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Sasaki

Yu k i e S a s a k i
D r. E i j u n S e n a h a
Scholar and Scholarship
S e p t e m b e r. 2 9 , 2 0 0 4

To l k i e n s B a c k g r o u n d o f t h e T h o u g h t b e h i n d T h e S i l m a r i l l i o n :
An Annotated Bibliography

1. Introduction
The aim of this research is to collect the primary and
s e c o n d a r y m a t e r i a l s t h a t d e a l w i t h J . R . R . To l k i e n ( 1 8 9 2 - 1 9 7 3 )
a n d h i s e p i c f a n t a s y, e d i t e d b y h i s s o n , C h r i s t o p h e r To l k i e n , T h e

Silmarillion (1977).

The selected 88 materials reveal to the

r e a d e r s t h e s o u r c e o f To l k i e n s l i t e r a r y i n s p i r a t i o n a n d t w o
contradictly ideas, mono theism and polytheism, coexist in
To l k i e n s w o r k s .
I n t h i s a n n o t a t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y, I d i v i d e t h e m a t e r i a l s i n t o
three sections.

In each section, materials are arranged in

c h r o n o l o g i c a l a n d a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r.

The first section collects

the

the

selected

primary

Silmarillionthe

work

sources
itself,

after

a u t h o r s

publication
letters,

and

of
the

The
12

volumes of manuscripts, The History of Middle-earth (1983-96).


I excluded from vol. 6 to vol. 9, because these books do not
c o n t a i n T h e S i l m a r i l l i o n s m a n u s c r i p t s .

Since The Silmarillion

i s n o t a c o m p l e t e w o r k a r r a n g e d b y To l k i e n h i m s e l f , c r i t i c s

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sometimes need to see older forms of a particular episode.


second section covers the selected biographies.

The

About the

a u t h o r s l i f e a n d p e r s o n a l i t y, t h i s r e s e a r c h p r e s e n t s H u m p h r e y
C a r p e n t e r s f i r s t b i o g r a p h y, J . R . R . To l k i e n : A B i o g r a p h y ( 1 9 7 7 ) ,
a n d t h r e e o t h e r a u t h o r s s t u d y b o o k s . C a r p e n t e r p r o v i d e s u s
w i t h To l k i e n s g e n e r a l b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , s o t h a t h i s
w o r k i s c o n s i d e r e d a s t h e m o s t r e l i a b l e b i o g r a p h y.

Other

w r i t e r s a l s o r e f e r t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r e a d i n g To l k i e n s i n t e r e s t
in the European myths and his Catholicism in the works, so that
I picked up them as the main biographical sources that appeared
from the late 70s to late 90s.

The third sectio n contains the

secondary sources: books, critical essays, and articles from 1976


to

2004.

This

project

omitted

the

materials

before

The

S i l m a r i l l i o n s p u b l i c a t i o n a n d t h a t d e a l w i t h o n l y To l k i e n s
former works.
T h e t e r m s f o r r e s e a r c h a r e To l k i e n , T h e S i l m a r i l l i o n ,
M i d d l e - e a r t h , m y t h , m y t h o l o g y, r e l i g i o n , f a i t h , C h r i s t i a n i t y,
C a t h o l i c , C a t h o l i c i s m , b a c k g r o u n d , f a n t a s y, n a r r a t i v e , s t r u c t u r e ,
a n d h i s t o r y.

When these terms could not be found in the each

title, I read abstracts and book reviews as the referen ce tools.


The sources of the information are MLAIB, EBSCO Host,
Humanities Index, DAI, UMI ProQuest Digital Dissertations,
N A C S I S We b c a t , K a r l s r u h e r Vi r t u e l l e r K a t a l o g , a n d
amazon.com.

R i c h a r d C . We s t s To l k i e n s C r i t i c i s m : A n

A n n o t a t e d C h e c k l i s t ( 1 9 8 1 ) , J u d i t h A . J o h n s o n s J . R . R .

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To l k i e n : S i x D a c a d e s C r i t i c i s m ( 1 9 8 6 ) , a n d Wa y n e G .
H a m m o n d s J . R . R . To l k i e n : A D e s c r i p t i v e B i b l i o g r a p h y ( 1 9 9 3 )
a l s o s u p p l i e d p l e n t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t To l k i e n s w o r k s .
Besides, the references of the three anthologies th at were
published in 2000 are helpful to know the important critics and
s c h o l a r l y b o o k s o f To l k i e n s t u d y t h r o u g h t h e l a s t h a l f o f t h e
c e n t u r y.
Although this work was edited and published after the
a u t h o r s d e a t h , T h e S i l m a r i l l i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e n e c e s s a r y
work to understand the structure of Middle -earth, the stage of
To l k i e n s w o r k s , b e c a u s e i t e x p l a i n s i t s h i s t o r y a n d m y t h i n e p i c
prose style.

I n t h i s s t o r y, t w o o f t h e m a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f

To l k i e n s w o r k s , t h e b o r r o w i n g f r o m N o r t h e r n m y t h a n d t h e
i n f l u e n c e o f C h r i s t i a n i t y, a r e e x p r e s s e d f a r m o r e a p p a r e n t l y
than in The Hobbit (1937) and The Lord of the Rings (1954-55).
A s To l k i e n s l i f e w o r k , t h i s s t o r y i s b a s e d o n h i s a t t e m p t t o
r e c r e a t e E n g l a n d s l o s t m y t h t h a t h a d a l r e a d y g r o w n i n a u t h o r s
mind during the 1910s, and the revising had continued to the
end of his days.
T h e w h o l e o f To l k i e n s t u d y b e c a m e d e e p e r a n d w i d e r
a f t e r 1 9 7 7 , b e c a u s e T h e S i l m a r i l l i o n a n d C a r p e n t e r s b i o g r a p h y
supplied more detailed information about Middle -earth and the
author himself.

L i k e C a r p e n t e r, T. A . S h i p p e y, B r i a n R o s e b u r y,

a n d m a n y o t h e r c r i t i c s p o i n t o u t t h e t e n d e n c y o f To l k i e n
criticism is split into two opposite flows: admiration and abuse.

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As Pearce suggests, critics did not estimate the works that


contain mystic or romantic modes so highly in the 1950s.

For

e x a m p l e , E d m u n d Wi l s o n w h o c l a i m e d T h e L o r d o f t h e R i n g s a s a
p r o d u c t o f e s c a p i s m i s f a m o u s a s To l k i e n s a n t a g o n i s t .
The evaluation of The Silmarillion was not so high soon
a f t e r i t s p u b l i c a t i o n b e c a u s e o f i t s l e n g t h a n d l a c k o f u n i t y.

It

was boring for general readers, and many critics questioned its
value as a literary work, like Neil D. Isaacs comment in 1981
shows.

H o w e v e r, a s t h e a u t h o r s s t u d y p r o c e e d e d a n d To l k i e n s

primary idea to create the na tional myth of England were


known

in

the

80s,

the

critics

gradually

appreciated

The

S i l m a r i l l i o n s m e r i t a s t h e s o u r c e o f M i d d l e - e a r t h w o r k s , a s
Richard Mathews says.

To l k i e n s a t t e m p t t o m a k e t h e w h o l e

universe by himself is given a positive reputatio n because of its


p e c u l i a r i t y.

In the 80s and 90s, comparative study made a

c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h i s w o r k a n d M i l t o n s P a r a d i s e L o s t , m y t h
c r i t i c i s m a n a l y z e d t h i s w o r k w i t h J u n g i a n t h e o r y, a n d f o l k l o r i c
study

suggests

Kalevala.
text

to

the

narrative

similarity

between

Edda

or

N o w, T h e S i l m a r i l l i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d a s a n e s s e n t i a l

understand

the

allusions in other works.

meaning

of

historical

or

mythical

L i k e S h i p p e y a n d Ve r l y n F l i e g e r,

many critics consider it as a tool for searching the linguistic,


p h i l o s o p h i c a l , a n d r e l i g i o u s r o o t s o f To l k i e n t h a t b e c o m e s t h e
k e y s t o c l e a r t h e c o m p l i c i t y o f To l k i e n s w o r k , c o n s i d e r i n g h i s
l o n g i n g f o r E u r o p e a n m y t h a n d C h r i s t i a n f a i t h s i n f l u e n c e s .

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2. List of Abbreviations

Amon Hen

A m o n H e n : T h e B u l l e t i n o f t h e To l k i e n S o c i e t y

FS

On Fairy Story

Hobbit

The Hobbit

HM

The History of Middle -earth

J FA

Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts

Letters

T h e L e t t e r s o f J . R . R . To l k i e n

Mallorn

M a l l o r n : T h e J o u r n a l o f t h e To l k i e n S o c i e t y.

Minas Tirith E vening Star


M i n a t h T i r i t h E v e n i n g S t a r : J o u r n a l o f t h e To l k i e n
Society
Mythlore

M y t h l o r e : a j o u r n a l o f J . R . R . To l k i e n , C . S . L e w i s ,
C h a r l e s Wi l l i a m s , G e n e r a l F a n t a s y a n d M y t h i c
Studies.

