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S Hi Ali

Noviyana

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0621 1411 002

ENGLISH MORPHOLOGY
1. What is : Word, Morphology & The difference of morphology and
morphin?
What is Word?
Word is a single distinct meaningful element of speech or writing,
used with others (or sometimes alone) to form a sentence and
typically shown with a space on either side when written or printed.
In linguistics a word is the smallest element that may be uttered in
isolation with semantic or pragmatic content (with literal or
practical meaning). ----- That might sound easy - surely we all know
what a word is. In texts they are particularly easy to spot since they
are divided by white spaces. But how do we identify words in
speech? A reliable definition of words is that they are the smallest
independent units of language. They are independent in that they
do not depend on other words which means that they can be
separated from other units and can change position. Consider the
sentence:
The man looked at the horses.
The plural ending s in horses is dependent on the noun horse to
receive meaning and can therefore not be a word. Horses however,
is a word, as it can occur in other positions in the sentence or stand
on its own:
The horses looked at the man.
- What is the man looking at? - Horses.

Words are thus both independent since they can be separated from
other words and move around in sentences, and the smallest units

of language since they are the only units of language for which this
is possible.

What is Morphology?
Morphology the internal structure of words
The term morphology is Greek and is a makeup of morph- meaning
'shape, form', and -ology which means 'the study of something'.
The term is used not only in linguistics but also in biology as the
scientific study of forms and structure of animals and plants, and in
geology as the study of formation and evolution of rocks and land
forms. We are going to stick to morphology in linguistics, as the
scientific study of forms and structure of words in a language.[1]
Morphology as a sub-discipline of linguistics was named for the first
time in 1859 by the German linguist August Schleicher who used
the term for the study of the form of words. Today morphology
forms a core part of linguistics.
What is the difference between morphology and morphems?
Morphology is the study of the structure of words. -Paradoxically,
however, the concept of word itself defies simple definition. In
English, for example, words tend to be smaller than the sentence,
and we combine words to form sentences. One tricky thing,
however, is that in many languages, a single word can have
"sentence" meaning. MORPHEMES:minimal unit in which there is an
arbitrary union of asound and a meaning (lexical meaning or
grammaticalfunction).
2. What is Derivational, inflectional, and bound morpheme?
A derivation is the formation of words by adding prefixes and
suffixes to existing words and bases. A derivational morpheme is the
prefix or suffix used to create one word from another. For example,
derivational morphemes can transform a word like friend in the
following ways:
Nouns
Friendship
Unfriendliness

Adjectives
unfriendly

friendless
Verb
befriend

As such, there are noun-making morphemes, verb-making


morphemes, adjective-making morphemes,, and adverb-making
morphemes.
An inflection is a change that signals the grammatical function of
nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and pronouns (e.g., noun plurals,
verb tenses). An inflectional morpheme is used to create a variant
form of a word in order to signal grammatical information. For
example, the suffix [-ed] signals that a verb is past tense: walk-ed.
A bound morpheme is a morpheme that appears only as part of a
larger word; a free morpheme or unbound morpheme is one that can
used stand alone or can appear with other lexemes. A bound
morpheme is also known as a bound form, and similarly a free
morpheme is a free form.
3. What is noun, verb, adjective, and adverb?
Noun is a word (other than a pronoun) used to identify any of a
class of people, places, or things common noun, or to name a
particular one of these proper noun.
Verb a word used to describe an action, state, or occurrence, and
forming the main part of the predicate of a sentence, such as hear,
become, happen.
Adjective a word or phrase naming an attribute, added to or
grammatically related to a noun to modify or describe it.
Noun a word or phrase that modifies or qualifies an adjective, verb,
or other adverb or a word group, expressing a relation of place, time,
circumstance, manner, cause, degree, etc. (e.g., gently, quite, then,
there ).