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of IMECE2005

Proceedings

of IMECE2005

ASME

International

Mechanical

Engineering

Congress

Exposition

20052005

ASME

International

Mechanical

Engineering

Congress

and and

Exposition

November

5-11,5-11,

2005,

Orlando,

Florida

USAUSA

November

2005,

Orlando,

Florida

IMECE2005-80439

IMECE2005-80439

EFFICIENCY INCREASE IN THE EXTRACTION OF SUGAR CANE JUICE IN THE SUGAR CANE

MILLS BY MEANS OF THE REGULATION OF THE HYDRAULIC PRESSURES

Nelson Arzola

University o Cienfuegos

Mechanical Department

Carretera a Rodas, Kilometro 4, Cuatro Caminos

Cienfuegos, Cuba

nelsonarz@aol.com

Rafael Goytisolo

University of Cienfuegos

Mechanical Department

Carretera a Rodas, Kilometro 4, Cuatro Caminos

Cienfuegos, Cuba

rafe27@aol.com

Lester D. Suarez

University o Cienfuegos

Mechanical Department

Carretera a Rodas, Kilometro 4, Cuatro Caminos

Cienfuegos, Cuba

lester135@aol.com

Ariel Fernandez

University o Cienfuegos

Mechanical Department

Carretera a Rodas, Kilometro 4, Cuatro Caminos

Cienfuegos, Cuba

arielfernand@aol.com

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the distribution of pressure on the bagasse

layer in the sugar cane mills and an automatic regulation

proposal to increase the efficiency in the extraction of sugar

cane juice is approached.

An analysis that considers the top shaft-roller as a beam on

elastic foundation is carried out. It is possible to determine the

pressure distribution on the bagasse layer and the mill bearing

reactions. The behavior of the bagasse layer reaction is

analyzed for different hydraulic pressures in each side of the

mill; being demonstrated, an optimal relationship of pressures

to achieve a uniform compression on the bagasse layer.

The optimal hydraulic pressure rate is calculated with the

help of the outlined method. Finally, once this pressure relation

in known, a control strategy is developed for each hydraulic

cylinder.

KEY WORDS

Mill, extraction, elastic foundation, hydraulic pressure

INTRODUCTION

This paper presents a new analysis plan and the procedure

used to calculate the internal forces in the sugar cane mill

shafts. The specific studied mill has four rollers and an inclined

virgin. The reaction of the bagasse layer on the top roller was

determined considering it as a beam on elastic foundation.

top roller as a beam on elastic foundation. No previous paper

determines the variation law of this reaction along the length of

the rollers. There can be no doubt that its characterization from

the mathematical point of view offers new knowledge about the

process of compacting of sugar cane in the mills.

ANALYSIS MODEL

The following loads on the shafts were considered in the

analysis plan design:

Hydraulic force on the top shaft bearings.

Gear contact forces.

Contact forces between the top shaft square shaft and

coupling box.

Reaction of the bagasse layer on the shaft rollers.

Shaft weight and joined elements. Normal forces generated

on the virgin.

Bearing friction with the virgin.

Piston sealed friction with the cylinder walls.

It was possible to measure the instant flotation by means of

a resistive transducer, connected to a computer data acquisition

card. The contact forces Pa and Pb are related to the instant

torque and instant flotation by [1]:

1 A

Pa = Tminst . 0

2

l3

Where:

q R(z) Bagasse layer reaction intensity at a z distance from

the left end of the roller (kN/m).

- Foundation rigidity coefficient (MPa).

y(z) Shaft deflexion at distance z of the left side (mm).

(1)

1 A

Pb = Tminst . m 0

2

l3

(2)

Where:

Tminst Instant torque acting on the square shank

(KN m).

l3 Square shank face (m).

A0 Coefficient depending on the instant misalignment

ratio (m-1).

It was possible to obtain a simplified load history for the

forces acting on the top shaft square shaft, based on the instant

flotation measures and the power consumed by the

corresponding engines that move the Guillermo Moncada

sugar factory total of five mills. The history is shown as

follows:

3% of the time the top shaft works with maximum

positive misalignment.

7% of the time the top shaft works with a positive

misalignment that provokes that the supplementary

loads in the square box coupling to be the 75% of the

loads produced by the maximum misalignment.

15% of the time the top shaft works with a positive

misalignment that provokes that the supplementary

loads in the square box coupling to be the 50% of the

loads produced by the maximum misalignment.

20% of the time the top shaft works with a positive

misalignment that provokes that the supplementary

loads in the square box coupling to be the 25% of the

loads produced by the maximum misalignment.