LR

The Lord of the Rings

Seven

Seven: An Angl o-American Literary Review

Sil

The Silmarillion

UT

T h e U n f i n n i s h e d Ta l e s

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3. Primary Sources

1977
[ 1 ] To l k i e n , J . R . R . T h e S i l m a r i l l i o n . E d . C h r i s t o p h e r To l k i e n .
1 9 7 7 . 2 n d e d . L o n d o n : H a r p e r, 1 9 9 9 . N e w Yo r k : D e l R e y, 2 0 0 1 .
Collected myths and historical episodes of Middle -earth
t h a t a r e b a s e d o n To l k i e n s a t t e m p t t o r e c r e a t e
E n g l a n d s l o s t m y t h .

Contains the motifs that

r e p e a t e d l y a p p e a r i n To l k i e n s w o r k s , l i k e t h e
confliction between good and evil, the creation and the
destruction, and the power that causes characters
degradation.

The most significant theme is the nature

o f e v i l , s o t h a t S i l m s n a r r a t i v e m o d e i s c o n s i s t e n t l y
tragic.

1980
[ 2 ] To l k i e n , J . R . R . U n f i n i s h e d Ta l e s . E d . C h r i s t o p h e r To l k i e n .
L o n d o n : A l l e n & U n w i n , 1 9 8 0 . L o n d o n : H a r p e r, 1 9 9 8 .
The first collection of the rough drafts of Silm and LR.
Narn i Hn Hlin and The History of Galadriel and
Celeborn supply the more detailed explanation of the
episodes that show us the similarity between myth and
To l k i e n s s t o r y.

1981

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[ 3 ] To l k i e n . J . R . R . T h e L e t t e r s o f J . R . R . To l k i e n . E d .
H u m p h r e y C a r p e n t e r.

London: Allen & Unwin, 1981. London:

H a r p e r, 1 9 9 5 .
T h e c o l l e c t i o n o f To l k i e n s p r i v a t e a n d b u s i n e s s l e t t e r s
from 1913 to 1973.

I n p a r t i c u l a r, t h e l e t t e r s f r o m 1 9 3 7

shows his attempt to complete Silm as a next work of

Hobbit and the confliction between publishers.

1983
[ 4 ] To l k i e n , J . R . R . T h e B o o k o f t h e L o s t Ta l e s , P a r t O n e . E d .
C h r i s t o p h e r To l k i e n . Vo l . 1 o f T h e H i s t o r y o f M i d d l e - e a r t h . 1 2
v o l s . L o n d o n : A l l e n & U n w i n , 1 9 8 3 . L o n d o n : H a r p e r, 2 0 0 2 .
C o n t a i n s t h e e a r l i e r v e r s i o n s o f S i l m s e p i s o d e s .

Some

names of the characters are different with Silm itself.


There are the earliest and more detailed ideas about
the Gods, Elves, and other creatures, of the Silmari ls
a n d Tw o Tr e e s , o f N a r g o t h r o n d a n d G o n d o l i n .

It is

useful to learn the process of making the creation myth


o f To l k i e n .

1984
[ 5 ] To l k i e n , J . R . R . T h e B o o k o f t h e L o s t Ta l e s , P a r t Tw o . E d .
C h r i s t o p h e r To l k i e n . Vo l . 2 o f T h e H i s t o r y o f M i d d l e - e a r t h . 1 2
v o l s . L o n d o n : A l l e n & U n w i n , 1 9 8 4 . L o n d o n : H a r p e r, 2 0 0 2 .
Contains the earlier and more detailed version of the

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tales of Beren and Lthien, Trin and the Dragon, and


the only full narratives of the Necklace of the Dwarves
and the Fall of Gondolin.

T h e l a s t c h a p t e r, T h e H i s t o r y

o f E r i o l o r l f w i n e i s o n e o f t h e p r o o f s o f To l k i e n s u s i n g
of English legend.

1985
[ 6 ] To l k i e n , J . R . R . T h e L a y s o f B e l e r i a n d . E d . C h r i s t o p h e r
To l k i e n . Vo l . 3 o f T h e H i s t o r y o f M i d d l e - e a r t h . 1 2 v o l s . L o n d o n :
A l l e n & U n w i n , 1 9 8 5 . L o n d o n : H a r p e r, 2 0 0 2 .
The alliterative verse style of two of the main story of

Silm, titled Lay of the Children of Hrin and The Lay of


Lthien.

C h r i s t o p h e r To l k i e n s e t s t h e s e v e r s e s a s t h e

c h i e f s o u r c e s o f t h e T r i n a n d L t h i e n s s t o r y.

1986
[7]

To l k i e n ,

J.

R.

R.

The

Shaping

of

Middle-earth.

Ed.

C h r i s t o p h e r To l k i e n . Vo l . 4 o f T h e H i s t o r y o f M i d d l e - e a r t h . 1 2
v o l s . L o n d o n : A l l e n & U n w i n , 1 9 8 6 . L o n d o n : H a r p e r, 2 0 0 2 .
Describes

the

shaping

of

the

chronological

and

geographical structure of the legends of Middle-earth


a n d Va l i n o r.

Also includes the original Silmarillion of

1926, and the Quenta Noldorinwa of 1930, the only


version of the myths and legends of the First Age that
To l k i e n c o m p l e t e d t o t h e e n d .

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1987
[ 8 ] To l k i e n , J . R . R . T h e L o s t R o a d a n d O t h e r Wr i t i n g s . E d .
C h r i s t o p h e r To l k i e n . Vo l . 5 o f T h e H i s t o r y o f M i d d l e - e a r t h . 1 2
v o l s . L o n d o n : A l l e n & U n w i n , 1 9 8 6 . L o n d o n : H a r p e r, 2 0 0 2 .
C o m p l e t e s t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f h i s w r i t i n g a b o u t Va l i n o r
a n d M i d d l e - e a r t h s h e r o i c l e g e n d s b e f o r e t h e s t a r t o f
writing of LR, 1937-38.

The Legend of the Downfall of

Nmelor had entered the work, including those central


i d e a s : t h e Wo r l d M a d e R o u n d a n d t h e S t r a i g h t P a t h i n t o
t h e We s t .

1993
[ 9 ] To l k i e n , J . R . R . M o r g o t h s R i n g . E d . C h r i s t o p h e r To l k i e n . Vo l .
1 0 o f T h e H i s t o r y o f M i d d l e - e a r t h . 1 2 v o l s . 1 9 9 3 . L o n d o n : H a r p e r,
2002.
The manuscripts of later history of Silm.

The text of

the Annals of Aman is given in full, and each episodes


show the readers that the matter of good and evil
becomes the heart of the LR and Silm through the
description of Morgoth(Melkor), the greatest power of
evil in Arda.

1994
[ 1 0 ] To l k i e n , J . R . R . T h e w a r o f t h e J e w e l s . E d . C h r i s t o p h e r
To l k i e n . Vo l . 11 o f T h e H i s t o r y o f M i d d l e - e a r t h . 1 2 v o l s . 1 9 9 4 .

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L o n d o n : H a r p e r, 2 0 0 2 .
The later history of Silm from the point where it was left
in vol.10, and refers the history of the First Age of
Middle-earth, mainly the conflicts of the High Elves and
the Men who were their allies with the power of the Dark
Lord.

It supplements the description of Silm and The

B o o k o f L o s t Ta l e s .

1996
[ 11 ]

To l k i e n ,

J.

R.

R.

The

Peoples

of

Middle-earth.

Ed.

Vo l . 1 2 o f T h e H i s t o r y o f M i d d l e - e a r t h . 1 2

C h r i s t o p h e r To l k i e n .

v o l s . 1 9 9 6 . L o n d o n : H a r p e r, 2 0 0 2 .
The

supplement

fragmental
reveals

us

of

writing

the

appendices

related

To l k i e n s

to

new

Silm.

insights

to

LR

and

Part

two

and

new

c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n h i s l a s t y e a r s , i n p a r t i c u l a r, t h e
nomenclature of the Elves and detailed information
a b o u t M e n , D w a r v e s , a n d Wi z a r d s .

2002
[ 1 2 ] To l k i e n , J . R . R . T h e H i s t o r y o f M i d d l e - e a r t h I n d e x . E d .
C h r i s t o p h e r To l k i e n . L o n d o n : H a r p e r, 2 0 0 2 .
Covers the various indexes contained in the whole HM.
It provides the readers all the peoples, places, and other
s i g n i f i c a n t e n t r i e s o f M i d d l e - e a r t h i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r.

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11

4. Biographical Information

1976
[ 1 3 ] K i l b y, C l y d e S . To l k i e n & T h e S i l m a r i l l i o n . W h e a t o n : H a r o l d
S h a w, 1 9 7 6 .
A r e p o r t a g e o f To l k i e n a n d h i s a t t i t u d e t o t r y t o c o m p l e t e

Silm.

T h e m o s t o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i s b a s e d o n K i l b y s

i n t e r v i e w w i t h To l k i e n .

Chapter 3 and 4 is particularly

d e t a i l e d a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n To l k i e n s w o r k s
and his Catholic faith.

1977
[14]

C a r p e n t e r,

H u m p h r e y.

J . R . R . To l k i e n : A B i o g r a p h y .

