.8.1. This cycle is called the Rankine cycle, which is the ideal cycle for vapor power plants. The ideal Rankine cycle does not involve any internal irreversibility and consists of the following four processes:
12 
Isentropic compression in a pump. 
23 
Constant pressure heat addition in a boiler. 
34 
Isentropic expansion in a turbine. 
41 
Constant pressure heat rejection in a condenser. 
a) Flow diagram.
^{a}
b
s
Figure 8.1 Ideal Rankine cycle
Chapter 8 Vapor Power Cycle: Steam Power Plant
275
Cycle Analysis:
Pump 12
Water enters the pump at state 1 as saturated liquid and is compressed isentropically to the operating pressure of the boiler. The water temperature increases somewhat during this isentropic compression process due to slight decrease in the specific volume of the water. The vertical distance between state 1 and 2 on the Ts diagram is greatly exaggerated for clarity. (If water were truly incompressible; would the temperature change at all during this process?).
The pump follows the SSSF process, Eq. 4.16, then
Q˚ − W˚ =
m˚ { (h _{2} – h _{1} ) + (V _{2} ^{2} – V _{1} ^{2} ) /2
+ g(Z _{2}  Z _{1} )}
In the pump the heat transfer is assumed zero (isentropic) and kinetic and potential energies are neglected, then
0 − W˚ =
m˚ { (h _{2} – h _{1} ) + 0 + 0)}
W˚ _{P} = 
m˚ (h _{1} – h _{2} ) 
kW 
w _{P} = h _{1} – h _{2} 
kJ/kg 
This equation is used to determine h _{2} if w _{P} is known. Otherwise h _{2} is calculated as,
From
w
P
= −
2
∫
1
vdp
v ≈ constant (Incompressible)
w _{p} = v (P _{B} – P _{C} ) = v (P _{2} – P _{1} )
kJ/kg
then
h _{2} = h _{1} + v _{1} (p _{2} – p _{1} )
kJ/kg
276
LECTURE NOTES ON THERMODYNAMICS
Boiler (Steam Generator) 23
Water enters the boiler as compressed liquid at state 2 and leaves as superheated vapor at state 3. The boiler is basically a large heat exchanger where the heat originating from combustion gases, nuclear reactor or other sources, is transferred to the water essentially at constant pressure. The boiler, together with the section where steam is superheated (the superheater), is often called the steam generator.
The boiler follows the SSSF process, Eq. 4.16, then
Q˚ _{B} − W˚ =
m˚ { (h _{3} – h _{2} ) + (V _{3} ^{2} – V _{2} ^{2} ) /2
+ g(Z _{3}  Z _{2} )}
There is no work in the boiler and kinetic and potential energies are neglected, then
Q˚ _{B} − W˚ =
m˚ { (h _{3} – h _{2} ) + 0 + 0)}
Q˚ _{B} = 
m˚ (h _{3} – h _{2} ) 
kW 
q _{B} = h _{3} – h _{2} 
kJ/kg 
Turbine 34
The superheated vapor at state 3 enters the turbine, where it expands isentropically and produces work by rotating the shaft connected to an electric generator. The pressure and temperature of the steam drop during this process to the values at state 4, where steam enters the condenser. At this state, steam is usually saturated liquidvapor mixture with high quality (dryness fraction).
The turbine follows the SSSF process, Eq. 4.16, then
Q˚ − W˚ _{T} =
m˚ { (h _{4} – h _{3} ) + (V _{4} ^{2} – V _{3} ^{2} ) /2
+ g(Z _{4}  Z _{3} )}
Chapter 8 Vapor Power Cycle: Steam Power Plant
277
The
process
is
isentropic
and
kinetic
and
potential
energies
neglected, then 

0 − W˚ _{T} = 
m˚ { (h _{4} – h _{3} ) + 0 + 0)} 
W˚ _{T} = 
m˚ (h _{3} – h _{4} ) 
kW 
w _{T} = h _{3} – h _{4} 
kJ/kg 
Condenser 41
are
Steam is condensed at constant pressure in the condenser, which is basically a large heat exchanger, by rejecting heat to a cooling medium such as water from a lake, a river or the atmosphere. Steam leaves the condenser as saturated liquid and enters the pump, completing the cycle.
The condenser follows the SSSF process, Eq. 4.16, then
Q˚ _{C} − W˚ = is
process
The
neglected, then
m˚ { (h _{1} – h _{4} ) + (V _{1} ^{2} – V _{4} ^{2} ) /2
isentropic
and
kinetic
and
Q˚ _{C} − W˚ =
m˚ { (h _{1} – h _{4} ) + 0 + 0)}
Q˚ _{C} =
m˚ (h _{1} – h _{4} )
kW
q _{C} = h _{1} – h _{4}
kJ/kg
Calculation of h _{4}
+ g(Z _{1}  Z _{4} )}
potential
energies
are
Process 34 
is an isentropic process so : 
s _{3} = s _{4} 
Compare s _{4} 
with s _{f} and s _{g} at p _{c}_{o}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{e}_{r} if 
s _{f} < s _{4} < s _{g} 
278
LECTURE NOTES ON THERMODYNAMICS
Calculate
x _{4}
as
Hence calculate
^{)} = x
(s
4
−
s
f
s fg
4 (s _{f} & s _{f}_{g} at p _{c} )
h _{4} = h _{f} + x _{4}
h _{f}_{g}
(h _{f} & h _{f}_{g} at p _{c} )
(8.1)
(8.2)
The pump work is usually much less than the turbine work. Thus the pump work can be neglected this means that:
h _{2} ≈ h _{1}
hence Q _{B} ≈ h _{3} – h _{1}
η
R
≈
also W _{n}_{e}_{t} ≈ W _{T} 

o 

W 
T 
≈ 
( 
h 
3 
− h 
4 
) 
o 
( 
h 
− h 
) 

