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Vertebrates

Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy

~60,000 known species

Parade of the

Vertebrates

Most successful animal group in terms of


survival
One of the largest group of taxa in animal
kingdom
Found in various types of environments
Evolved for 590M years
Unique characteristics:
Presence of vertebral column
Formation of cranium

6. Amphibia
7. Reptilia
8. Aves
9. Mammalia

Ectotherms
Endotherms

5. Osteichthyes

Anamniotes

4. Chondrichthyes

Amniotes

3. Placodermii

Fishes

2. Acanthodii

Tetrapods

1. Agnatha

Gnathostomes

The
Geologic
Time
Scale

Agnathostomes

Vertebrate Classification

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The Vertebrates

Agnathans

Amphibians

Ostracoderms

Cysclostomes

Placoderms

Acanthodians

Chondrichthyans
Elasmobranchs 5
Heterocephalans 6

Osteichthyans
Actinopterygians 7
Sarcopterygians 8

Labyrinthodonts 9
Temnospondyls
10
Microsaurs
Lissamphibians 11

Reptilians
Anapsids
Squamates
Crocodilians

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Avians
Archeornithes
Neornithes

Class Agnatha

Mammals

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Monotremata
Marsupialia
Insectivora
Xenarthra
Tubulidentata
Pholidota
Chiroptera
Primates
Lagomorpha
Rodentia
Carnivora
Pinnepedia
Perissodactyla
Artiodactyla
Hyracoidea
Proboscidea
Sirenia
Cetacea

Ostracoderms
Oldest known vertebrates (Cambrian period)
Body covered with bony dermal armor (plates and tile-like
scales) armored fishes
Mostly 2-30 cm in length (longest: 2 m)

(Jawless fishes)

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Order: Heterostraci
Order: Osteostraci
Order: Anapsida
Order: Coelolepida
Order: Petromyzontiformes (lampreys)

With sense organs (eyes) and pineal body


(leads to olfactory sac)

eye); nostril

Filter feeders

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Cyclostomes

Living jawless fishes


Notochord retained in adults
Single median nostril
No paired fin
Naked skin (slime glands)
With buccal funnel (adaptation to
parasitic life) with rasping tongue and
horny denticles (lamprey)
Seven gill slits
Some marine, some freshwater
Lampreys are anadromous organisms
(marine but lay eggs in freshwater)
Hagfishes: both gonads are present but
only one is functional

Tentacles

Ostracoderm fossil from Canada


(Silurian-Devonian Period)

Cyclostomes

Order: Myxiniformes (hagfishes)

Mostly freshwater habitat (few marine during Silurian period)


(3rd

Ostracoderms

Myomyzon (Lamprey)
Fossil dated during the
Carboniferous period

Eptatretus (Hagfish)

Gill slits (twelve pairs)

Gill openings (seven pairs)

Mucous glands

Petromyzon
(Lamprey)

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Class Chondrichthyes

Subclass Elasmobranchii (naked gill slits)

*Order Cladoselachii (primitive paleozoic sharks)


*Order Plueracanthodii (freshwater paleozoic sharks with lobed
fins)
Order Squaliformes (sharks)
Order Rajiformes (sawfish, skates and rays)

Subclass Holocephali (gills covered with operculum)


Order Chimaeriformes (Chimaeras)

Elasmobranchs

Elasmobranchs

Squaliformes with fusiform bodies (swift swimmers)


Rajiformes with dorsoventrally flattened body (bottom
dwellers)
Long gestation period (2 yrs)
Cranium without sutures
Several sets of teeth
Large animals (20 m-whale shark)
Absence of swim bladder
Heterocercal tail
Large livers (bouyant oils)
Pectoral fins as hydrofoils
Absence of bones

Cartilaginous fishes
Placoid scales
Ventral mouth
With claspers (internal
fertilization)
Macrolecithal egg
Oviparous organism (eggs
with horny leathery shell
with tendrils)
Presence of spiracle (1st gill
slit) except chimeras
Mostly marine

Class Osteichthyes

Subclass Sarcopterygii (Choanichthyes) lobe-finned fishes,


fins attached to appendage (give rise to tetrapods)
Actinistians mostly extinct except Latimeria
Rhipidistians ancestors of amphibians
Dipnoans lungfishes

Subclass Actinopterygii ray-finned fishes, modern fishes


Superorder Chondrostei chiefly paleozoic
Superorder Holostei dominant Mezoic fishes with ganoid scales
Superorder Teleostei present forms of bony fishes