L o n d o n : A l l e n & A n w i n , 1 9 7 7 . L o n d o n : H a r p e r, 2 0 0 2 .
The

most

reliable

biography

of

To l k i e n .

Carpenter

s u c c e e d e d i n d e s c r i b i n g To l k i e n s c o n v e r s i o n o f a C a t h o l i c
and the process he had a strong interest about myth and
legend of Europe in detail.

I t s h o w s To l k i e n s r e l i g i o u s

mind and longing for myth that are assimilated in his


thought.

1981
[ 1 5 ] C r a b b e , K a t h a r y n F. J . R . R . To l k i e n . N e w Yo r k : U n g a r,
1981.
A n a u t h o r s s t u d y t h a t e x p l a i n s t h e c o n t e n t s o f S i l m .

It

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e v a l u a t e s S i l m a s t h e c o r e o f To l k i e n s w o r k s a n d t h e
most difficult to understand part because of its length
a n d l a c k o f u n i t y.

[ 1 6 ] P e a r c e , J o s e p h . To l k i e n : M a n a n d M y t h . 1 9 9 8 . L o n d o n :
H a r p e r, 1 9 9 9 .
An

a u t h o r s

study

biographical facts.
whole

works,

and

book

that

mainly

owes

to

the

Evaluates Silm as the basis of his


points

out

To l k i e n

was

often

misunderstood by critics who are considers myth as


mere illusion and products of escapism.
shows

the

similarities

between

Silm

Chapter 6

and

Genesis,

M i l t o n s P a r a d i s e L o s t , a n d A u g u s t i n e T h e o l o g y.

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5. Secondary Sources

1978
[17]

F o s t e r,

Robert.

The

Complete

Guide

to

Middle -earth:

To l k i e n s Wo r l d f r o m A t o Z . R e v. e d . N e w Yo r k : B a l l a n t i n e , 1 9 7 8 .
An index of the terms, name of the places and people,
things, and historical events about LR, Sil, and Hobbit.
All the terms are arranged according to alphabetical
o r d e r.

Each item ha s detailed explanation and source

of the information.

[ 1 8 ] M a t h e w s , R i c h a r d . L i g h t n i n g f r o m a C l e a r S k y : To l k i e n , T h e

Tr i l o g y, a n d t h e S i l m a r i l l i o n . S a n B e r n a r d i n o : B o r g o , 1 9 7 8 .
S u m m a r i z e s To l k i e n s m a j o r w o r k s a s a g e n e r a l g u i d e .
Evaluates Silm as a myth rather than a novel because of
i t s n a r r a t i v e s p e c u l i a r i t y, a n d p o s i t i o n s i t a s a p r i m a r y
source of LR.

Mathews says that Silm represents the

Christian moral by the Northern mythic form.

1981
[ 1 9 ] H e l m s , R a n d e l . To l k i e n a n d t h e S i l m a r i l s : I m a g e n a t i o n a n d

M y t h i n T h e S i l m a r i l l i o n . N e w Yo r k : H o u g h t o n , 1 9 8 1 .
D e l i n e a t e s To l k i e n s g l a d f u l c r e a t i o n , a n d t r a c e s s o m e
of

the

sources,

analogues,

themes

and

publication

history of The Silmarillion and shows its relationship to

Sasaki 14

To l k i e n s

other

works.

Tr a c e s

as

influences

from

Wi l l i a m M o r r i s , t h e B i b l e , M i l t o n , t h e K a l e v a l a , t h e

Mabinogian, and the Elder Edda.


J.

R.

R.

To l k i e n :

Six

[Johnson, Judith A.

Decades

of

Criticism .

B i b l i o g r a p h i e s a n d I n d e x e s i n Wo r l d L i t . 6 . We s t p o r t :
G r e e n w o o d . 2 11 ]

[ 2 0 ] I s a a c s , N e i l D . O n t h e N e e d f o r Wr i t i n g To l k i e n C r i t i c i s m .
E d . N e i l D . I s a a c s a n d R o s e A . Z i m b a r d o . To l k i e n : N e w C r i t i c a l

P e r s p e c t i v e s . L e x i n g t o n : U P o f K e n t u c k y, 1 9 8 1 . 1 - 7 .
R e v i e w o f t h e c r i t i c a l t e n d e n c y o n To l k i e n s w o r k s u p t o
Evaluates Silm is not argued enough, so that it i s

1981.

o n l y u s e f u l t o p r o o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n To l k i e n s
motivation for writing and his Christian faith, with a
c i t a t i o n f r o m P a u l K o c h e r s b o o k .

[ 2 1 ] K o c h e r, P a u l . M i d d l e - e a r t h : A n I m a g i n a r y Wo r l d ? E d . N e i l
D.

Isaacs

and

Rose

A.

Zimbardo.

To l k i e n :

New

Critical

P e r s p e c t i v e s . L e x i n g t o n : U P o f K e n t u c k y, 1 9 8 1 . 11 7 - 1 3 2 .
Wi t h

citation

geographical,
Middle-earth

from

FS,

historical,
and

real

proofs

the

biological
world.

similarity

of

elements

of

Points

out

the

similarities between the characteristic and location of


the Undying Lands of Silm and Celtic tale, imrama.

Sasaki 15

[22] McLellan, Joseph. Frodo and the Cosmos: Reflections on


The Silmarillion. Ed. Neil D. Isaacs and Rose A. Zimbardo.

To l k i e n : N e w C r i t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s . L e x i n g t o n : U P o f K e n t u c k y,
1981. 163-167.
Introduces Silm as a predecessor of LR.

S i l m s

importance

To l k i e n s

works

to

that

understand
considers

the

every

Emphasizes
worldview

event

of

as

the

component of the world itself, for the events of Silm is


told in LR as historical facts.

[ 2 3 ] We s t , R i c h a r d C . To l k i e n C r i t i c i s m : A n A n n o t a t e d C h e c k l i s t .
T h e S e r i f S e r. 3 9 . K e n t : K e n t S t a t e U P, 1 9 8 1 .
An annotated bibliography of the primary source s and
c r i t i c a l e s s a y s a b o u t To l k i e n s w o r k s i n c l u d i n g b o o k
reviews

and

Ph.D.

dissertation.

About

critical

responses, this book contains 755 secondary materials


from

1920s

to

1981.

Provides

three

materials and indexes in alphabetical

categorizes
order:

of

list of

To l k i e n s w r i t i n g s , l i s t o f b o o k s , l i s t o f t h e e s s a y s t i t l e s ,
checklist of Dissertations, a nd information of major f an
organizations and publications.

[24]

Wi c h e r,

Andrzej.

The

Artificial

Mythology

of

The

S i l m a r i l l i o n b y J . R . R . To l k i e n . K w a r t a l n i k N e o f i l o l o g i c z n y 2 8 .
3-4 (1981): 399-405.

Sasaki 16

Insists on the sources of Silm are both the Bible and the
Greek/Nordic myth.

The degradation of the creatures

and their relationships between God and the higher


c r e a t u r e t h a n o n e s o w n r a c e i s a f f e c t e d b y C h r i s t i a n
belief, and the battle between the heroes and the evil
creatures are influenced from Norther n saga.

These

two characteristics are gathered together by the tragic


m o o d a n d f i n a l l o s s a f t e r t h e v i c t o r y, b e c a u s e i t r e f l e c t s
t h a t To l k i e n s f e e l i n g a b o u t t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f e v e r y
mythological belief is paralleled with the predominance
o f C h r i s t i a n i t y.

1982
[ 2 5 ] S h i p p e y, T. A . T h e R o a d t o M i d d l e - e a r t h . L o n d o n : A l l e n a n d
Unwin, 1982.
E x p l a i n s t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n To l k i e n s c r e a t i v i t y
and

the

sources

of

his

inspiration.

Discusses

the

c o n t r i b u t i o n o f S i l m a n d U T t o To l k i e n s m y t h - c y c l e ,
s h o w i n g h o w To l k i e n s m o r e d i f f i c u l t w o r k s c a n b e r e a d
enjoyably and seriously by readers of his earlier books.
[ h t t p : / / w w w. a m a z o n . c o m / e x e c / o b i d o s / t g / d e t a i l / - / 0 6 1 8 2 5 7
608/qid=1097171436/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/10
2-0038638-9744948?v=glance&s=books&n=507846]

1983

Sasaki 17

[ 2 6 ] F l i e g e r, Ve r l y n . S p l i n t e r e d l i g h t : L o g o s a n d L a n g u a g e i n

To l k i e n ' s Wo r l d . G r a n d R a p i d s : W M . B . E r d m a n s , 1 9 8 3 .
D i s c u s s e s t h e i m a g e s o f L i g h t a n d D a r k n e s s i n To l k i e n s
world and their meaning, especially these motifs in Silm
and LR.

Ta k e s u p To l k i e n s c o n v e r s i o n a s a n i m p o r t a n t

matter among his biographical facts, and points out the


connection between Christian view and these images.

1984
[ 2 7 ] E l t o n , D a v i s L a r r y. A C h r i s t i a n P h i l o s o p h i c a l E x a m i n a t i o n
o f T h e P i c t u r e o f E v i l i n t h e Wr i t i n g s o f J . R . R . To l k i e n . D i s s .
S o u t h w e s t e r n B a p t i s t T h e o l o g i c a l S e m i n a r y, 1 9 8 3 .
Tr i e s t o f i n d To l k i e n s a e s t h e t i c l i t e r a r y p r e s e n t a t i o n o f
evil can be best described as a mystic portrayal of the
Augustinian classical Christian view of evil.