Q 
B 
3 
1 
(W _{p} ≈ 0)
hence
(8.3)
The difference in small.
η
R between the forms in Eqs. 8.2 and 8.3 is very
Chapter 8 Vapor Power Cycle: Steam Power Plant
279
Example 8.1: Determine the efficiency of a Rankine cycle utilizing steam as the working fluid in which the condenser pressure is 10 kPa. The boiler pressure is 2 MPa. The steam leaves the boiler as saturated vapor. Solution Pump:
P _{1} is known, saturated liquid; P _{2} is known.
First law:
Second law: s _{2} = s _{1}
Since
w _{P} = h _{2} – h _{1}
s _{2} = s _{1} ,
2
h _{2} –h _{1} = _{∫}
1
v
dp
Assuming the liquid to be incompressible,
W _{p} = v(P _{2}  P _{1} ) = 0.001 01(2000 10) = 2.0 kJ/kg h _{2} = h _{1} + w _{p} = 191.8 + 2.0 = 193.8 kJ/kg
Boiler:
P _{2} and h _{2} are known; P _{3} is known, saturated vapor
First law:
q _{B} = h _{3} – h _{2}
q _{B} = h _{3} –h _{2} = 2799.5 – 193.8 = 2605.7 kJ/kg
Turbine:
State 3 is known (above).
P _{4} is known. First law: 
w _{T} = h _{3} –h _{4} 
Second law: 
s _{3} = s _{4} 
The quality at state 4 is obtained as follow:
s _{3} =s _{4} = 6.3409 = 0.6493 + x _{4} 7.5009, h _{4} = 191.8 + 0.7588(2392.8) = 2007.5 w _{T} = 2799.5 – 2007.5 = 792.0 kJ/kg
x _{4} = 0.7588
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LECTURE NOTES ON THERMODYNAMICS
Condenser:
State 4 is known (above).
State 1 is known (above).
First law:
q _{c} = h _{4} – h _{1}
q _{c} = h _{4} – h _{1} _{=} 2007.5 – 191.8 = 1815.7 kJ/kg Cycle Efficiency:
η
R
=
( 
h 
3 
− 
h 
4 
) 
− 
( 
h 
2 
− 
h 
1 
) 
h 
3 
− 
h 
2 
=
792
−
2
=
2605 .7
30 .32 %
8.1.2 SOME IMPORTANT PARAMETERS IN STEAM POWER CYCLE
8.1.2.1 Specific Steam Consumption (SSC)
The steam circulated in the cycle, m˚, is proportional to the size of the power plant that produce power. The ratio between the steam flow rate and the net power produced by the cycle is called the specific steam consumption (SSC). Lower values of SSC refer to more efficient power plant. Thus:
SSC
=
=
o 
o 

m 
= 
m 
= 
1 

o 
o 
w 

W 
net 
m 
w 
net 
net 
1
w net
kg / kJ
The units of SSC are converted from (kg / kJ) to (kg / kWhr). Then
SSC =
1
w net
SSC =
3600
w
net
kg/ kWhr
×
3600 s/ hr
kg/ kWhr
(8.4)
Chapter 8 Vapor Power Cycle: Steam Power Plant
281
8.1.2.2 Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC)
In boilers the heat transfer to the water, Q˚ _{B} , is produced by the combustion of fuel inside the boiler house. The energy released by combustion is not usually transferred to the water completely, i.e. the boiler is not 100% efficient to transfer heat of combustion to the water. The ratio between the heat absorbed by the water in the boiler, Q˚ _{B} , and the heat produced by combustion is used to define the boiler efficiency, η B . The difference between the heat released by combustion and the heat transfer to the water is lost in the exhaust gases through the boiler chimney and by the heat transfer through the boiler walls. The heat produced by the combustion of 1 kg of fuel is called “heating value of fuel “, HHV. Thus the heat released by combustion is obtained from:
Q˚ _{F} = m˚ _{F} x HHV ,
(8.5)
where m˚ _{F} is the rate of fuel consumption in the boiler. The boiler
efficiency,
η
B
, is defined as:
η
B
o 
o 

= 
Q 
B 
= 
m 
(h 
3 
− 
h 
2 
) 

