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9/10/2015

pid

PIDcontroller
The most common controller used in the HVAC industry is the proportional, integral, Derivative PID
controller.Inbrief,Proportional,Integral,DerivativePIDcontrollerisafeedbackcontrollerthathelpsto
attainasetpointirrespectiveofdisturbancesoranyvariationincharacteristicsoftheplantofanyform.It
calculates its output based on the measured error and the three controller gains proportional gain Kp,
integralgainKi,andderivativegainKd.TheproportionalgainsimplymultipliestheerrorbyafactorKp.
Thisreactsbasedonhowbigtheerroris.Theintegraltermisamultiplicationoftheintegralgainandthe
sum of the recent errors. The integral term helps in getting rid of the steady state error and causes the
systemtocatchupwiththedesiredsetpoint.Thederivativecontrollerdeterminesthereactiontotherate
of which the error has been changing. In most of the HVAC systems, it is not necessary to use the
derivativepartofthePID,henceinthisproject,onlyPIcontrollerhasbeendesignedandused.Thefinal
outputofthecontroller(U)iscalculatedusingthefollowingequation:

ThesignalvalueUissentcontinuouslytothedrivingcircuitwitheverycorrespondingnewoutputbegin
measured as the process continues. Table () summarizes the pros and cons of each term of the PID
controller.

Controller
P

Pros
EasytoImplement

Cons
Longsettlingtime
Steadystateerror

PD

Easytostabilize
FasterresponsethanjustPcontroller

Canamplifyhighfrequency
noise

PI

Nosteadystateerror

Narrowerrangeofstability

Table(1):summaryoftheaffectofchangingPIDfunctions

SaturationandAntiwindup
The wind up action happens when the output of the controller reaches saturation (255 for 8bit PWM).
Duetotheerrorisstillpositive,theintegralpartcontinuestoincreasecausingmoreinputsappliedtothe
system.Thiscausesthecontrolsignaltoremaininsaturationandthefeedbackloopisbasicallybroken.
This windup action is avoided by restricting the output signal of the controller (U) to be within the
acceptablerangeoftheactuator.Here,wehaverestrictedtheoutputsignalbetween0to255(8bitPWM
signal).

PIDControllerTuningParameters
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9/10/2015

pid

ThereareacoupleofstrategiesonhowPIDcanbetunedthisincludestrialanderrortuningmethod,
ZieglerNicholstuningmethodetc.OurapproachwascalculatingthecontrolleroutputfunctionUsuch
that the final output signal (U) applied to the actuating circuit was divided by the number of shifts
determinedinPIDstructure.ThisisasystematicwayofchangingthePIDparameters.Westartedby7
shiftstotherightmeaningwedividedtheoutputsignalby2^7orthevalue128.Thiswaywearehalf
way through either increasing division factor by 128 or reducing it by 128. We started by making an
initialguessofthevalueoftheKpgainwhereKi=Kd=0.WenoticedthatwhenKphadalargevalue,we
hadafasterrisetime,butanincreaseinovershoot.ToimproveontheeffectofKp,anadditionalKiwas
alsosettoasmallvalue.Addingintegralgainhadagreateffectonreducingsteadystateerrorbetween
the desired temperature and the actual temperature. The following table gave us a rough idea of how
changingeachPIDparametercouldchangeoursystemresponse.

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