Chapter

describes the myth of the origin of evil as portrayed in

S i l m , h i g h l i g h t i n g To l k i e n s e m p h a s i s o n t h e d o c t r i n e o f
the Fall and his reliance on a free -will explanation of the
origin of evil. [DAI-A44/12 (1984): 3712]

[ 2 8 ] P u r t i l l , R i c h a r d L . J . R . R . To l k i e n : M y t h , M o r a l i t y, a n d

R e l i g i o n . S a n F r a n c i s c o : H a r p e r, 1 9 8 4 .
Suggests the basic source of Silm is the Christian belief,
especially the creation myth (Ainulindar), in chapter 7,
but the two points are different from Judeo -Christian

Sasaki 18

theology:

A i n u r s

male/female
To l k i e n s

role

feature.

artistic

as

subcre ators,

Analysis

writing

these

technique

and

their

differences
to

use

as

pagan

m y t h o l o g y t o r e p r e s e n t C h r i s t i a n i t y, l i k e R e n a i s s a n c e
Christian artists.

[29]

Rawls,

Melanie.

The

Feminine

Principle

in

To l k i e n .

Mythlore 38 (1984): 5-13.


Insists on the balance of gender and the balance of the
w o r d s c o n d i t i o n e f f e c t o n e a c h o t h e r i n To l k i e n s w o r k s .
Rawls analyzes the meaning of masculine elements and
f e m i n i n e e l e m e n t s b a s e d o n t h e J u n g i a n t h e o r y, a n d
when the world is in bad condition, the negative power
of each element is operated.

1985
[30]

Burgess,

Michael.

Orom

and

the

Wi l d

Hunt:

the

d e v e l o p m e n t o f a m y t h . M a l l o r n 2 2 ( 1 9 8 5 ) : 5 - 11 .
Analyzes the similarity between Orom, one of the gods
i n S i l m , a n d t h e Wi l d H u n t , t h e h a u n t e d h u n t e r i n
Northern Europe folklore.

This image was created from

p e o p l e s a w e f o r t h e h a r d w e a t h e r l i k e a t h u n d e r s t o r m ,
and the Elves fear when they first hear the sound of
O r o m s r i d e i s s i m i l a r t o t h i s r e a c t i o n .

Sasaki 19

[ 3 1 ] C r o s s l e y, R o b e r t . A L o n g D a y s D y i n g : T h e E l v e s o f J . R . R .
To l k i e n a n d S y l v i a To w n s e n d Wa r n e r. E d . C a r l B . Yo k e a n d
D o n a l d M H a s s l e r. D e a t h a n d S e r p e n t : I m m o r t a l i t y i n S c i e n c e

Fiction and Fantasy. Contributions to the Study of Science


F i c t i o n a n d F a n t a s y. 1 3 . We s t p o r t : G r e e n w o o d , 1 9 8 5 . 4 9 - 5 6 .
C o m p a r a t i v e e s s a y o n S i l m a n d Wa r n e r s K i n g d o m s o f

Elfin.

Wi t h a c i t a t i o n f r o m M i l t o n s P a r a d i s e L o s t ,

Crossley says the elves in each works are in common


with the point they cannot find rest and consolation the
w o r l d b e c a u s e o f t h e i r i m m o r t a l i t y.

[32] Egan, Thomas M. The Silmarillion and The Rise of Evil:


The Birth Pains of Middle -earth. Seven 6 (1985): 79-84.
An supplementary explanation on Silm.

Egan defines

t h a t t h e m a i n c o n c e r n o f To l k i e n a s a m y t h m a k e r i s a
question of evil, and points out the similarity between
Melkor/Morgoth and Satan.

[ 3 3 ] K o c h e r, P a u l . I l v a t a r a n d T h e S e c r e t F i r e . M y t h l o r e 4 3
(1985): 36-37.
A n a l y z e s I l v a t a r, t h e g r e a t e s t g o d o f t h e w o r l d i n
To l k i e n s w o r k s .

T h e t h r e e n a m e s o f t h e G o d , I l v a t a r,

E r u , a n d t h e O n e s u g g e s t a k i n d o f t r i n i t y, a n d t h e
S e c r e t F i r e m e a n s t h e e t e r n i t y o f i t s p o w e r. B e c a u s e o f
its power and the relationship between the Fire (the

Sasaki 20

light), Kocher insists that the influence of Christianity


w a s n o t l o s t u p o n To l k i e n s w o r k s .

1986
[ 3 4 ] F l i e g e r, Ve r l y n . N a m i n g t h e U n n a m e a b l e : T h e N e o p l a t o n i c
O n e i n To l k i e n s S i l m a r i l l i o n . E d . T h o m a s H a l t o n a n d J o s e p f P.
Wi l l i m a n . Wa s h i n g t o n D C : C a t h o l i c U o f A m e r. P, 1 9 8 6 . 1 2 7 - 1 3 2 .
An philosophical analysis of Silm.

Points out that

To l k i e n s d e s c r i p t i o n o n I l v a t a r i s i n c o m m o n w i t h t h e
Neoplatonic thoughts about the God that consider him as
the One.

I l v a t a r s a n o t h e r n a m e , E r u , m e a n s a n a m e

for unnamable one, and its concept is close to Dionysius


consept of Holy Names.

[35]

Johnson,

Judith

A.

J . R . R . To l k i e n : S i x D e c a d e s o f

C r i t i c i s m . B i b l i o g r a p h i e s a n d I n d e x e s i n Wo r l d L i t . 6 .
We s t p o r t : G r e e n w o o d , 1 9 8 6 .
A n a n n o t a t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y o f To l k i e n s p r i m a r y w o r k s
and critical essays about the works from 1922 to 1984.
Chapter

contains

21

primary

sources

and

461

secondary sources during last 10 years, and expresses


the readers and the critics response toward Silm as a
kind

of

shock.

H o w e v e r,

evaluates

it

as

a n

i n t e r e s t i n g s o u r c e b o o k t h a t h e l p s To l k i e n s s c h o l a r t o
deepen theirs understanding.

Sasaki 21

[36]

Mende,

Lisa

Anne.

Gondolin,

Minas

Tirith

and

the

Eucatastrophe. Mythlore 48 (1986): 37-40.


Points out the similarity between the episode of Minas
Tirith in LR and Gondolin in Silm.

Their location and

political position in Middle-earth are similar to each


o t h e r, a n d b o t h e p i s o d e s r e p r e s e n t To l k i e n s r e l i g i o u s
morals:

confession,

absolution,

resurrection,

and

eucatastrophe.

1987
[ 3 7 ] A g y, N i l s I v a r. A N o d a l S t r u c t u r e i n To l k i e n s Ta l e s o f t h e
First Age? Mythlore 50 (1987): 22-25.
Compares the episodes that are shared in Silm, LR,

H o b b i t , a n d H M a n d d i s c u s s e s To l k i e n s t e n d e n c y t o u s e
the

same

r e p e a t e d l y.
these

images
The

stories help

and

to

similar
to

revise
episodes

the

same

which

understand the

episodes

appears

in

nodes in the

several stories, and reveals the points and themes that


To l k i e n w a s m o s t i n t e r e s t e d i n .

[ 3 8 ] E v a n s , R o b l e y. To l k i e n s Wo r l d - C r e a t i o n : D e g e n e r a t i v e
Recurrence. Mythlore 51 (1987): 5-8, 47.
Explains the narrative structure of Silm and LR.
sets

degenerative

recurrences

as

the

main

Evans
plot

of

To l k i e n s w o r k s b e c a u s e t h e c r e a t i o n a n d t h e d e s t r u c t i o n

Sasaki 22

are occurs alternately in Silm and LR.


facts

that

creation

always

Points out the

contains

the

seeds

of

degeneration that caused by having the desire to make


and

possess

better

thing,

and

possessiveness

is

significant key to destruct a person, a nation, and order


of the world.

1988
[39]

Greenman,

David.

The

Silmarillion

as

Aristotelian

E p i c - Tr a g e d y. M y t h l o r e 5 3 ( 1 9 8 8 ) : 2 0 - 2 5 .
I n d i c a t e s A r i s t o t l e s P o e t i c s i n f l u e n c e s S i l m a n d i n s i s t s
To l k i e n e x p a n d s A r i s t o t l e s n o t i o n s b y t h e m a t t e r s o f
language, spectacle, magnitude, and plot.

In the level

o f c h a r a c t e r s , F a n o r, T h i n g o l , a n d F i n r o d s f a t e a n d
personality are presented as the exam ples of hamartia
i n G r e e k t r a g e d y.

[40]

Ve i t h ,

Gene

Edward.

Fantasy

and

the

Tr a d i t i o n

of

Christian Art. Mythlore 53 (1988): 34-37.


Analyzes

Christianity

as

the

backgrounds

of

many

a u t h o r s o f m o d e r n f a n t a s y l i t e r a t u r e , s u c h a s To l k i e n ,
Lewis, MackDonald.