Chanos chanos

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Class Osteichthyes
Largest group of
extant vertebrates
Bony fishes
With operculum
Terminal mouth
With swim bladders
(air sacs)-neutral
bouyancy
With cloaca
Overlapping scales
(ganoid, ctenoid,
cycloid,)
Fins stiffened by
lepidotrichia

Chondrosteans

Most primitive ray finned


fishes
With ganoid scales
Largely cartilaginous
With spiracle
Ex. Sturgeon, paddlefish

can reach 8 m
marine and freshwater
toothless (bottom feeders)
can reach up to 100 years
Roe (egg) sold
commercially as Russian
caviar

Actinopterygii
Ray-finned fishes
Fin rays joined by membranes
Absence of internal nares
Main distinguishing characteristic:
endoskeleton composition
Superorder Chondrostei-cartilaginous
Superorder Holostei-cartilage & bones
Superorder Teleostei-bone

Holosteans
Intermediate form of ray-finned
fishes
Freshwater
Ganoid scales; No spiracles
Single air bladder
Endoskeleton is ossified
Braincase is largely
cartilaginous
Examples:
Bowfin
Garpike

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Teleosts

Teleosts

Modern fishes

muscle segments
fin supports

Ossified skeleton

brain

With cycloid or ctenoid scales


(flexible and overlapping)
olfactory
bulb

~20,000 species
Found in any body of water

urinary
bladde
r

With swim bladders

caudal
fin

Homocercal (equal lobe),


protocercal (single lobe,
vertebral column at center) or
diphycercal tail (single lobe and
vertebral column turns dorsally)
No spiracle

anus
kidney
swim bladder

heart
liver
gallbladder
stomach
intestine

dorsal fin

anal fin
pelvic fin
(one of two)

Sarcopterygii

pectoral fin
(one of two)

Latimeria

Lobed-finned fishes
Bony and fleshy lobe at the base of their paired fins
With internal nares that open into oropharyngeal cavity
Gill slits covered with operculum
Give rise to the ancestors of tetrapods
Some with cosmoid scales
2 major groups:
Actinistians mostly extinct except Latimeria
Rhipidistians ancestors of amphibians
Dipnoans lungfishes

Coelacanth
Only extant species discovered in Madagascar coast (originally
believed to be extinct for more than 65 M years)
Skull and lower jaw architecture resembles of tetrapods
(powerful jaw suspension)
Predatory

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Dipnoans

True lungfishes
Only 3 living genera
Non-functional gills
Undergo aestivation
during dry season
Similarity with
amphibians:

Origin of tetrapod limbs

Swim bladder connected to


pharynx
Swim bladder supplied with
blood via 6th aortic arch
instead of dorsal aorta
Larvae with external gill
slits
Presence of internal nares

Class Amphibia
Start of tetrapods
Anthracosaurs ancestors of amniotes (mississippian
to triassic period)
Cold blooded; Can live both in land and water
With lungs; can respire thru skin, mouth, pharynx,
lungs

Subclasses:
Labyrinthodontia- Stegocephali 1st tetrapods
Lepospondyli Lissamphibiaa

Lissamphibians
Order: Anura
(tailless)
Frogs (elongated
urostyle)

Order: Urodela
(Tailed)
Salamander
(perenibranchiate (retain
larval gills); neotenous

Order: Apoda
(Legless)
Caecilians (borrowdwelling; short tail;~30
cm long)

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Class Reptilia
Cold blooded (aquatic,
terrestrial)
Scaly; with claws
Breathe thru lungs
Developed long neck
(cervical vertebrae)
Pelvic girdle articulates
with 2 sacral vertebrae
Internal fertilization
Paired limbs usually
pentadactyl
Heart with right and left
atria
Cotylosaurs = stem
reptiles

Class Reptilia
Subclasses (based on type of skull)

Euryapsids
With single dorsal temporal fossae; modification of diapsids
Descendants of birds (plesiosaurs, ichthyosaurs)
Synapsids
With single lateral temporal fossae; descendants of
mammals
Heterodont dentition; dentary bone as the largest bone of
the lower jaw
Therapsids

Class Reptilia
Subclasses (based on type of skull)
Anapsida
Absence of temporal arch
Cotylosaurs, turtles (chelonia)

Lepidosauria
With 2 temporal fossae; Powerful jaw suspension
Sphenodon sp. or tuatara
Archosaurs
Diapsid skull (2 temporal arches); Extinct
Thecodonts (dinosaurs, crocodiles and alligators)