55% of the time the top shaft works without positive

misalignment, so, the supplementary loads in the

coupling could be disregarded.

Fig. 1 shows a graph with a short time period of the

contact forces history.

is needed to know the rigidity coefficient of the foundation (),

that in this case it is compact bagasse. The mathematical model

used to determine the rigidity coefficient of the foundation ()

is:

=

C ' eq 7

[MPa]

(4)

Where:

Ceq Equivalent compression ratio of bagasse in the mill.

W Bagasse humidity percentage in the mill entrance.

M Mill position in the Tandem.

The internal forces acting on the shaft cross section could

be determined with no difficulty from the left to the right end of

the roller using the section approach. The area where the roller

is coupled is unknown because its also unknown the variation

law of the bagasse layer reaction. It can be determined using

the parameter approach for the solution of the general case of

load for a finite beam on elastic foundation [2, 3].

The analysis focuses now in the bagasse layer reaction

behavior for different relations of applied hydraulic forces on

the left and right cylinders. Previous papers state the possible

effect of the use of different hydraulic forces for both sides of

the mill. It is stated as an approach in which the flotation on

both sides of the mill is the same. But, no previous research

makes a theoretical analysis to support this behavior and in

most of them the bagasse layer reaction is considered as

distributed with uniformity [4, 5].

The intensity relation of the left side hydraulic force (qhid 1)

with respect to the intensity relation of the right side hydraulic

force (qhid 2) is stated as:

=

rollers is a reactive load and has an unknown value, so, it

should be determined using the rest of the loads acting on the

shaft. It was determined considering the shaft as a beam on

elastic foundation so that the bagasse layer reaction is

proportional to the shaft deflection for each position [2]:

q R (z ) = y(z )

(3)

qhid 1

q hid

(5)

0.75; 1.0; 1.25 and 1.5 to . The obtained result is interesting

from the working viewpoint. You can notice that when you

apply same hydraulic forces on both bearings, the cane going

near the gear side is much more compact than the one going

near the extreme side. An even more unfavorable situation

could be reached if it is applied a bigger hydraulic force (=

0,75) on the right cylinder. Obviously, if it is intended to reach

higher levels of extraction, the pressure on the bagasse layer

should be as uniform as possible along the roller width.

EG = 68,82 +

1

8,75

n

ln(PE )

n

i =1

(8)

We can see from the calculations that the global extraction

has a value of 92.7 % for equal hydraulic pressures and 93.3 %

for hydraulic pressures that exert a hydraulic pressure as

uniform as possible on the bagasse layer. It can be noticed that

the increase in the extraction efficiency is 0.6 %. Other

calculated values in the increase of the extraction efficiency

have been found between 0.5 % and 1 %.

mill is reached for =1.24; where the best symmetry is

achieved in the bagasse reaction distribution. This value

corresponds to hydraulic forces values of 22,8 MPa and 18,6

MPa (3 300 psi and 2 700 psi) for the right and left side

respectively. This parameter is in correspondence with the

uniformity level in the compression that is exerted to the cane

in the mill. Each mill should be analyzed separately in order to

know the best value. This optimal value depends on the

dimensions, working parameters and loads acting.

It is known that the higher compression pressure, the

higher extraction is achieved. Although the relation between the

extraction and the applied pressure is not lineal as it is seen in

Fig. 3. Hugott [5] offers a group of useful measures to relate

these two variables. The following extraction behavior is

obtained from the equation:

Ext = 68,82 + 8,75 ln (PHE )

(6)

AUTOMATIC CONTROL

One of the main aspects to be considered when designing

an automatic control is the good comprehension of the plant to

be studied. In our case, the analysis is centered in two main

parts: the plant to be controlled formed by hydraulic servosystem and the interpretation of the mill load diagram.

The mathematical model, which describes the pressures in

both ends of the mill, is represented as follows:

Where:

Ext Extraction percentage (%).

PHE Specific hydraulic pressure. (MPa).

It is necessary to check the behavior of the global

extraction for equal hydraulic pressures and for a relation

between them that reaches a pressure on the bagasse layer as

uniform as possible (= 1,24), keeping in both cases a total

hydraulic pressure of the same magnitude. If you divide the

area under the selected curves into many sectors, it is possible

to calculate the specific pressure for every sector as:

qn

PEn =

0,1 D

(7)

Where:

PEn Specific pressure on the n sector of the bagasse layer

(MPa).

q n Average distributed load on the n sector of the

bagasse layer (MN/m).

D Mean diameter of the rollers (m).