o 
o 

Q 
F 
m 
F 
HHV 
(8.6)
One of the most important parameters in power stations is the ratio between the rate of fuel consumed, m˚ _{F} , and the power produced by the power station. This parameter is called the “specific fuel consumption”, SFC. It is calculated as:
SFC =
o
m
F
o
m
F
=
o
W
net
o
m w
net
kg / kJ
The units of the SFC are usually converted from (kg / kJ) to (gm/kWhr). Then
o
SFC =
m
F
o
kg
SFC
m w
net
o
=
m
F
o
m
w
net
×
/
kJ
3 .6
×
×
10
1000
^{6}
g
/
kg
gm
/
×
3600
kWhr
s
/
hr
(8.7)
(8.7)
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LECTURE NOTES ON THERMODYNAMICS
8.1.2.3 The Cooling Water Flow Rate in the Condenser
The steam in the condenser rejects heat to cooling water. Thus the condenser is considered as a heat exchanger and the heat rejected by the steam equals the heat absorbed by the cooling water. So,
o
Q
C
o
=Q
c.w
o
where
flow rate of the cooling water is to T _{w}_{o} , then
Q
c.w
is the rate of heat absorbed by the cooling water. If the mass
o
m
c.w
and its temperature rises from T _{w}_{i}
o
Q
o
Q
c.w
c.w
=
=
o
m
o
m
c.w
c.w
(h
wo
C
w
−
h
wi
)
(T
wo
−
T
wi
)
(8.8)
where C _{w} is the water specific heat ( = 4.18 kJ / kg K). Thus,
o
Q
C
o
= Q
c.w
o
m(h
4
−
h
1
o
) = m
c.w
C
w
(T
wo
−
T
wi
o
m(h
∴
4
−
h
o
m
c.w
1
)
=
o
m
c.w
C
w
(T
wo
−
=
o
m
(h
4
−
h
1
)
C
w
(T
wo
−
T
wi
)
T
wi
)
)
Since (h _{4} – h _{1} ) >> C _{w} (T _{w}_{o} – T _{w}_{i} ) ,
Chapter 8 Vapor Power Cycle: Steam Power Plant
283
The amount of cooling water required in the condenser is huge relative to the steam flow rate. This means that power stations require large sources of water such as rivers and seas.
8.2 EFFECT OF PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE
ON RANKINE CYCLE EFFICIENCY,
η
R
8.2.1 EFFECT OF CONDENSER PRESSURE
Condenser operates at exhaust pressure below atmospheric pressure. Further reduction of condenser pressure affects the cycle efficiency. Work gain due to reducing condenser pressure can be represented on the Ts diagram shown in Fig. 8.2 as the hatched area (area 1` 2` 2 1 4 4`). This leads the higher efficiency.
T
Figure 8.2 Effect of condenser pressure
Note:
Disadvantage of reducing the condenser pressure is the reduction of the steam quality (dryness fraction) at the exit of the turbine (i.e. x _{4}_{`} < x _{4} ). i.e. moisture contents at point 4` is higher than 4 and turbine blades are exposed to more erosion.
284
LECTURE NOTES ON THERMODYNAMICS
8.2.2 EFFECT OF BOILER PRESSURE
To study the effect of boiler pressure we should keep the steam temperature at the exit of the boiler, T _{3} , constant. Then
•
•
•
T 3 = T 3` = T max
Also condenser pressure is kept constant.
Heat rejection is reduced by the area (4 4` a c).
.
T
Figure 8.3 Effect of boiler pressure
o
• As a result of increasing boiler pressure,
• If the area (ab3c) = area (22`3`b). Then
.
• Also if area (44`3b) = area (22`3`b), then
Q
η
C
R
is decreased.
o
Q
B
o
Q
is constant and
B
decreases and
o
W
net
increases. This leads to an increase of
o
W
net
kept the same. Thus Rankine efficiency increases. So,
As P _{B} increases
η
R
increases.
Note:
Disadvantage of increasing the boiler pressure leads to decrease of the steam quality at the exit of the turbine. This is similar to the pervious effect of reducing condenser pressure.
Chapter 8 Vapor Power Cycle: Steam Power Plant
285
8.2.3 EFFECT OF SUPERHEATING
As shown in Fig. 8.4 by increasing T _{3} and keeping P _{B} the same, then
•
•
•
W _{n}_{e}_{t} is increased by the area (3 3` 4` 4).
Q _{A}
Heat rejection is increased by the area (4 4` b` b).
is increased by the same area + area (4 4` b` b).
T
Figure 8.4 Effect of steam superheat
•
•
η
th ,R
= 1 −
Q
R
Q
A
since Q _{A} is increased by a larger ratio
→ η
R will be increased if superheat is used.
Another advantage is the increase of the steam quality at the exit of the turbine, i.e. less erosion is expected.
Summary:
As shown in Fig.8.5 below
η th
is increased by:
1 
Lowering condenser pressure (less heat rejection for same heat addition). 
2 
Increasing boiler pressure. 
286
LECTURE NOTES ON THERMODYNAMICS
3 Superheating the steam.
Lowering condenser pressure and increasing boiler pressure decreases the quality of steam, as shown below.
x
4
Superheating
Superheating
Figure 8.5 Variation of steam quality at the turbine exit and Rankine cycle efficiency with condenser pressure, boiler pressure and superheat temperature
8.3 THE REHEAT CYCLE
Superheating the steam to high temperature is limited by its effect on the turbine material. So, in order to improve the Rankine cycle efficiency and increase the net power output, the steam is reheated after expansion through some part of the turbine as shown in Fig.8.6. Thus the steam is reheated before complete expansion in the turbine. After reheat the steam is further expanded in the second part of the turbine. This expansion may be occurring in two parts, called stages, of the turbine. The first part of the turbine is called highpressure stage and the second part is called lowpressure stage.
After expansion from state (3) to state (4) in the turbine the steam is reheated in the boiler building to state (5). The temperature of the steam at state (5) is almost equal or less than T _{3} :
T _{5} ≤ T _{3}
Chapter 8 Vapor Power Cycle: Steam Power Plant
287
The reheated steam is then passed to the second stage of the turbine, 56. Reheat cycle improve the cycle efficiency, exit quality of the steam from the turbine and increase the net power output.
Pump
T
3'
s
Figure 8.6 Modified Rankine reheat cycle
Example 8.2: Consider a reheat cycle utilizing steam. Steam leaves the boiler and enters the turbine at 4 MPa, 400 ^{0} C. After expansion in the turbine to 400 kPa, the steam is reheated to 400 ^{0} C and then expanded in the lowpressure turbine to 10 kPa. Determine the cycle efficiency.
Solution
For each control volume analyzed, the thermodynamic model is the
steam tables, the process is SSSF, and changes in kinetic and potential energies are negligible.
HighPressure turbine:
Inlet state:P _{3} , T _{3} are known Exit state: P _{4} is known. Analysis:
First law: 
w _{h}_{}_{p} = h _{3}  h _{4} 
Second law: 
s _{3} = s _{4} 
288
LECTURE NOTES ON THERMODYNAMICS
h _{3} = 3213.6,
s _{4} = s _{3} = 6.7690 = 1.7766 = x _{4} 501193, h _{4} = 604.7 = 0.9752(2133.8) = 2685.6
s _{3} = 6.7690
LowPressure turbine:
Inlet state:
Exit state:
Analysis:
First law:
Second law:
P _{5} , T _{5} are known P _{6} known.
w _{I}_{}_{P}
= h _{5} – h _{6}
s _{5} = s _{6}
x _{4} = 0.9752 kJ/kg
h _{5} = 3273.4
s _{6} = s _{5} = 7.8985 = 0.6493 + x _{6} 7.5009,
kJ/kg,
s _{5} = 7.8985 kJ/kg K
x _{6} = 0.9664
h _{6} = 191.8 + 0.9664(2392.8) = 2504.3 kJ/kg For the overall turbine, the total work output W _{t} is the sum of W _{h}_{}_{P}
and W _{l}_{}_{p} , so that
w _{T} = (h _{3} – h _{4} ) + (h _{5} – h _{6} )
= (3213.6 – 2685.6) + (3273.4 – 2504.3)
= 1297.1 kJ/kg
Pump: 

Inlet state: 
P _{1} is known, saturated liquid 
Exit state: 
P _{2} is known. 
Analysis: 

First law: 
w _{P} = h _{2} – h _{1} 
Second law: 
s _{2} = s _{1} 
Since s _{2} = s _{1} ,
h _{2} – h _{1} = _{∫}
2
_{1} vdp = v(P _{2} – P _{1} )
w _{P} = v(P _{2} – P _{1} ) = 0.00101(4000 10) = 4.0 kJ/kg
h _{2} = 191.8 + 4.0 = 195.8
kJ/kg
Boiler: 