Ve i t h s h o w s t h e a r t s t r a d i t i o n

and way of express when it has occurred in ancient


Greece,

and

C h r i s t i a n i t y.

the

process

these

had

mingled

with

Sasaki 23

1990
[ 4 1 ] B r o a d w e l l , E l i z a b e t h . E s s a n d N a r n : N a m e , I d e n t i t y, a n d
N a r r a t i v e i n t h e Ta l e o f T r i n Tu r a m b a r. M y t h l o r e 6 4 ( 1 9 9 0 ) :
34-44.
Analyzes the magical aspects of the naming as the
figuration

of

individual

or

social

identity

that

is

exampled by Trin and his various pseudonyms.

His

names

the

and

these

meanings

interrelate

with

narrative of his checkered life, so that these enhance the


m a i n p l o t a n d t h e t r a g i c m o o d o f t h e s t o r y.

[ 4 2 ] P r o v o s t , Wi l l i a m . L a n g u a g e a n d M y t h i n t h e F a n t a s y
Wr i t i n g s o f J . R . R . To l k i e n . M o d e r n A g e 3 3 . 1 ( 1 9 9 0 ) : 4 3 - 5 2 .
Ta k e s u p t h e m y t h i c a l e l e m e n t s o f l a n g u a g e a n d i t s
a c t i o n i n To l k i e n s w o r k s , e s p e c i a l l y S i l m a n d L R .

Evil

language is the language of power used to force a


creature into predetermined pattern s, on the other hand
good language means truth and accepting the free will or
realness of all creation.

[ 4 3 ] S y m e , M a r g a r e t R u t h . To l k i e n a s G o s p e l Wr i t e r. D i s s .
Mcgill U, 1989.
C i t i n g To l k i e n s e v a n g e l i c t h e o r y i n F S , S y n e e v a l u a t e s
To l k i e n a s a g o s p e l w r i t e r w h o u s e s t h e a l l u s i o n s t o
b i b l i c a l a n d c l a s s i c a l m y t h o l o g y. D e s c r i b e s To l k i e n s

Sasaki 24

effort to provide his tale with a consistent Christian


point of view is less successful, for his portrayal of Evil
is slightly weak. [DAI-A50/04 (1989): 973]

1991
[44] Barnfield, Marie. Celtic Influences on the History of First
Age. Mallorn 28 (1991): 2-6.
Points

out

that

Silm

and

LR

contain

i n f l u e n c e s i n s p i t e o f To l k i e n s d e n i a l .

many

Celtic

As the proof,

Barnfield lists the characteristics of the Elves and their


s a i l i n g t o t h e We s t .

[ 4 5 ] B e a c h , S a r a h . F i r e a n d I c e : T h e Tr a d i t i o n a l H e r o i n e i n T h e
Silmarillion. Mythlore 67 (1991): 37-41.
A n a l y z e s f o u r h e r o i n e s i n S i l m u s i n g J u n g i a n t h e o r y,
the

Fair

and

Dark

Heroines

archetypes.

After

discusses on the positive and negative elements of


To l k i e n s h e r o i n e s , B e a c h c o n c l u d e s w h e r e t h e h e r o i n e s
take action to assist their hero, there is a positive
result in the course of events.

1992
[46] Obrien, Donald. The Genesis of Arda. Mallorn 29 (1992):
44-53.
A c h r o n o l o g i c a l r e c o r d o f To l k i e n s w o r k s f r o m 1 9 1 6 t o

Sasaki 25

1973.

Compares the same episodes in Silm and its

f o r m e r m a n u s c r i p t s , T h e B o o k o f L o s t Ta l e s , a n d t h e i r
stage of writing and their process of revising.

Through

these processes, OBrien examines the interrelationship


b e t w e e n e a c h w o r k s a n d To l k i e n s a t t e m p t t o m a k e h i s
own mythopoeia has already begun in 1910s.

[ 4 7 ] R o s e b u r y, B r i a n . To l k i e n : A C r i t i c a l A s s e s s m e n t . N e w Yo r k :
S T. M a r t i n s P, 1 9 9 2 .
Tr i e s t o r e v e a l t h a t To l k i e n s o r i g i n a l i t y a n d m o d e r n i t y
i n e a c h w o r k s n e i t h e r o v e r - p r a i s i n g n o r d i s p o s a b l e v i e w.
Compared

Silm

to

LR,

Rosebury

says

they

are

f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m e a c h o t h e r, a l t h o u g h t h e y
s h a r e t h e s a m e p l a c e s a n d h i s t o r y.

Unlike LR, the mode

and the narrative of Silm are fundamentally dark, and


depict the process of corruption through the Augustian
t h e o r y, e x p l i c i t l y.

1993
[ 4 8 ] D e A n n a , L u i g i . T h e M a g i c o f Wo r d s : J . R . R . To l k i e n a n d
Finland.

Ed.

K.

J.

Batterbee.

Scholarship

&

Fantasy:

P r o c e e d i n g s o f T h e To l k i e n P h e n o m e n o n , M a y 1 9 9 2 , U n i v e r s i t y
o f Tu r k u , F i n l a n d . Tu r k u : U o f Tu r k u , 1 9 9 3 . 7 - 1 9 .
R e f e r s t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n To l k i e n s w o r k s a n d
old Finnish saga, Kalevala, as a source of his inspiration.

Sasaki 26

Being

exemplified

with

T r i n s

tale

in

Silm

and

K u l l e r v o s s t o r y i n K a l e v a l a , L u i g i e m p h a s i z e s t h a t

Kalevala influences on the structure of Silm especially


in the aspect of narrative structure as the tragic myth.

[ 4 9 ] D o d d s , D a v i d L l e w e l l y n . Te c h n o l o g y a n d S u b - c r e a t i o n :
To l k i e n s A l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e D o m i n a n t Wo r l d v i e w. E d . K . J .
B a t t e r b e e . S c h o l a r s h i p & F a n t a s y : P r o c e e d i n g s o f T h e To l k i e n

P h e n o m e n o n , M a y 1 9 9 2 , U n i v e r s i t y o f Tu r k u , F i n l a n d . Tu r k u : U
o f Tu r k u , 1 9 9 3 . 1 6 5 - 1 8 6 .
Refers

to

the

similarity

between

technology

and

creation, for they both are in common with the idea to


realize

the

imagination.

products

of

h u m a n s

free

will

and

I n h i s C h r i s t i a n v i e w, To l k i e n d e f i n e s

c r e a t i o n a s t h e G o d s a c t i v i t y, s o t h a t M e l k o r a n d A u l s
creation

without

the

permission

from

Ilvatar

is

considered rebellious act.

[ 5 0 ] D u r i e z , C o l i n . S u b - c r e a t i o n a n d To l k i e n s T h e o l o g y o f
S t o r y. E d . K . J . B a t t e r b e e . S c h o l a r s h i p & F a n t a s y : P r o c e e d i n g s

o f T h e To l k i e n P h e n o m e n o n , M a y 1 9 9 2 , U n i v e r s i t y o f Tu r k u ,
F i n l a n d . Tu r k u : U o f Tu r k u , 1 9 9 3 . 1 3 3 - 1 5 0 .
Explains

To l k i e n s

Christian

theology

i m a g e s o f n a t u r e a n d g r a c e i n t h e s t o r y.

through

the

Duriez insists

t h a t To l k i e n c r e a t e s h i s f i c t i o n a l w o r l d a s a f u s i o n o f t h e

Sasaki 27

Christian inwardly and paganism on the surface, to


symbolize the hope of Christianity

in

pre -Christian

world and emphasize and its effect on the world.

[51]

Heinemann,

Literature.

Ed.

Fredric
K.

J.

J.

To l k i e n

Batterbee.

and

Old

Scholarship

Icelandic

&

Fantasy:

P r o c e e d i n g s o f T h e To l k i e n P h e n o m e n o n , M a y 1 9 9 2 , U n i v e r s i t y
o f Tu r k u , F i n l a n d . Tu r k u : U o f Tu r k u , 1 9 9 3 . 9 9 - 1 0 9 .
Shows the relationship between Silm and Icelandic saga,
i n p a r t i c u l a r, t h e p o i n t

of view about the likeness

between their narrative styles.

Heinemann suggests

that Silm contains the three apparent characteristic of


the saga: the historian -like narrative voice, the dialogue
which typifies characters as a function, and the implicit
i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y t h a t s h o w s t h e a u t h o r s f e e l i n g t o w a r d
their

tradition.

M o r e o v e r,

S i l m s

episodes

of

the

internecine family conflict and interweaving of doom are


common with the saga.

[52] Scull, Christina. The Influence of Archaeology and History


o n To l k i e n s Wo r l d . E d . K . J . B a t t e r b e e . S c h o l a r s h i p & F a n t a s y :

P r o c e e d i n g s o f T h e To l k i e n P h e n o m e n o n , M a y 1 9 9 2 , U n i v e r s i t y
o f Tu r k u , F i n l a n d . Tu r k u : U o f Tu r k u , 1 9 9 3 . 3 3 - 5 1 .
Investigates

the

cultural

sources

of

Middle -earth

residents through the description of the architecture.