Order Chelonia

Cyclenis amboinensis (land


turtle)
Jaws lacks teeth
Covered with hard horny
beaks

Tortoise
Enormous size
Large head shields
Limbs modified into
swimming flippers

Chelonia sp. (sea turtle)


Gopherus sp. (desert turtle)
Eretmochelis inbricata
(hawksbill turtle)

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Order Squamata

Order Squamata

Represent the most recent reptiles


Suborder Lacertilia (Lizards)
2 pairs of pentadactyl limbs
Upper and lower eyelids
Nictitating membrane
Hemiphyllodactylus sp. (House
lizard)
Expanded digits for climbing
walls and trees
Gecko gecko (tree lizard)
Nocturnal; eyes are large,
pupils vertical
Eyelids are lost
Adhesive toe pads
Capable of loud vocalization
Varanus sp. (Giant or monitor
lizard)
Large lizard with tail longer
than head and body
Draco rizalis (flying lizard)
Lateral folds of the trunk

Order Crocodilia
Modified descendants of a group of bipedal archosaurs
Giants of the living reptiles
Crocodylus sp. (crocodiles)
Infest rivers and lakes in tropical region
Snout is narrow and pointed
4th tooth of the lower jaw is exposed when the mouth is
closed
Aggressive
Alligator sp. (alligator)
Most abundant in the coastal regions of the southern US
Snout is broad and blunt
4th tooth of the lower jaw fits into a pit in the upper jaw
Passive

Suborder Ophidia (Snakes)


Limbs are absent
Eyelids are immovably fused
Eyes are covered by transparent scales

Ophidia sp. (snake)


Crawl by bending into a series of S-shaped
curves
Some have fangs connected to poison sacs

Cobra
Long cervical ribs that can be rotated outward
Has hollow non folding fangs connected to
poison sacs
venom gland

hollow
fang

Agnathans

The Vertebrates
Amphibians

Ostracoderms

Cysclostomes

Placoderms

Acanthodians

Chondrichthyans
Elasmobranchs 5
Heterocephalans 6

Osteichthyans
Actinopterygians 7
Sarcopterygians 8

Mammals

Labyrinthodonts 9
Temnospondyls
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Microsaurs
Lissamphibians 11

Reptilians
Anapsids
Squamates
Crocodilians

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Avians
Archeornithes
Neornithes

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Monotremata
Marsupialia
Insectivora
Xenarthra
Tubulidentata
Pholidota
Chiroptera
Primates
Lagomorpha
Rodentia
Carnivora
Pinnepedia
Perissodactyla
Artiodactyla
Hyracoidea
Proboscidea
Sirenia
Cetacea

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Class Aves
Endothermic with feathers
Bipedal locomotion
Scales on their beak, legs and feet
Single occipital condyle and diapsid skull
Reduced body weight
Slender long bones with air cavities
No teeth
Has a large sternal keel (carina) for
attachment of massive flight muscle
Presence of air sacs
Reduced wrist bones, palm digits
Fusion of bones (synsacrum)
Absence of urinary bladder

Uropygial gland
Forelimbs for flying
Has a crop for storage of seeds and grain
Stomach is gizzard
Females with left ovary and left oviduct
only
External incubation

Neornithes
Subclass: Neornithes (Modern Birds)
Superorder: Odontognathae (with
teeth)
Superorder Neognathae (without teeth)
Ratites - cant fly
Carinates can fly

Subclass:

Archeornithes

Archeonithes
(Archeopteryx sp)
oldest known bird
had a long reptilian
tail
thecodont teeth on
both jaws
Forward nostrils
Skull was more
reptilian than avian
absence of beaks
unfused synsacrum
had smaller wings

Class Mammalia
Major Divisions:
Oviparous
Protheria (monotremes)
lays egg and with cloaca

Viviparous
Metatheria (marsupials)
yolk sac as placenta

Eutheria (placentals)
with chorioallantoic
placenta

with mammary gland (except


monotremes)
with hairs
Synapsid skull
1 dentary bone articulating with
squamosal bone
3 middle ear bones
With diaphragm (separates
thoracic from abdominal cavities
Sweat glands
Absence of cloaca (except
oviparous mammals)
Heterodont dentition
2 sets of teeth
Biconcave, non-nucleated RBC
Ear with pinna
Specialized voice box
Developed cerebral cortex

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Mammalian Orders
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Marsupialia
Yolk sac serve as placenta
Young nursed in marsupium
Geographically isolated in
Australia
Ex. Kangaroo, koala, wallaby,
opossum, phalanger,
Tasmanian wolf