Inlet states: 
States 3 and 5 both known (above). 
Chapter 8 Vapor Power Cycle: Steam Power Plant
289
Exit states: 
States 2 and 4 both known (above). 
Analysis: 
First law:
q _{B} =
q _{B} =
(h _{3} – h _{2} ) + (h _{5} – h _{4} )
(h _{3} – h _{2} ) + (h _{5} – h _{4} )
= (3213.6 – 195.8) + (3273.4 – 2685.6) = 3605.6 kJ/kg
Therefore,
w _{n}_{e}_{t} = w _{T} – w _{p} = 1297.1 – 4.0 = 1293.1 kJ/kg
η
=
W
net
R Q
B
=
w
q
net
B
= 
1293 
.1 
= 
35 .85 
% 
3605 
.6 
8.4 The IDEAL REGENERATIVE CYCLE
Consider Rankine cycle (122`34) and the corresponding Carnot cycle having same T _{H} & T _{L} is (1`2`34). Rankine efficiency is lower than Carnot efficiency:
η
R
<
η
C
T
Figure 8.7 Rankine and Carnot cycles
because of heat addition between (22`) as shown in Fig. 8.7. Thus improving the Rankine cycle efficiency requires to reduction of the heat added between 2 and 2`. This is done using a regenerative cycle.
In regenerative cycle, the water is heated before the boiler by some of the available energy in the steam. For ideal regenerative cycle the water is heated in the turbine as shown in Fig. 8.8.
This improves the Rankine cycle efficiency. However, it is out practical to heat the water in the turbine. So, the water may be heated by
290
LECTURE NOTES ON THERMODYNAMICS
small part of the steam extracted from the turbine to an external heat exchanger called feedwater heater. Two types of feedwater heaters are used. The first type is called “open type” feedwater heater where the extracted, bled, steam mixes with the water and the result is hot water at the exit of the heater. The second type is called “closed type”, where there is no mixing between the steam and the water. The heat is only transferred from the steam to the water. The regenerative cycle using these two types is presented in the following sections.
T
Figure 8.8 Ideal regenerative cycle
8.4.1 REGENERATIVE CYCLE WITH OPEN FEEDWATER HEATER
A regenerative cycle using one open type feedwater heater is shown in Fig. 8.9 below. The ratio between the bled steam to the total steam flow rate is called “m”. Then:
bled steam flow rate
m =
o
m
The flow diagram per 1 kg of total steam flow rate is also shown in
Fig. 8.9.
Chapter 8 Vapor Power Cycle: Steam Power Plant
291
The steam extracted from the turbine at state (6) between the boiler pressure and the condenser pressure is mixed with the water from the condenser. Thus the water pressure at the condenser exit should be increased by a pump in order to mix with the extracted steam. Another pump is required at the exit of the feedwater heater to increase the water pressure to the boiler pressure. Therefore, the feedwater heater requires two pumps for operation as shown in Fig. 8.9.
T
s
Figure 8.9 Regenerative cycle with open feedwater heater
To apply the first law of thermodynamics in this case, first start with feedwater heater to calculate “m” or state (3) or (6) if “m” is given as follow:
From the first principles of the first law of thermodynamics:
∑ Energy in = ∑ energy out + Change of stored energy
m h _{6} + (1 – m) h _{2} = 1 x h _{3}
−
h
3
h
2
∴
m
=
h
6
−
h
2
If m is given and state (6) is not known the above equation can be used to determine this state.
292
LECTURE NOTES ON THERMODYNAMICS
Turbine The turbine is divided into two parts; one before extraction where the mass flow is total and the second where the mass flow is less by the amount of “m”. Thus w _{T} = 1 x (h _{5} – h _{6} ) + (1 – m)(h _{6} –h _{7} )
o
W
T
o
=mw
T
Condenser
The first law for the condenser is:
q _{c} = (1 m)(h _{1} – h _{7} )
Pump
o
Q
C
o
= mq
C
The work of the pumps may be calculated as:
w p = w p 12 + w p 34
= (1 – m)(h _{2} – h _{1} ) + 1 x (h _{3} – h _{2} )
o
W
P
o
= mw
P
However, the pumps may be neglected.
Boiler
The first law for the boiler is:
q _{B} = 1 x (h _{5} – h _{4} )
o
Q
B
o
= mq
B
Thermal efficiency:
Chapter 8 Vapor Power Cycle: Steam Power Plant
293
η
th
=
w
T
−w
P
q
B
8.4.2 REGENERATIVE CYCLE WITH CLOSED FEEDWATER HEATER:
Figure 8.10 Regenerative cycle with closed feedwater heater
Figure 8.11 Closed feedwater heater
294
LECTURE NOTES ON THERMODYNAMICS
The process (78) is throttling process and
h _{7} = h _{8}
h _{7} = h _{f}
. It may be assumed that T _{7} = T _{3} and T _{7} = T _{f} at the extraction pressure.
8.4.3 EFFECT OF THE NUMBER OF FEEDWATER HEATERS ON THE THERMAL EFFICIENCY
Increasing the number of feedwater heaters improve the thermal efficiency. This is however limited by the cost and there is an optimum. Fig.8.12 shows the effect of the number of feedwater heaters on the thermal efficiency of the cycle. It shows that an optimum efficiency
exists about which the increase in
η th
is very small.
th
Number of feedwater heaters
Chapter 8 Vapor Power Cycle: Steam Power Plant
295
Figure 8.12 Effect of number of feedwater heaters on the thermal efficiency
Example 8.3: Consider a regenerative cycle utilizing steam as the working fluid. Steam leaves the boiler and enters the turbine at 4 MPa, 400 ^{0} C. After expansion to 400 kPa some of the steam is extracted from the turbine for the purpose of heating the feedwater in an open feedwater heater. The remaining steam expands to 10kPa. The pressure in the feedwater heater is 400 kPa and the water leaving it is saturated liquid at 400 kPa. Determine the cycle efficiency.
Solution
The line diagram and T s diagram for this cycle are shown in Fig. 8.9.
As in previous examples, for each control volume the model used is the steam tables, the process is SSSF, and kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. Similar to previous examples, we can obtain:
h _{5} = 3213.6 kJ/kg, h _{7} = 2144.1 kJ/kg,
h _{6} = 2685.6 kJ/kg h _{1} = 191.8 kJ/kg
Control volume:
LowPressure pump
Inlet state: 
P _{1} known, saturated liquid; state fixed. 
Exit state: 
P _{2} known 
Analysis: 
First law: 
w _{p}_{1} = (h _{2} –h _{1} ) 
Second law: 
s _{2} = s _{1} 
Therefore,
2
h _{2} – h _{1} = _{∫} _{1}
v dP = v (P _{2} –P _{1} )
w _{p}_{1} = v (P _{2} –P _{1} ) = 0.001 01(400 – 10) = 0.4 kJ/kg
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LECTURE NOTES ON THERMODYNAMICS
h _{2} –h _{1} + w _{p} = 191.8 + 0.4 = 192.2
Turbine 

Inlet state: 
P _{5}_{,} T _{5} are 
known 
Exit state: 
P _{6} is known; P _{7} is known. 

