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Polytechnic University of the Philippines

Department of Elementary and Secondary Education
Sta. Mesa, Manila

Measurement and Evaluation

EDUC 2153

A Research and Synthesis on:


Submitted by:
Bercadez, April Grace R.
Manalo, Joemclee
Pollosco, Myrnilyn
Silva, Ma. Venus R.
Vega, Byron T.
Vicente, Joybelle Marie A.


Submitted to:
Professor Jay-R A. Manamtam

August 17, 2015

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Types of Tests

Standardized tests compare students' performance to that of a sample group who are
in the same grade or are of the same age. Students' performance is communicated in
percentile ranks, grade-equivalent scores, normal-curve equivalents, scaled scores, or
stanine scores.

Examples: Iowa Tests; SAT; DRP; ACT


A student's performance is measured against a standard. One form of criterion-referenced

assessment is the benchmark, a description of a key task that students are expected to

Examples: DIBELS; Chapter tests; Driver's License Test; FCAT (Florida Comprehensive
Assessment Test)

Survey tests typically provide an overview of general comprehension and word


Examples: Interest surveys; KWL; Learning Styles Inventory

Diagnostic Tools

Diagnostic tests assess a number of areas in greater depth.

Examples: Woodcock-Johnson; BRI; "The Fox in the Box"

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Formal Tests
Formal tests may be standardized. They are designed to be given according to a standard

set of circumstances, they have time limits, and they have sets of directions which are to
be followed exactly.
Examples: SAT; FCAT; ACT
Informal Tests
Informal tests generally do not have a set of standard directions. They have a great deal

of flexibility in how they are administered. They are constructed by teachers and have
unknown validity and reliability.
Examples: Review games; Quizzes
Static (Summative) Tests
Measures what the student has learned.

Examples: End-of-chapter tests; Final examinations; Standardized state tests

Dynamic (Formative) Tests
Measures the students' grasp of material that is currently being taught. Can also measure

readiness. Formative tests help guide and inform instruction and learning.
Examples: Quizzes; Homework; Portfolios

Types of Test Item Formats

Pros and Cons of Multiple Choice Test Items


Can be used to test many levels of


Test takers may perceive questions

to be tricky or too picky

Can be used to test a persons

ability to integrate information

Difficult to test attitudes towards

responses can be easily faked

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Can be used to diagnose a

persons difficulty with certain

Does not allow test takers to

demonstrate knowledge beyond
the options provided

Can provide test takers with

feedback about why distractors
were wrong and why correct
answers were right

Requires a great deal of time to

construct effective multiple choice
questions, especially ones that
test higher levels of learning

Can ask more questions, greater

coverage of material

Encourages guessing because one

option is always right

Can cover a
difficulty levels

Test takers

Usually requires less time for test

takers to answer

Usually easily scored and graded






Pros and Cons of True-False Test Items



Can ask more questions for greater

coverage of material

Does not allow test takers to


Can cover a
difficulty levels


Is difficult to construct effective

true-false items that test higher
levels of learning

Usually requires less time for test

takers to answer

Encourages guessing due to 50/50

chance of being correct

Usually easily graded and scored

Is easily faked, difficult to test

attitudes toward learning



Pros and Cons of Essay Test Items

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Can test processes used to

answer the question such as the
ability to integrate ideas and
synthesize information

Can be unreliable in assessing

the entire content of a course or
topic area

Requires use of writing skills,

correct spelling, and grammar

Essay answers are often written

poorly because test takers may
not have time to organize and
proofread answers

Can provide a more realistic and

can be generalize task for test

Is typically graded or scored

more subjectively; non-test related
information may influence scoring



Requires special effort to

graded in an objective manner

Is more difficult for test takers to

guess correct answer

Requires more time to grade or










Guidelines for Using Multiple Choice or True-False Test Items

It is generally best to use multiple-choice or true-false items when:

You want to test the breadth of learning because more material can be covered with
this format.

You want to test different levels of learning.

You have little time for scoring.

You are not interested in evaluating how well a test taker can formulate a correct

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You have a clear idea of which material is important and which material is less

You have a large number of test takers.

Guidelines for Using Essay Test Items

It is generally best to use essay items when:

You want to evaluate a persons ability to formulate a correct answer.

You want to assess a peoples ability to express themselves in writing and writing is
an important aspect of the job.

You have time to score the essay items thoroughly.

You feel more confident about your ability to read written answers critically than to
construct effective multiple-choice items.

You want to test a persons ability to apply concepts and information to a new

You have a clear idea of the most important information and concepts that should be

If you did the reflection at the end of the introduction, you may have thought about
driving tests, or exams, or attainment tests for pupils in schools, or if you have experience of
working with educational psychologists you may have thought about some of the tests they use
for identifying behavioral and learning needs. Perhaps you have taken part in an online
personality test readily available on the internet.
Tests are used in research to identify characteristics of individuals and groups. Tests are
used for different purposes, and sometimes the same test can be used for more than one purpose.