Monotremata
Marsupialia
Insectivora
Xenarthra
Tubulidentata
Pholidota
Chiroptera
Primates
Lagomorpha
Rodentia
Carnivora
Pinnepedia
Perissodactyla
Artiodactyla
Hyracoidea
Proboscidea
Sirenia
Cetacea

Monotremes

Platypus (ductbill), Echidna (spiny anteater)


Lay eggs
Absence of nipples (modified sweat glands sucked by
youngs)
With cloaca
Testes within abdomen (absence of scrotal sac)
No pinna of ear

Insectivora
Subsist on insects
Plantigrade (flat footed)
Absence of scrotal sac
With shallow cloaca
Sharp, pointed teeth
with incisors
Premolars poorly
developed

Moles
shrew

Tree shrew

hedgehog

Mole

Albino hedgehog

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Chiroptera

Ability to fly
Presence of patagium
Hindlimb digits with claws
(clinging)
With keel (sternum)
With pinna
Sanguinivorous

Primates

Primarily arboreal mammals


Grasping hand
Opposable thumb
Presence of nails (instead of
claws)
Large cerebral hemisphere
Duplex uterus
One pair of nipples (thoracic
region)
Plantigrade
Higher primates:
Platyrrhine nostrils open
on sides
Catarrhines nostrils open
anteriorly

Carnivora
Flesh eaters
Terrestrial
Long sharp
canines
Powerful jaws
Feet with tori

Pinnipedia
Marine flesh-eaters
No pinna of ears
With flippers
Anadromous organisms

Sea Lion

walrus

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Cetacea
Aquatic marine mammals
With tail fin similar to fishes (2
lobes)
With flippers
One nostril (dorsal side)
Ex. Dolphin, whale, porpoise

Edentata
Advance insectivorous
Toothless
Armored mammals (bony
plates)
Can roll into a ball (defense
mechanism)
Nocturnal
Ex. armadillos

Peba
(9-banded armadillo)

Pholidota

Tubulidentata
Columnar teeth
with tube-like pulp
cavity
anteaters
Last surviving
ancient line of
hoofed mammals
Derived from
ancestral ungulate
lineage
Digitigrade
Ex. Aadvark

Toothless scaly anteaters


Overlapping horn scales
Ventral and inside extremities have
exposed skin with hairs
Manus and pes with long curved
claws
Skull is conical without a
zygomatic arch.
Jaw muscles are weak.
Tongue sticky & long, vermiform,
connected to long xiphisternum
process of sternum
Muscular stomach wall.
Grinding of food assisted by
pebbles (similar to gizzard of

Pangolin

birds)

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Rodentia

Largest group of
mammals
A pair of long curved
incisors (knawing)
No canines
With diastema
Can digest cellulose
(due to commensals)
With long coiled
caecum
Cellulose eaters
Plantigrade gait
Clawed feet
Ex. mouse, hamster,
guinea pig, squirrel

Perissodactyla
Unguligrades (walks on the
hoofed tips of 1 or 3 or 4 toes)
most of the body weight is
borne in a single digit
has a mexasonic foot walk on
single digit (rhino and horses)
Ex. horses, tapirs and
rhinoceros, zebras

Lagomorpha
Herbivores
2 pairs of incisors (on
upper jaw)
Split upper lip
Strong hind legs
Ex. Rabbits, hares, pikas

Artiodactyla
Ungulates (walk using 2
toes paraxonic foot)
Most diverse
Chambered stomach (at
least 3)
Ruminants (chew cud)
Ex. pigs,
hippopotamuses, cattles,
camels, peccary, deer,
antelopes, giraffe

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Proboscidea
With proboscis
Incisor form tusks
Scanty hair on thick,
wrinkled skin
5 toes ending hoof-like
nails
Molar are grinders
Bulky animal
Subungulates
Ex. elephants and
mastodons

Hyracoidea

Hunchback when at rest


Harelip
Plantigrade
4 digits on forefeet and 3 digits on
the hind feet
With small flat hoofs (except 1 digit)
Crowned teeth (similar to
ungulates)
Ex. Hyrax

Sirenia

Freshwater or marine
Strictly vegetarians
Few hairs
Paddle-like forelimbs
Hindlimb absent
(vestiges present
internally attached
pelvic girdle)
Naked skin
Vestigial nails on
flippers (manatee)
Ex. Manatees,
dugongs (sea cows)

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