Analysis: 
First law:
Second law: s _{5} = s _{6} = s _{7}
w _{T} = (h _{5} –h _{6} ) + (1 –m _{1} ) (h _{6} –h _{7} )
Form the second law, the values for h _{6} and h _{7} given above have been calculated in Example 8.2
Feedwater heater:
Inlet states: 
States 2 and 6 are known (above). 
Exit state: 
P _{3} is known; saturated liquid 
Analysis: 
First law:
m _{1} (h _{6} ) + (1 –m _{1} ) h _{2}
= h _{3}
m _{1} (2685.6) + (1 –m _{1} )(192.2) = 604.7 m _{1} = 0.1654
We can now calculate the turbine work. w _{T} = (h _{5} – h _{6} ) + (1 – m _{1} )(h _{6} – h _{7} ) = (3213.6 – 2685.6) + (1 – 0.1654)(2685.6 – 2144.1) = 979.9 kJ/kg
HighPressure pump:
Inlet state: 
States 3 is known (above). 
Exit state: 
P _{4} is known. 
Analysis: 
First law:
Second law: s _{4} = s _{3}
w _{p}_{2} = (h _{4} – h _{3} )
w _{p}_{2} = v (P _{4} – P _{3} ) = 0.001 084(4000 – 400) = 3.9 kJ/kg h _{4} = h _{3} + w _{p}_{2} = 604.7 + 3.9 = 60806 Therefore, w _{n}_{e}_{t} = w _{T} – (1 – m _{1} ) w _{p}_{1}  w _{p}_{2}
Chapter 8 Vapor Power Cycle: Steam Power Plant
297
= 979.9 – (1 – 0.1654)(0.4) – 3.9 = 975.7 kJ/kg
Boiler: 

Inlet state: 
P _{4} , h _{4} are known (above) 
Exit state: 
State 5 is known (above). 
Analysis: 
First law:
q _{H} = h _{5} – h _{4}
q _{H} = h _{5} – h _{4} = 3213.6 – 608.6 = 2605.0 kJ/kg
η
w
net
975.7
=
=
q
H
2605.0
=
37.5%
th
Example 8.4: A steam power plant produces 220 MW. The steam is superheated in the boiler to 500 ^{o} C at a pressure of 4 Mpa. The steam enters the turbine at 3.5 Mpa and 480 ^{o} C. The steam expands
through the turbine to a pressure of 3 kPa and 0.9 quality. During expansion two stream of steam are extracted at 10 bar and 2 bar to two open type feed water heaters. Neglecting the pumping work, calculate:
(a) 
The isentropic efficiency of the turbine, 
(b) 
The thermal efficiency of the cycle, 
(c) 
The specific steam consumption in kg/kW hr, and 
(d) 
The specific fuel consumption in gm/kW hr if the fuel 
calorific
Solution:
value is 41 MJ/kg and the boiler efficiency is 82 %.
The flow diagram and the cycle on Ts and hs diagrams are shown
below.
298
LECTURE NOTES ON THERMODYNAMICS
s
steam tables and chart and are listed below:
s
State 
P 
bar 
T or x 
h 
kJ/kg 

1 
0.03 
x 
= 0 
101 

2 
2 
neglect 
101 

3 
2 
x 
= 0 
504.7 

4 
10 
neglect 
504.7 

5 
10 
x 
= 0 
762.6 

6 
40 
neglect 
762.6 

7 
40 
500 ^{o} C 
3445 

8 
35 
480 ^{o} C 
3405.6 

9 
10 
3131.4 

10 
2 
2834.2 

11s 
0.03 
2101.55 

11 
0.03 
x = 0.9 
2301.14 
(a) The turbine isentropic efficiency, η _{Τ} , is:
η _{t} = (h _{8}  h _{1}_{1} )/(h _{8}  h _{1}_{1} ) = 84.9 %
Chapter 8 Vapor Power Cycle: Steam Power Plant
299
(b) Apply the first law to each feed water heater in order to get the amount of extracted per kg of total steam flow rate, m _{1} and m _{2} .
For heater II
The first law:
energy
For heater I
Energy in = energy out + change of stored
m _{1} h _{9} + (1  m _{1} ) h _{4} = h _{5} m _{1} = (h _{5}  h _{4} )/( h _{9}  h _{4} ) = 0.0982
The first law:
energy
Energy in = energy out + change of stored
m _{2} h _{1}_{0} + (1  m _{1}  m _{2} ) h _{2} = (1  m _{1} ) h _{3}
m _{2} =
(1  m _{1} ) (h _{3}  h _{2} )/( h _{1}_{0}  h _{2} ) = 0.1332
The cycle thermal efficiency, η _{t}_{h} , is calculated as:
η th = W net / Q added = w net / q added
The net work equals the turbine work where the pump work is neglected, then
w _{T} = (h _{8}  h _{9} ) + (1  m _{1} ) (h _{9}  h _{1}_{0} ) + (1  m _{1}  m _{2} ) (h _{1}_{0}  h _{1}_{1} ) w _{T} = 951.93 kJ/kg
The heat added, q _{A} , is:
q _{A} = (h _{7}  h _{6} ) q _{A} = 2682.4 kJ/kg
Then,
η th = W net / Q added = w net / q added
η _{t}_{h} = 35.49 %
300
LECTURE NOTES ON THERMODYNAMICS
(c) To calculate the specific steam consumption, SSC,
SSC = m ^{o} / W ^{o} _{n}_{e}_{t} = 1 / w _{T} = 3600 / 951.93 = 3.78 kg/kW hr
(d) The specific fuel consumption, SFC, is
SFC = m ^{o} _{F} / W ^{o} _{n}_{e}_{t} = m ^{o} _{F} / m ^{o} w _{n}_{e}_{t} SFC = (m ^{o} _{F} / m ^{o} ) x (1/w _{n}_{e}_{t} ) = (m ^{o} _{F} / m ^{o} ) x SSC
From the boiler efficiency, η _{B} , η _{B} = Q ^{o} _{A} / m ^{o} _{F} HHV = m ^{o} q _{A} / m ^{o} _{F} HHV
Then
m ^{o} _{F} / m ^{o} = q _{A} / (η _{B} HHV) m ^{o} _{F} / m ^{o} = 0.0798
SFC 
= 0.0798 SSC 

= 0.3016 
kg/kW hr 

SFC 
= 301.6 
gm/kW hr 
8.5 DEVIATION OF ACTUAL CYCLE FROM IDEAL CYCLE:
8.5.1 TURBINE AND PUMP LOSSES
Chapter 8 Vapor Power Cycle: Steam Power Plant
301
Figure 8.13 Deviation of actual cycle from ideal cycle
Due to irreversibility entropy increases during compression and expansion processes. Actual point at pump exit is 2. Actual point at turbine exit is 4. Deviation of pump and turbine from ideal case may be
evaluated by an isentropic efficiency,
η is
, for both as follows:
η
η
i,p
i,t
=
=
w
(h
2s
−
h
1
)
i,p
=
w
w
(h
(h
2
3
−
−
h
h
1
4
)
)
act ,p
act ,T
=
w
i,T
(h
3
−
h
4s
)
(for pump)
(for turbine)
8.5.2 PRESSURE LOSSES IN PIPE LINES
The friction losses in the pipe lines reduce the pressure. So, the steam pressure in actual cycle is reduced in the boiler and in the pipe lines between the boiler and the turbine and between the pump and the boiler.
8.5.3 HEAT LOSSES IN PIPE LINES
The
steam
pipelines
are
usually
insulated.
The
insulation
is,
however, not perfect and some heat losses are expected.
302
LECTURE NOTES ON THERMODYNAMICS
PROBLEMS
8.1. In a steam power plant, operates on the Rankine cycle, the steam is supplied to the turbine dry saturated at 45 bar and the condenser pressure is 3.5 kPa. Calculate:
a) 
the work output, per kg of steam, 