So that the global extraction for every working variant of

the mill can be calculated as:

V1 = -qhid1 *C4 + qyncp * C5 + C6

y

y

M2 = -qhid2 *C7 - q ncb * C8 + q ncc C9 +...

...+ Pb*C10 Pa * C11 + C12

V2 = qhid2 * C13 + qyncb *C14 - qyncc C15 +..

..+ Pb Pa + C16

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

Where:

M1, M2, V1, V2 -Bending moments and shear forces in the

roller ends.

The highlighted terms are constants that depend on the

load system, the mill geometry and the physical-chemical

properties of the material. The other parameters are variables

that relate the hydraulic pressures with the roller flotation and

the electric current consumed by the mill.

Analyzing the model to determine the variables that take

part in the control, then it is obtained:

M1 = f (p1, IM)

(13)

V1 = f (p1, IM)

(14)

M2 = f (p2, IM, f inst)

(15)

V2 = f (p2, IM, f

inst

(16)

Where:

has its own control loop in which the input signal to these loops

is the optimal pressure to be applied in every instant calculated

with the mathematical process unit.

IM Consumed electric current by the electric engine that

moves the mill.

f inst top shaft instant flotation due to bagasse layer

fluctuation.

Once it is known that the main problem lies in achieving

uniformity in the bagasse layer compression, the following

condition is determined to calculate the pressures.

M1 - M2 + (V1 + V2 ) *

L4

=0

2

(17)

constants.

Ca*p1 + Cb* p2 = f (IM, f inst)

(18)

pressure can have a magnitude as high as desired, as long as the

mechanical resistance condition is achieved for the mill

components.

Once this was determined by the tensional state, the

equation to calculate the optimal pressures to be applied on the

mill is obtained.

Cc* p1 + Cd* p2 = Cten

(19)

mechanical properties of the material. Cc and Cd are constants.

Finally, the optimal pressures are determined by means of

the equation system of (18) and (19).

As it is observed in equations 13 to 16, the calculus of the

optimal pressures to be applied on the mill is influenced

directly by the electric current and the top roller flotation on the

bagasse layer. That is why the continuous measure of these

variables will be considered in the control implementation.

Once the mathematical process is explained for the

calculation of the optimal hydraulic pressures, the analysis

should be focused in the modeling and control of the hydraulic

servo-system. The dynamic of it will determine the

requirements of the design. In this case it is more complex,

because the dynamic of the cylinder-valve assembly is highly

non lineal and relatively hard to control. On the other hand,

knowing the input signal changes continuously, the control

should be able of assuring a perfect tracking of the input signal

without obtaining instability due to the mechanical conditions.

Taking into account these peculiarities, the control loop to be

developed should compensate this behavior.

offering details about the mathematical process which was

needed, for instance: the mathematical model of the hydraulic

servo-system and controller design.

CONCLUSIONS

1- A new analysis plan was created for the sugar mill shafts

incorporating the main acting loads on those and

considering the shaft-top roller assembly as a beam on

elastic foundation. This allowed defining the real behavior

of the bagasse layer reaction on the mill rollers and on the

shafts.

3- The use of an analysis plan permits to define, for a certain

mill, the intensity relation of hydraulic forces on the top

shaft bearings. Results were obtained on the hydraulic load

intensity relation to achieve a compression as uniform as

possible of the layer all along the rollers.

4- The use of a hydraulic pressure relation with which is

achieved a compacting as uniform as possible, causes an

increase in the sugar-mill extraction efficiency between 0.5

% and 1 % for an equal total hydraulic force.

5- Considering the non lineal characteristics of the hydraulic

servo-system and the mill mechanical conditions, the

proposed control strategy achieves the needed requirements

for an optimal regulation of hydraulic pressures and in

addition, the efficiency in the extraction of sugar cane juice.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Acknowledgment to Guillermo Moncada Sugar Factory for

supplied support.

REFERENCES

[1] Okamura, H., Tanuka, H. and Terao, M. Square box

couplings in cane mill drivers, Parts 1 and 2. International

Sugar Journal, pp. 291-293 and pp 323-327, 1972.

regulation of the mill. As it is shown, every hydraulic system

en Ciencias Tcnicas. pp. 161.

/ G.S. Pisarenko, A.P. Yakovlev, V. Matvev -- Mosc:

Editorial MIR, pp. 695, 1985.

Hugott._ _ Mxico: Compaa

Editorial Continental,

S.A, pp. 803, 1986.

Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3rd Edition. pp. 888,

2000.

[4] Fernndez, G. S. (1982), Investigacin sobre el origen

y desarrollo de la falla en rboles de molinos de centrales

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