Sasaki 28

Wi t h t h e r e f e r e n c e s f r o m t h e h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s o f J . D . E .
L i e b l e i n a n d W. S t u c k l e y, S c u l l p o i n t s o u t t h e s i m i l a r i t y
between Middle-earth and real world, not only Northern
and mediaeval, but also Egyptian, Celtic, and Roman.

[ 5 3 ] S h i p p e y, T. A . To l k i e n a s a P o s t - Wa r Wr i t e r. E d . K . J .
B a t t e r b e e . S c h o l a r s h i p & F a n t a s y : P r o c e e d i n g s o f T h e To l k i e n

P h e n o m e n o n , M a y 1 9 9 2 , U n i v e r s i t y o f Tu r k u , F i n l a n d . Tu r k u : U
o f Tu r k u , 1 9 9 3 . 2 1 7 - 2 3 6 .
S u g g e s t s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f To l k i e n s i d e a a b o u t t h e
nature of the evil is parted into inner and outward one.
The

former

that

considers

the

inner

confliction

or

w e a k n e s s a s a n e n e m y i s b a s e d o n t h e C h r i s t i a n i t y, o n
the other hand the latter that represents the battle
against an enemy is based on Northern heroic saga.

[54]

Gough,

John.

SilmarillionNorthern

To l k i e n s
or

Not?

Creation

C h i l d r e n s

Myth

in

Literature

The
in

Education 30.1 (1993): 1-8.


Tr i e s t o b r e a k d o w n s t e r e o t y p e s a b o u t t h e s o u r c e s o f
To l k i e n s f i c t i o n s .

To f o c u s o n t h e e p i s o d e o f t h e c r e a t i o n

o f t h e w o r l d , h e p r o o f s t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f To l k i e n s w o r k s
and myth is not only pagan, but also Christian.

The

strength of this essay is to insist that the basis of


To l k i e n s i d e n t i t y i s C h r i s t i a n i t y, e v e n i f i t l o o k s p a g a n o n

Sasaki 29

the surface.

[55]

Hammond,

Wa y n e

G.

J . R . R . To l k i e n : A D e s c r i p t i v e

B i b l i o g r a p h y . Wi n c h e s t e r : S t P a u l s B i b l i o g r a p h i e s ; N e w C a s t l e :
Oak Knoll, 1993.
An

annotated

works.

bibliography

of

To l k i e n s

all

primary

Besides his novels and published essays like FS,

this book covers his interviews, scholar ly essays as a


philologist,

and

paintings

with

detailed

publication

data.

1995
[ 5 6 ] A g y, N i l s I v a r. Q u i d H i n i e l d u s c u m C h r i s t o ? N e w
Perspectives

on

Sub-Creation
Goodnight.

To l k i e n s

T h e o r y.

Ed.

Theological
Patricia

Dilemma
Reynolds

and
and

his
Glen

P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e J . R . R . To l k i e n C e n t e n a r y

Conference 1992. Altadena: Mythopoeic; Milton Keynes: The


To l k i e n S o c i e t y, 1 9 9 5 : 3 1 - 3 8 .
P o i n t s o u t s t r i k i n g p a r a l l e l s b e t w e e n To l k i e n s i d e a o f
s u b - c r e a t i o n a n d D a n i s h t h e o l o g i a n , N . F. S . G r u n d t v i g s
one. They both have a strong interest for North ern and
A n g l o - S a x o n m y t h o l o g y, l a n g u a g e , a n d p h i l o s o p h y, i n
spite of their position as Christian.

[ 5 7 ] B a r k l e y, C h r i s t i n e . P o i n t o f Vi e w i n To l k i e n . E d . P a t r i c i a

Sasaki 30

Reynolds and Glen Goodnight.

Proceedings of the J. R. R.

To l k i e n

1992.

Centenary

Conference

Altadena:

Mythopoeic;

M i l t o n K e y n e s : T h e To l k i e n S o c i e t y, 1 9 9 5 . 2 5 6 - 2 6 2 .
Based on the diagram of levels of interpretation by
H a z a r d A d a m s , e x a m i n e s To l k i e n s t e c h n i q u e o f u s i n g a
l i m i t e d o r o m n i s c i e n t p o i n t o f v i e w.

Because of its need

for political and vast interest, the narrator of Silm is


necessarily omniscient/third -person.

[ 5 8 ] H o s t e t t e r, C a r l F. a n d A r d e n R . S m i t h . A M y t h o l o g y f o r
England.

Ed.

Patricia

Reynolds

and

Glen

Goodnight.

P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e J . R . R . To l k i e n C e n t e n a r y C o n f e r e n c e 1 9 9 2 .
A l t a d e n a : M y t h o p o e i c ; M i l t o n K e y n e s : T h e To l k i e n S o c i e t y, 1 9 9 5 .
281-290.
Recites the five figures in Silm and HM that show the
influences from Anglo -Saxon legend.

Their episodes

a n d m e a n i n g s o f n a m e s v o u c h f o r To l k i e n s c r e a t i v e
attempt to make his own story as supporting episode of
r e a l E n g l i s h h i s t o r y.

[59] Houghton, John. Augustine and the Ainulindal. Mythlore


79 (1995): 4-8.
P o i n t s o u t t h e s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n A u g u s t i n e s D e G e n e s i ,
a symbolic interpretation on Genesis and the Ainulindal,
To l k i e n s c r e a t i o n m y t h o f S i l m .

Both authors consider

Sasaki 31

t h e a n g e l s a s G o d s a g e n t s w h o o b e y h i m , a n d c a r r y o u t
the creation of the world instead of the God.

[60]

Lewis,

Silmarillion.

Alex.
Ed.

Historical
Patricia

Bias

in

Reynolds

the
and

Making
Glen

of

The

Go odnight.

P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e J . R . R . To l k i e n C e n t e n a r y C o n f e r e n c e 1 9 9 2 .
A l t a d e n a : M y t h o p o e i c ; M i l t o n K e y n e s : T h e To l k i e n S o c i e t y, 1 9 9 5 .
158-166.
Analyzes

Silm

as

an

English

translated

historical

archive that written in secondary (imaginary) worlds


language.

L e w i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e d e f e c t o f S i l m s

narrative as a lack of fairness like real history book, and


shows the history told in Silm is influenced from the
biases and one-sided perspective based on the attempt to
justify their own side of its authors: Elves, especially
Elrond and his people.

Because of their intent, the

M o r t a l s a n d r e b e l l i o u s m i n o r i t y o f E l v e s ( F a n o r i a n s ) s
deeds are distorted.

[61] Sanford, Len. The Fall from Grace Decline and Fall in
Middle-earth: Metaphors for Nordic and Chri stian theology in

The Lord of the Rings and The Silmarillion. Mallorn 32 (1995):


15-20.
Insists the fall depicted by the history of Silmarils and
t h e d o w n f a l l o f N m e n o r a s t h e m a i n t h e m e s o f To l k i e n s

Sasaki 32

works.

Sanford suggests that Nordic and Christian

e l e m e n t s c o e x i s t i n t h e s t o r y.
about

straggle

between

For the Nordic allusion

heroes

and

monsters

inner

enemies also means the inner confliction of the people


between good and evil as Christian image of mental
trial.

[62]

S c h w e i n i c h e r,

Silmarillion.

Ed.

Eric.
Patricia

Aspects

of

Reynolds

the

and

Fall

Glen

in

The

Goodnight.

P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e J . R . R . To l k i e n C e n t e n a r y C o n f e r e n c e 1 9 9 2 .
A l t a d e n a : M y t h o p o e i c ; M i l t o n K e y n e s : T h e To l k i e n S o c i e t y, 1 9 9 5 .
167-171.
E x p l a i n s t h e c a u s e o f e a c h r a c e i n t h e w o r k s F a l l a s t h e
d e s i r e f o r f u r t h e r p o w e r, p o s s e s s i v e n e s s , a n d m i m i c r y o f
creation.

Exemplified by the episode of Original Sin

a n d A d a m a n d E v e s e x p u l s i o n f r o m G a r d e n o f E d e n , a n d
the passage about creation and sub -creation in FS,
Schweicher

shows

that

these

three

desires

are

considered as the profane of the God (Ilvatar).

[63]

St.

C l a i r,

Gloriana.

An

Overview

of

the

Northern

I n f l u e n c e s o n To l k i e n s Wo r k s . E d . P a t r i c i a R e y n o l d s a n d G l e n
Goodnight.

P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e J . R . R . To l k i e n C e n t e n a r y

Conference 1992. Altadena: Mythopoeic; Milton Keynes: The


To l k i e n S o c i e t y, 1 9 9 5 . 6 3 - 6 7 .

Sasaki 33

I n t r o d u c e s t h e O l d N o r s e L i t e r a t u r e a n d m y t h o l o g y, s u c h
a s E d d a , T h e Vo l s u n g a S a g a , a n d N j a l s S a g a , a s t h e
s o u r c e s o f To l k i e n s w o r k s .

The similarities between

them are showed as characteristics of each races, heroic


p e r s o n a l i t y, a n d f a t a l i s m .