b) 
the heat supplied per kg of steam, 

c) 
the specific steam consumption, 

d) 
the specific fuel consumption if the fuel calorific value is 42000 kJ/kg, 

e) 
the mass flow rate of the cooling water if the water temperature changes from 22 ^{o} C to 34 ^{o} C, and 

f) 
the cycle thermal efficiency, 

g) 
the 
Carnot 
cycle efficiency operating between the same 
pressure limits, h) the change of the cycle efficiency if the steam supplied is
superheated to 450 ^{o} C, 500 ^{o} C and 550 ^{o} C.
Chapter 8 Vapor Power Cycle: Steam Power Plant
303
8.2. Steam is supplied to a twostage turbine at 42 bar and 400 ^{o} C. It expands in the first stage until it is just dry saturated, then it is superheated to 400 ^{o} C and then expanded through the second stage turbine. The condenser pressure is 3.5 kPa. Calculate the work output and heat supplied for a total of 300 MW power plant. Calculate the specific steam consumption and the specific fuel consumption in gm/kW hr if the fuel calorific value is 41000 kJ/kg.
8.3. Two steam turbines are used to produce 100 MW. The steam supplied for both turbines is at 4 MPa and 400 C. The first turbine exhausts the steam at 10 kPa and 85 % quality. The steam leaves the second turbine is used to supply heat for an industrial process. So it exits from the second turbine at 1 bar and then passes through a heat exchanger. The steam at the exit of the heat exchanger is saturated liquid at the same pressure of 1 bar. If the first turbine produces 80 % more specific work, and also power, than the second turbine, determine:
1. The quality, if wet, or the temperature, if superheated, at the exit of the second turbine;
2. The mass flow rate through both turbines; and
3. The heat rejected from the heat exchanger.
8.4. Repeat problem 8.2 if the expansion is not isentropic in both stages, assuming an isentropic efficiency of 85 % for the first stage and 80 % for the second stage. Compare the efficiencies and comment.
8.5. Steam enters the first stage turbine of a 200 MW steam power plant at 170 bar and 600 ^{o} C. The steam leaves the first stage turbine at 40 bar. 15 % of the steam is extracted for feed heating and the remainder is reheated to 600 ^{o} C and then expanded through the second turbine stage to a final condenser pressure of 0.035 bar. Calculate the cycle efficiency and the output power if the generator mechanical and electrical efficiency is 95 %. Calculate the specific
304
LECTURE NOTES ON THERMODYNAMICS
steam consumption and specific fuel consumption, assuming a fuel calorific value of 42000 kJ/kg. Calculate the amount of cooling water required for a temperature rise from 18 ^{o} C to 26 ^{o} C.
8.6. A steam turbine is to operate on a simple regenerative cycle. The steam is supplied dry saturated at 40 bar and is exhausted to a condenser pressure of 0.07 bar. The condensate is pumped to a
pressure of 3.5 bar at which it is mixed with bleed steam from the turbine at 3.5 bar. The resulting water, which is at saturation temperature, is then pumped to the boiler. For the ideal cycle calculate:
a) the amount of bleed steam required per kg of steam supplied,
b) the thermal efficiency of the plant, and
c) the specific steam consumption.
8.7. Steam is supplied to twostage turbine at 40 bar and 500 ^{o} C. In the first stage the steam expands isentropically to 3.0 bar at which
pressure 2500 kg/hr of steam is extracted for process work. The remainder is reheated to 500 ^{o} C and then expanded isentropically to 0.06 bar. The byproduct power from the plant is required to be 6000 kW. Calculate the amount of steam required from the boiler,
and 
the heat supplied in kW. Neglect the pump terms, and assume 
that 
the process condensate returns at the saturation temperature to 
mix 
adiabatically with the condensate from the condenser. 
8.8. In a regenerative steam cycle employing three feed heaters, steam is supplied to the turbine at 42 bar and 500 ^{o} C and is exhausted to the condenser at 0.035 bar. The bleed steam for feed heating is taken at pressures of 15, 4 and 0.5 bar. Calculate the amount of steam bled at each stage, the work output of the plant in kJ/kg of boiler steam and the thermal efficiency. Assume that the isentropic efficiency is 80 %.
8.9. A combined reheat and regenerative cycle is used in a steam power plant to produce 300 MW. The steam leaves the boiler at 4 MPa
and 400 ^{o} C and enters the highpressure turbine at 3.5 MPa and 380
^{o} C. The isentropic efficiency of the highpressure turbine is 85 %.
Chapter 8 Vapor Power Cycle: Steam Power Plant
305
The reheat pressure is 1 MPa and the steam enters the lowpressure turbine at 380 ^{o} C. The steam enters the condenser at 5 kPa and 93 % dryness fraction. During expansion in the lowpressure turbine dry saturated steam is extracted for feedwater heating in a closed type feedwater heater. Find the extraction pressure. Neglect the pump work and calculate:
(i) 
the isentropic efficiency of the lowpressure turbine, 
(ii) 
the specific steam consumption, 
(iii) the specific fuel consumption if the boiler efficiency is 84 % and the fuel calorific value is 41000 kJ/kg, and (vi) the cycle thermal efficiency.
8.10. In a regenerative steam power plant a 500 ton/hr steam enters the turbine at 45 bar and 500 ^{o} C. The specific fuel consumption is 265 gm/kW hr. The cycle contains one open type feed water heater operates at 5 bar. Consider an isentropic expansion in the turbine to 0.05 bar, then calculate:
(i) the power of the plant, (ii) the specific steam consumption,
(iii) 
the boiler efficiency if the fuel calorific value is 40000 kJ/kg, 
and 
(vi) the cycle thermal efficiency.
8.11. A steam Rankine cycle operates between 4 MPa and 10 kPa is used to deliver 150 MW of power. If the steam enters the turbine is superheated at 450 ^{o} C, calculate:
1. The cycle efficiency
2. The steam flow rate and specific steam consumption.
3. The rate of heat added to the boiler.
4. The amount of cooling water if its inlet and exit temperatures
are 15 ^{o} C and 25 ^{o} C, respectively.
306
LECTURE NOTES ON THERMODYNAMICS
8.12. In a simple Rankine cycle 85 kg/sec of steam leaves the boiler at a pressure of 50 bar and temperature of 550 ^{o} C and then expands
the condenser at a pressure of 0.03 bar and
through the turbine to
dryness fraction of 0.9. Calculate:
1. Cycle efficiency
2. The pump power
3. The net power
4. The specific steam consumption in kg/kW hr
5. The specific fuel consumption, in gm/kW hr, if the boiler efficiency is 88 % and the fuel heating value is 50000 kJ/kg
6. The exergy of steam at the turbine inlet in kW
8.13. A steam power cycle produces 100 MW and operates between