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Types of test based on psychometric principles include:

Attainment or achievement tests. The purpose of these is to identify what learning has
taken place, that is to measure progress up to a given point in time, for example,
knowledge of the curriculum, such as aspects of language proficiency, numeracy
proficiency and subject content. In Scotland we tend to think of attainment as progress
that is measured through some kind of test or examination, while achievement relates to
broader aspects of development and success. For example, a test can measure a learners
ability to use language, but it is unlikely to be able to measure the achievement of a
young person in their use of language to appreciate reading and the pleasure they gain
from it. We are more likely to talk about assessment of achievement and draw evidence
from a range of pupil work to make evaluations of pupil progress. However, within much
of the literature on testing, achievement tests refer to tests devised to demonstrate
progress in the curriculum, by quantifying and giving scores.

Ability tests. The purpose of these is to investigate underlying abilities and skills, that is
they aim to measure learners abilities, decontextualised from the influence of curriculum
or class environment, for example, cognitive ability, spatial reasoning or critical thinking
skills. The Cognitive Abilities Test, that measures verbal, quantitative and non-verbal
abilities, is an example of this and we look at in more detail in the final section of this

Aptitude tests. Texts on educational testing often refer to aptitude tests. These are used to
estimate potential, that is, future performance or performance in different contexts, for
example, tests used to determine a persons suitability for a job. Measuring aptitude
separately from current achievement is problematic because they are closely related.
However, the process of aptitude test construction is designed to identify the qualities that
predict future performance. In other words, the items are selected during the design
process because of their predictive validity. The use of aptitude tests has become
prevalent in employee recruitment, along with other psychological tests, such as
personality tests.

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Psychological tests. These cover an array of issues that represent individual differences
sometimes called traits, for example self-esteem/self-concept, interest in school,
approaches to learning, attitudes, values and beliefs and personality. Instruments used to
study these things tend to be self-report though, for example, a teacher- or parentcompleted rating scale may be used alongside an instrument completed by the young
person themselves.


Another topic for that day was Classroom Test which was presented by Honey Grace
Osorio. She asked us what the difference of test from testing and some of my classmates
answered that and she came up with one general answer. That test is an instrument device used
for finding the presence or absence of particular phenomenon or trait possessed by an individual
or group of individuals while testing is the process where you use the test. She also said that test
score gives quantitative information about test.
The presenter also gave us the limitations of tests which are: a test measure attributes
indirectly, test scores are not absolute and no test is accepted universally as standard measure for
specific attribute in its own. Aside from these limitations, she elaborated the categories and types
of tests then gave the differences of each with examples.
Maximum Performance
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It is concerned of how well an individual performs when motivated to attain a high score
as possible and the result indicates what individual can do when they put forth their

Typical Performance

Typical performance is used to reflect a persons typical behavior. They fall into general
area of personality appraisal such as interests, attitudes and alike.


Test may be classified into two broad categories on the basis of nature of the
measurement. These are: Measures of maximum performance and measures of typical

Maximum Performance Test

Intelligence Test (General Ability Test)-It provides an indication of an individuals

general mental capacity.

Aptitude Test -It is usually includes a wide variety of tests so as to shape several aspects
of cognitive function. It measures specialized abilities and the potential to learn or
perform new tasks that may be relevant to later learning or performance in a specific

Achievement Test- Tests are designed to measure the effects of a specific program of
instruction or training which the learners attained usually by their effort.


By Mode of Response
1. Oral Test
Type of test is done to measure the students oral skills and their communication.
2. Written Test

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It is also known as pencil and paper test. It used to measure the students communication
skills through writing. Compared to oral test, written test are easier because the student

can use all the time to think.

3. Practical Test
It is where the actual performance or execution of a certain skills in measure.
By Purpose Testing


Placement Test
It is primarily used to place the students in the appropriate group or class.
Formative Test
It is used for the purpose of knowing the students difficulties or to pinpoint the areas
where they failed to learn.

3. Diagnostic Test
It serves as follow-up evaluation to formative test. Its purpose is to identify some
weakness in a student.
4. Summative Test
It is a type of test always done at the end of the instruction to determine which part of the
objectives has been achieved.
By Designed Speed Of Response
1. Power Test
Measures the extent or range of how a student can respond to set of question or tastes
within a given time. It does not really focus on the speed but on the maximum number of
item he can respond.
2. Speed Test
It is a type of test that measures the rapidity of the students in answering the items.
By Degree of Rigor Employed In Preparation and Scope of Applicability
1. Teacher-made Test- Formative, Summative
2. Standardized Test - NCAE, NAT, LET, PUPCET
By Mode of Interpreting Results
1. Norm-reference Testing - Depends of the highest score in the class
2. Criterion-reference Testing - Standard of teacher
3. Self-referenced Testing - Essay test
By Format of Test Items

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Objective Test
Essay Test Items

Professor Manamtam also said that when it comes to Criterion and norm referenced tests.
The criterion will have to be first than norm because the teacher will have to lower the standards
depending on the highest score. He also said that Extended Response tests measures the feelings
and emotions of students in a broader way while Restricted Response is more specific for
example is the student will have to explain the carbon dioxide cycle.

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