1997
[ 6 4 ] D r o u t , M i c h a e l D a v i d C r a i g . I m i t a t i n g F a t h e r s : Tr a d i t i o n ,
Inheritance and the Reproduction of Culture in Anglo -Saxon
England. Diss. Loyola U of Chicago, 1997.
Discusses

inheritance

and

tradition

that

shape

Anglo-Saxon culture through their influence upon the


reproduction of identities and institutions. Suggests
To l k i e n

and

Albert

S.

Cook

as

two

influential

A n g l o - S a x o n i s t s c h o l a r s o f t h e Tw e n t i e t h c e n t u r y w h o
try to resurrect long-dead Anglo-Saxonist identities.
[DAI-A 58/03 (1997): 334]

[ 6 5 ] F l i e g e r, Ve r l y n . A Q u e s t i o n o f T i m e : J . R . R . To l k i e n s R o a d

to Falie.

K e n t : K e n t S t a t e U P, 1 9 9 7 .

C o m b i n e s To l k i e n s l o n g i n g f o r O t h e r T i m e ( p a s t ) w i t h
his notion about Falie, the other world that has a
different flow of time, especially in The Lost Road and

LR.

Insists

on

To l k i e n s

thought

about

the

p a s t s

goodness is connected with the skeptical view for modern

Sasaki 34

s o c i e t y, t h e o n e o f t h e m a i n p l o t o f h i s w h o l e w o r k s .

[ 6 6 ] I r i g a r e y, R i c h a r d o L u i s . To l k i e n a n d C h r i s t i a n F a i t h . D i s s .
Universidad de Navarra, 1996.
Endeavours to study the implicit theological contents of
To l k i e n s w o r k s w i t h a m a t t e r o f To l k i e n s C h r i s t i a n
f a i t h . T h r o u g h t h e d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t To l k i e n s l i t e r a l l y
myth,

c r e a t u r e s

o n t o l o g y,

the

problem

of

evil,

P r o v i d e n c e , f r e e w i l l , a n d c h a r a c t e r s s p i r i t u a l g r o w t h .
[DAI- C 58/02 (1997): 357]

1998
[67]

Hein,

Rolland.

Christian

Mythmakers:

C.

S.

Lewis,

M a d e l e i n e L E n g l e , J . R . R . To l k i e n , G e o r g e M a c D o n a l d , G . K .
Chesterton & Others. 1998. Chicago: Cornerstone, 2002.
A handbook about the modern Christian fantasy writers
and

their

meaning

works.

of

similarity

good
between

Explains
and

evil

their

S i l m s
in

the

characters

summary,
work,

and

and

the
the

biblical

characters.

[68]

Whittingham,

Ainulindal:

Elizabeth

To l k i e n s

A.

Creation

The
of

Mythology

Hope.

J FA

of

the

(1998):

212-228.
C i t i n g R o l a n d B a r t h e s s t h e o r y a b o u t m y t h , e v a l u a t e s

Sasaki 35

the characteristic of the Ainulindal is a naturalization


of

the

world.

Through

the

analysis

on

the

three

important elements in Silm: the struggle between good


a n d e v i l , t h e s u p r e m a c y o f I l v a t a r, a n d s u s t a i n i n g h o p e ,
Whittingham states the Ainulindal is a myth that helps
t h e p e o p l e o f M i d d l e - e a r t h t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e Wo r l d s
o r d e r.

1999
[ 6 9 ] G a r b o w s k i , C h r i s t o p h e r. T h e h i s t o r y o f M i d d l e - E a r t h : f r o m
a Mythology for England to a Recovery of the Real Earth.

Mallon 37 (1999): 21-27.


A n a l y z e s t h e m y t h i c e l e m e n t s i n To l k i e n s w o r k s b a s e d
o n Vi c t o r E . F r a n k l s e x i s t e n t i a l a n a l y s i s , To l k i e n s
sub-creation

t h e o r y,

and

the

biographical

facts.

S u g g e s t s To l k i e n c o n s i d e r s s u b - c r e a t i o n a s a r e f l e c t i o n
of the real events in the world and a tool to recover from
the wound.

In Silm, the tale of Trin and the Fall of

G o n d o l i n a r e r e f l e c t s To l k i e n s t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e i n
WW .

[70] Timmons, Daniel Patrick.

Mirror on Middle-earth: J. R. R.

To l k i e n a n d t h e C r i t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s . D i s s . U o f Tr o n t o , 1 9 9 8 .
General

history

of

To l k i e n

a u t h o r s s e l f - c r i t i c i s m .

study

that

includes

the

Suggests the publication of his

Sasaki 36

three main works, Hobbit, LR, and Silm as the important


stage

that

influences

on

the

critical

discusses critical responses toward them.

t e n d e n c y,

and

[DAI-A 60/01

(1999): 143]

2000
[ 7 1 ] E g g i n t o n , M a r k . To l k i e n s C o r r u p t Wo r l d . A m o n H e n 1 6 4
(2000): 20-22.
P o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e m o s t o u t s t a n d i n g t h e m e o f To l k i e n s
works,

includes

Silm,

is

corruption.

Through

the

structure of the good and the evil the good stay good
and the good turns bad/the bad always been bad stays
badshows the firmness of the binary between good and
evil.

[72]

Evans,

Jonathan.

The

Dragon-Lore

of

Middle-earth:

To l k i e n a n d O l d E n g l i s h a n d O l d N o r s e Tr a d i t i o n . E d . G e p r g e
Clark and Daniel Timmons.

J . R . R . To l k i e n a n d H i s L i t e r a r y

Resonances. Contributions to the Study of Science Fiction and


F a n t a s y. 8 9 .

We s t p o r t : G r e e n w o o d , 2 0 0 0 . 2 1 - 3 8 .

Focuses on the dragon as a motif of evil monster and its


s l a y i n g b y t h e h e r o a s a n a r r a t i v e t y p e i n To l k i e n s
works, and seeks the roots of them in Beowulf and

Vlsunga Saga.

T h e e p i s o d e o f T r i n s b a t t l e a g a i n s t

Glaulung the dragon in Silm is apparently influenced by

Sasaki 37

Northern and medieval tradition of dragon lore, as a


mixture

of

the

Sigurd

type

and

Thor

type

that

categorized by Axel Olrik.

[ 7 3 ] K o c h e r, P a u l H . A M y t h o l o g y f o r E n g l a n d . E d . H a r o l d
B l o o m . J . R . R . To l k i e n : M o d e r n C r i t i c a l Vi e w s . P h i l a d e l p h i a :
C h e l s e a H o u s e , 2 0 0 0 . 1 0 3 - 111 .
Explanations

about

To l k i e n s

fundamental

aim

of

writing to create the original myth for England and its


considerable source of inspiration: Norse-Icelandic Edda
and the Kalevala.

H o w e v e r, K o c h e r e m p h a s i z e s t h e i r

connection is mainly in the level of the prose (narrative)


style

and

tragic

matters,

for

To l k i e n

accepts

the

different worldview for the episodes of the creation and


the end of the world, positioning of the gods, and the
fatalism.

I l v a t a r,

the

mightiest

God

and

the

individual free will are more important in Silm and


other works.

[74]

Noad,

Charles

E.

On

the

Construction

of

The

S i l m a r i l l i o n . E d . Ve r l y n F l i e g e r a n d C a r l F. H o t e t t e r. To l k i e n s

Legendarium:

Essays

on

The

History

of

Middle -earth.

C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e S t u d y o f S c i e n c e F i c t i o n a n d F a n t a s y. 8 6 .
We s t p o r t : G r e e n w o o d , 2 0 0 0 . 3 1 - 6 7 .
C h r o n o l o g i c a l r e c o r d o f To l k i e n s w r i t i n g p r o c e s s o f S i l m ,

Sasaki 38

with the relationshi p between a mount of manuscripts in

HM.

E x p l a i n s h o w To l k e i n s t i c k a b a l a n c e b e t w e e n h i s

interests for Northern myth or medieval/Anglo -Saxon


legends and his idea to recreate the lost myth of England
in the real world.

[75]

S e n i o r,

W.

A.

Loss

Eternal

in

J.

R.

R.

To l k i e n s

Middle-earth. Ed. George Clark and Daniel Timmons.

J. R. R.

To l k i e n a n d H i s L i t e r a r y R e s o n a n c e s . C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e S t u d y
o f S c i e n c e F i c t i o n a n d F a n t a s y. 8 9 . We s t p o r t : G r e e n w o o d , 2 0 0 0 .
173-182.
Combines

the

outstanding

theme

of

To l k i e n s

works

includes Silm, sense of loss, with the tragic mood of


Northern myth.

After the reference of many critics

opinions, Senior evaluates Silm as the basis of LR that


e x p l a i n s h i s t h e o r y t o i m a g i n e t h e f u t u r e s h o p e f r o m t h e
p a s t s l o s s a n d d e s t r u c t i o n .

[ 7 6 ] S h i p p e y, T. A . J . R . R . To l k i e n : A u t h o r o f t h e C e n t u r y .
London: HarperCollins, 2000.
E v a l u a t e s To l k i e n a n d h i s w o r k s , e s p e c i a l l y L R , a s o n e
o f t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t b o o k i n t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y.

Also

examines the fundamental importance of Silm to the


canon

of

To l k i e n s

work.