boiler pressure of 40 bar and condenser pressure of 0.03 bar. If the steam enters the turbine at 450 ^{o} C and the turbine efficiency is 92 %, calculate:
1. The pump power
2. The turbine power
3. The cycle thermal efficiency
4. The specific fuel consumption in gm/kW hr, assuming the boiler efficiency is 88 % and the fuel heating value is 50000 kJ/kg
8.14. A steam power cycle operates with reheat and regenerative modifications. The steam enters the first turbine at 50 bar and 500 ^{o} C. The steam expands in the first turbine with an isentropic efficiency of 90 % to a pressure of 20 bar, then the steam is reheated to a temperature of 450 ^{o} C. During expansion in the second turbine steam is extracted from two points to two opentype feed water heaters at pressures of 8 and 2 bars. The steam enters the condenser at 0.035 bar and 92 % dryness fraction. If the net power of the cycle is 150 MW, calculate:
1. The cycle thermal efficiency
2. The amount of bled steam to both feed water heaters in tons/hr
3. The total steam flow rate
4. The second turbine efficiency
Chapter 8 Vapor Power Cycle: Steam Power Plant
307
5. The specific steam consumption
6. The specific fuel consumption if the boiler efficiency is 85 %
and the fuel heating value is 50000 kJ/kg
8.15. A steam power cycle operates with reheat and regenerative modifications. The steam enters the first turbine at 60 bar and 500 ^{o} C. The steam expands in the first turbine with an isentropic efficiency of 90 % to a pressure of 20 bar. During expansion in the first turbine steam is extracted at a pressure of 30 bar. The steam is reheated to a temperature of 450 ^{o} C. During expansion in the second turbine saturated vapor steam is extracted to an opentype feed water heater. The steam enters the condenser at 0.035 bar and 92 % dryness fraction. If the net power of the cycle is 300 MW, calculate:
1. The extracted pressure from the second turbine
2. The cycle thermal efficiency
3. The amount of bled steam to both feed water heaters in tons/hr
4. The total steam flow rate
5. The second turbine efficiency
6. The specific steam consumption
7. The specific fuel consumption if the boiler efficiency is 85 % and the fuel heating value is 50000 kJ/kg
8.16. A steam power cycle operates with reheat and regenerative
modifications. The steam enters the first turbine at 50 bar and 500 ^{o} C. The steam expands in the first turbine to a pressure of 20 bar and temperature of 375 ^{o} C, then the steam is reheated to a temperature of 450 ^{o} C. During expansion in the second turbine steam is extracted from two points to two opentype feed water heaters at pressures of 10 and 2 bars. The steam enters the condenser at 0.035 bar and 93 % dryness fraction. If the net power of the cycle is 150 MW, calculate:
1. The cycle thermal efficiency
2. The total steam flow rate
3. The first turbine efficiency
4. The second turbine efficiency
5. The specific steam consumption
308
LECTURE NOTES ON THERMODYNAMICS
6. The specific fuel consumption if the boiler efficiency is 85 % and the fuel heating value is 50000 kJ/kg
8.17. A steam power cycle operates with reheat and regenerative
modifications. The steam enters the first turbine at 60 bar and 560 ^{o} C. The steam expands in the first turbine to a pressure of 20 bar and temperature of 400 ^{o} C, then the steam is reheated to a temperature of 500 ^{o} C. During expansion in the second turbine steam is extracted from two points to two closedtype feed water heaters at pressures of 8 and 4 bars. The steam enters the condenser at 0.035 bar and 90 % dryness fraction. If the net power of the cycle is 150 MW, calculate:
1. 
The cycle thermal efficiency 
2. 
The total steam flow rate 
3. 
The first turbine efficiency 
4. 
The second turbine efficiency 
5. 
The specific steam consumption 
6. 
The specific fuel consumption if the boiler efficiency is 85 % and the fuel heating value is 50000 kJ/kg 
8.18. 
A steam power cycle operates with regenerative modification. The 
steam enters the turbine at 70 bar and 600 ^{o} C. During expansion in the turbine steam is extracted from four points to four opentype
feed water heaters at pressures of 20, 10, 5 and 2 bars. The steam enters the condenser at 0.035 bar and 89 % dryness fraction. If the net power of the cycle is 150 MW, calculate:
1. 
The cycle thermal efficiency 
2. 
The turbine isentropic efficiency 
3. 
The total steam flow rate 
4. 
The amount of bled steam to each feed water heaters in tons/hr 
5. 
The specific steam consumption 
6. 
The specific fuel consumption if the boiler efficiency is 85 % and the fuel heating value is 50000 kJ/kg 
8.19. 
A steam power cycle operates with regenerative modification. The 
steam enters the turbine at 70 bar and 600 ^{o} C. During expansion in
the turbine steam is extracted from four points to four closedtype
Chapter 8 Vapor Power Cycle: Steam Power Plant
309
feed water heaters at pressures of 15, 8, 4 and 1 bars. The steam enters the condenser at 0.035 bar and 89 % dryness fraction. If the net power of the cycle is 150 MW, calculate:
1. The cycle thermal efficiency
2. The turbine isentropic efficiency
3. The total steam flow rate
4. The amount of bled steam to each feed water heaters in tons/hr
5. The specific steam consumption
6. The specific fuel consumption if the boiler efficiency is 85 % and the fuel heating value is 50000 kJ/kg
8.20. A steam power cycle operates with reheat and rengenerative modifications. The steam enters the first turbine at 60 bar and 550 ^{o} C and then expands to a pressure of 30 bar and temperature of 450 ^{o} C. The steam is reheated to a temperature of 540 ^{o} C and then expands in a second turbine with an isentropic efficiency of 92 % to a pressure of 15 bar. The steam is then reheated again to a temperature of 500 and expands to a condenser pressure of 0.035
bar and 93 % dryness fraction. During expansion in the last turbine saturated steam is extracted to an open type feedwater heater. If the net power of the cycle is 300 MW, calculate:
1. The cycle thermal efficiency
2. The isentropic efficiencies of the first and last turbines
3. The total steam flow rate
4. The specific steam consumption
5. The specific fuel consumption if the boiler efficiency is 85 % and the fuel heating value is 50000 kJ/kg
8.21. A steam power cycle operates with reheat and rengenerative modifications. The steam enters the first turbine at 60 bar and 550 ^{o} C and then expands to a pressure of 30 bar and temperature of 450 ^{o} C. The steam is reheated to a temperature of 540 ^{o} C and then expands in a second turbine with an isentropic efficiency of 92 % to a pressure of 15 bar. The steam is then reheated again to a temperature of 500 and expands to a condenser pressure of 0.035
310
LECTURE NOTES ON THERMODYNAMICS
bar and 93 % dryness fraction. During expansion in the third turbine steam is extracted at 4 bar to an open type feedwater heater. If the net power of the cycle is 300 MW, calculate:
1. The cycle thermal efficiency
2. The isentropic efficiencies of the first and last turbines
3. The total steam flow rate
4. The specific steam consumption
5. The specific fuel consumption if the boiler efficiency is 85 % and the fuel heating value is 50000 kJ/kg
8.22. A steam power cycle operates with both reheat and regenerative
modifications. The steam enters the first turbine at 150 bar and 450 ^{o} C and then expands to saturated steam at a temperature of 200 ^{o} C. The steam is reheated to a temperature of 400 ^{o} C and then expands in a second turbine with an isentropic efficiency of 92 % to a condenser pressure of 0.035 bar. During expansion in the second turbine three streams of steam are extracted for feed water heating to three open type feed water heaters. The extraction pressures are selected through the turbine with equal intervals between the inlet and exit pressures of the turbine. If the net power of the cycle is 250 MW, calculate:
1. The cycle thermal efficiency
2. The turbine isentropic efficiency of the first turbine
3. The total steam flow rate
4. The specific steam consumption
5. The specific fuel consumption if the boiler efficiency is 85 % and the fuel heating value is 50000 kJ/kg
8.23. A steam power cycle operates with reheat and regeneration modifications. The steam enters the first turbine at 50 bar and 500 ^{o} C and then expands isentropically to a pressure of 15 bar. The steam is reheated to a temperature of 450 ^{o} C and then expands in a second turbine with an isentropic efficiency of 90 % to a condenser
pressure of 0.035 bar. During expansion saturated steam is extracted to an open type feedwater heater. If the net power of the cycle is 250 MW, calculate:
1. The extraction pressure
Chapter 8 Vapor Power Cycle: Steam Power Plant
311
2. The cycle thermal efficiency
3. The total steam flow rate
4. The specific steam consumption
5. The specific fuel consumption if the boiler efficiency is 85 % and the fuel heating value is 50000 kJ/kg
8.24. A steam power cycle operates with reheat and regeneration modifications. The steam enters the first turbine at 50 bar and 500 ^{o} C and then expands isentropically to a pressure of 15 bar. During expansion in the first turbine steam is extracted for feedwater heating at a pressure of 20 bar. The steam leaves the first turbine is reheated to a temperature of 450 ^{o} C and then expands in a second turbine with an isentropic efficiency of 90 % to a condenser pressure of 0.035 bar. During expansion in the second turbine dry saturated steam is extracted to an open type feedwater heater. If the net power of the cycle is 250 MW, calculate:
1. The extraction pressure
2. The cycle thermal efficiency
3. The total steam flow rate
4. The specific steam consumption
5. The specific fuel consumption if the boiler efficiency is 85 % and the fuel heating value is 50000 kJ/kg
8.25. It is required to study the effect of number of feedwater heaters on the Rankine cycle efficiency. If the boiler pressure is 60 bar and the condenser pressure is 0.035 bar, calculate the cycle efficiency for one, two, three, four and five opentype feedwater heaters considering the extraction pressures to be equally divided between the boiler and condenser pressures. Assume the turbine inlet temperature is 550 ^{o} C and the steam enters the condenser at 0.85 dryness fraction. Plot the efficiency versus the number of heaters and comment. You are allowed to approximate the extraction pressure to the nearest integer values.
312
LECTURE NOTES ON THERMODYNAMICS
8.26. It is required to study the effect of number of feedwater heaters on the Rankine cycle efficiency. If the boiler pressure is 80 bar and the condenser pressure is 0.035 bar, calculate the cycle efficiency for one, two, three, four and five closedtype feedwater heaters considering the extraction pressures to be equally divided between the boiler and condenser pressures. Assume the turbine inlet temperature is 650 ^{o} C and the steam enters the condenser at 0.95 dryness fraction. Plot the efficiency versus the number of heaters and comment. You are allowed to approximate the extraction pressure to the nearest integer values.
8.27. It is required to study the effect of number of reheats on the Rankine cycle efficiency. If the boiler pressure is 70 bar and the condenser pressure is 0.035 bar, calculate the cycle efficiency for one, two, three, four and five turbines considering the reheat pressures to be equally divided between the boiler and condenser pressures and the reheat temperature is 650 ^{o} C. Assume the turbine inlet temperature is 650 ^{o} C and the isentropic efficiency of all turbines is 90 %. Plot the efficiency versus the number of heaters and comment. You are allowed to approximate the reheat pressures to the nearest integer values.
8.28. A steam power cycle operates with reheat and regenerative modifications. The steam enters the first turbine at 60 bar and 550 ^{o} C and then expands isentropically to a saturated vapor. The steam is reheated to a temperature of 300 ^{o} C and then expanded isentropically to saturated steam conditions. The steam once again reheated to a temperature of 250 ^{o} C and then expanded to a condenser pressure of 0.035 bar with an isentropic efficiency of 90
%. During expansion in the last turbine saturated steam is extracted to a closed type feedwater heater. If the net power of the cycle is 250 MW, calculate:
1. The reheat pressures
2. The cycle thermal efficiency
3. The total steam flow rate
Chapter 8 Vapor Power Cycle: Steam Power Plant
313
4. The specific steam consumption
5. The specific fuel consumption if the boiler efficiency is 85 % and the fuel heating value is 50000 kJ/kg
8.29. A steam power cycle operates with reheat and regenerative
modifications. The steam enters the first turbine at 60 bar and 550 ^{o} C and then expands isentropically to a saturated vapor. The steam is reheated to a temperature of 500 ^{o} C and then expanded to a condenser pressure of 0.035 bar with an isentropic efficiency of 90 %. During expansion in the second turbine steam is extracted to an opentype feedwater heater. Consider the extraction pressure half way between inlet and exit pressures of the turbine. If the net power of the cycle is 250 MW, calculate:
1. The cycle thermal efficiency
2. The total steam flow rate
3. The specific steam consumption
4. The specific fuel consumption if the boiler efficiency is 85 % and the fuel heating value is 50000 kJ/kg
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