[ h t t p : / / w w w. a m a z o n . c o m / e x e c / o b i d o s / t g / d e t a i l / - / 0 6 1 8 2 5 7

Sasaki 39

594/qid=1097176690/sr=1-2/ref=sr_1_2/102-0038638-974
4948?v=glance&s=books]

[ 7 7 ] S l y, D e b b i e . We a v i n g N e t s o f G l o o m : D a r k n e s s P r o f o u n d i n
To l k i e n a n d M i l t o n . E d . G e o r g e C l a r k a n d D a n i e l T i m m o n s .

J.

R . R . To l k i e n a n d H i s L i t e r a r y R e s o n a n c e s . C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e
S t u d y o f S c i e n c e F i c t i o n a n d F a n t a s y. 8 9 . We s t p o r t : G r e e n w o o d ,
2 0 0 0 . 1 0 9 - 11 9 .
Analyzes Silm as a story of long series of creations and
falls through the moti fs of shaping the world, through
t h e c o m p a r i n g o f b i b l i c a l a l l u s i o n i n M i l t o n s P a r a d i s e

Lost.

While

M i l t o n s

religious

view

is

based

on

P r o t e s t a n t i s m , To l k i e n b e l i e v e s R o m a n C a t h o l i c , s o t h a t

Silm

and

its

system

of

world

are

medieval.

The

differences between them are showed as the evil figure,


the

image

of

darkness,

and

the

function

of

female

characters.

2001
[78] Chance,Jean. A Mythology for England. Lexington: UP of
K e n t u c k y, 2 0 0 1 .
Beginning
mythology

To l k i e n s
for

aim

Engla nd,

of

writing
Chance

to

create

analyzes

relationship between myth and each work.

a
the

Silm is

positioned as a lost book because of its characteristic

Sasaki 40

as a history book of Middle -earth and its lack of the


complete form.

[ 7 9 ] H e y d t . B r u c e . J . R . R . To l k i e n . B r i t i s h H e r i t a g e 2 2 . 6
(2001): 14-16.
A biographical

essay

about

To l k i e n .

Refers

to

his

interest in myths, and positions Silm as a trigger of his


l i f e - l o n g c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y.

Alludes to his perfectionism,

a n d s u g g e s t s i t c a u s e s S i l m s i n c o m p l e t i o n .

2002
[80]

C o o p e r,

Susan.

There

and

Back

Again:

To l k i e n

Reconsidered. Horn Book Magazine 78.2 (2002): 143-150.


E x p l a i n s To l k i e n s i n t e r e s t s f o r A n g l o - S a x o n , N o r s e ,
Icelandic literature and his experiences during WW
and .

[81]

F l i e g e r,

Ve r l y n .

Cautiously

Ta l e .

The

Chesterton

R e v i e w : J . R . R To l k i e n M y t h o s a n d M o d e r n i t y i n M i d d l e - E a r t h
28 (2002): 97-103.
M e n t i o n s To l k i e n s s h o c k f o r W W a n d , a n d i n s i s t s
these are reflected into the wars and the damage to the
Elves and the Men in Silm.

F l i e g e r s a y s To l k i e n s

strategy that symbolizes the taboo or misfortune of


particular culture with transcendent phenomenon is

Sasaki 41

similar to the strategy of myth.

[ 8 2 ] Ty l e r, J . E . A . T h e C o m p l e t e To l k i e n C o m p a n i o n . 3 r d e d .
London: Pan Books, 1976. London: Pan Macmillan, 2002.
A r e f e r e n c e b o o k o f t h e t e r m s a b o u t a l l To l k i e n s w o r k s
related to Midle-earth.

It covers not only the term s

of LR, Hobbit, and Silm, but also other miner works ,

UT and HM.

Each term is arranged in alpha betical

order with detailed explanation, but sources of the


information are omitted.

2003
[83]

B i r z e r,

B r a d l e y,

J.

To l k i e n :

Man

Behind

the

Myth.

Christian History 22.2 (2003): 10-14.


A n b i o g r a p h i c a l e s s a y a b o u t To l k i e n .

S i l m s

biblical

characteristic

Suggests that

reflects

To l k i e n s

opposition to the political -left readers who worship LR


as a book of new paganism in 1960s, when he mainly
revised Silm.

[ 8 4 ] E l l i s o n , J o h n . F r o m F a n o r t o D o c t o r F a u s t u s : a c r e a t o r s
path to self destruction. Mallorn 41 (2003): 13-21.
Compares the episode of Fanor and Doctor Faustus
stories written by Goethe and Thomas Mann, and shows
t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y : c r e a t i v i t y, e a g e r n e s s f o r k n o w l e d g e ,

Sasaki 42

and the existence of the evil figure who leads them to


self-destructionMelkor/Morgoth and Mephistopheles.
E l l i s o n s u g g e s t s t h a t F a n o r s f a l l i s o n e o f a m e t a p h o r
of

To l k i e n s

warning

for

modern

world,

because

he

repeatedly uses the pattern of tragedy caused by the


desire for excessive power and obsession for the products
o f o n e s c r e a t i v i t y.

[85] Gloge, Andreas. Re-writing the Past The Pillars of


Middle-earth. Mallorn 41 (2003): 44-52.
E v a l u a t e s S i l m a s a s o u r c e o f a l l To l k i e n s w o r k s a n d i t
represents

h u m a n s

potential

longing

for

myth

and

religion to understand the syst em of the world in the new


w a y.

L i s t s t h e s u p p o s e d s o u r c e s , n a m e l y, o l d l a n g u a g e ,

N o r s e m y t h o l o g y, A n g l o - S a x o n M y t h o l o g y, a n d t h e B i b l e .

[86] Howard, Thomas. Sacramental Imag ination. Christian

History 22.2 (2003): 23-25.


Focuses on the influences of Catholicism on the life and
w o r k s o f To l k i e n .

Introduces Silm as a key to notice

L R s r o m a n t i c a n d n o s t a l g i c e l e m e n t s o f C a t h o l i c i s m ,
and explains good and evil in Middle -earth are based on
Christian notions.

[87]

Whittingham,

Elizabeth

Ann.

The

Final

Vi c t o r y :

The

Sasaki 43

E v o l u t i o n o f J . R . R . To l k i e n s T h e H i s t o r y o f M i d d l e - e a r t h .
D i s s . S t a t e U o f N e w Yo r k a t B u f f a l o , 2 0 0 2 .
G e n e r a l i z e s To l k i e n s w o r k s e v o l u t i o n f r o m t h e e a r l i e s t
stage of manuscripts in 1910s to his death, through the
b i o g r a p h i c a l f a c t s a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f To l k i e n s t e x t s ,
f o c u s i n g o n t h e c o s m o g o n y, t h e o g o n y, m e t a p h y s i c s , a n d
eschatology

of

his

world.

Concludes

significant concept is his Christian faith.

the

most

[DAI-A 63/08

(2003): 2884]

[ 8 8 ] Wo o d , R a l p h C . G o o d & E v i l i n M i d d l e - e a r t h . C h r i s t i a n

History 22.2 (2003): 28-32.


Introduces Silm as a tool to understand the system of
Good and Evil in Middle -earth that exampled by the
divine

characters,

figure

Melkor

M e l k o r s

and

I l v a t a r,
his

disobedience

A i n u r,

and

subordinates.
and

rebellion

the

Satanic

Suggests
are

the

that
main

m o t i v e s f o r s i n i n To l k i e n s w r i t i n g , a n d t h e F a l l c a u s e d
by characters pride are repeatedly appears through his
works as an archetype of Evil.

Sasaki 44

6. Index
[A] Agy: 21, 29
[B]Barkley: 29
Barnfield: 24
Beach: 24
Birzer: 41
Broadwell: 22
Burgess: 18
[ C ] C a r p e n t e r : 11
Chance: 39
Cooper: 40
C r a b b e : 11
Crossley: 19
[D] De Anna: 25
Dodds: 26
Drout: 33
Duriez: 26
[E] Egan: 19
Egginton: 36
Ellison: 41
Elton: 17
Evans. J: 36
Evans. R: 21
[F] Flieger: 17, 20, 33, 40
Foster: 13

Sasaki 45

[G] Garbowski: 35
Gloge: 42
Gough: 28
Greenman: 22
[H] Hammond: 29
Hein: 34
Heinemann: 27
Helms: 13
Heydt: 39
Hostetter: 30
Houghton: 30
Howerd: 42
[I] Irigarey: 33
Isaacs: 14
[J] Johnson: 20
[ K ] K i l b y : 11
Kocher: 14, 19, 37
[L] Lewis: 31
[M] Mathews: 13
Mende: 21
McLellan: 15
[N] Noad: 37
[O] Obrien: 24
[P] Pearce: 12
Provost: 23

Sasaki 46

Purtill: 17
[R] Rawls: 18
Rosebury: 25
[S] Sanford: 31
Scull: 27
Schweinicher: 32
Senior: 38
Shippey: 16, 28, 38
Sly: 38
St. Clair: 32
Syme: 23
[T] Timmons: 35
Ty l e r : 4 0
[ V ] Ve i t h : 2 2
[ W ] We s t : 1 5
Whittingham: 34, 42
Wi c h e r : 1 5
Wo o d : 4 3