Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 71

Chapter 3

Sections: 3.1-3.6; 3.8-3.9

Tests for Mechanical Strength of Materials

Common tests used to determine the monotonic strength of materials. (a) Uniaxial tensile test. (b) Upsetting
test. (c) Three-point bend test. (d) Plane-strain tensile test. (e) Plane-strain compression (Ford) test. (f) Torsion
test. (g) Biaxial test.

Mechanical Testing: Servohydraulic Machine

A servohydraulic universal testing

machine linked to a computer.
(Courtesy of MTS Systems Corp.)

Stress-Strain Curves of a Steel after Different Heat Treatments

Stressstrain curves for AISI

1040 steel subjected to
different heat treatments;
curves obtained from tensile

Idealized Uniaxial Stress-Strain Curves

Idealized shapes of uniaxial stressstrain curve. (a) Perfectly plastic. (b) Ideal
elastoplastic. (c) Ideal elastoplastic with linear work-hardening. (d) Parabolic workhardening ( =o + Kn).

Ludwik-Hollomon equation

Voce equation

Johnson-Cook equation

True Stress - True Strain Curve and Poissons ratio

representation of the
change in Poissons
ratio as the deformation
regime changes from
elastic to plastic.

Stress-Strain Curves

True- and
vs. true -and
engineering -strain
curves for AISI 4140
hot-rolled steel. R. A.
is reduction in area.

Engineering Stress - Engineering Strain Curves

Yield Point

Engineering- (or nominal-) stressstrain curves (a)

without the yield point and (b) with a yield point.

Engineering Stress - Engineering Strain Curves

Yield Point

Work hardening vs. Strain

Log d/d versus log for stainless steel AISI 302. (Adapted with permission
from A. S. de S. e Silva and S. N. Monteiro, Metalurgia-ABM, 33 (1977) 417.)

Correction Factor for Necking

Check with
Fig 3.6 in text

Correction factor for necking as a function of strain in neck, ln (A0/A), minus

strain at necking, u. (Adapted with permission from W. J. McGregor Tegart,
Elements of Mechanical Metallurgy (New York: MacMillan,1964), p. 22.)

Deformation due to Wire Drawing

Stressstrain curves for Fe0.003% C alloy wire, deformed

to increasing strains by drawing; each curve is started at
the strain corresponding to the prior wire-drawing
reduction. (Courtesy of H. J. Rack.)

Strain Rate Effects

(a) Effect of strain

rate on the stress
strain curves for AISI
1040 steel.
(b) Strain-rate
changes during
tensile test. Four
strain rates are

Plastic Deformation in Compressive Testing

(a) Compression
between parallel
(b) Length
inhomogeneity in

Stress-Strain Curve for Compression

(a) Stressstrain
and true) curves
for 7030 brass
in compression.
(b) Change of
shape of
specimen and

Finite Element Method

(a) Distortion of Finite Element

Method (FEM) grid after 50%
reduction in height h of
specimen under stickingfriction conditions. (Reprinted
with permission from H. Kudo
and S. Matsubara, Metal
Forming Plasticity (Berlin:
Springer, 1979),p. 395.)
(b) Variation in pressure on
surface of cylindrical specimen
being compressed.

Bauschinger Effect

Ratio of compressive flow stress (0.2%

plastic strain) and tensile flow stress at
different levels of plastic strain for different
steels. (After B. Scholtes, O. Vhringer, and
E. Macherauch, Proc. ICMA6, Vol. 1 (New
York: Pergamon, 1982), p. 255.)

Plastic Deformation of Polymers

Schematic of the different types

of stressstrain curves in a

Effect of strain rate and

temperature on stress
strain curves.

Necking and Drawing in Polymers

Schematic of necking and drawing in a

semicrystalline polymer.

Neck Propagation
in Polyethylene

(a) Neck propagation

in a sheet of linear

(b) Schematic of neck

formation and
propagation in a

Metallic Glasses




Stress-Strain Curve of a Metallic Glass

Compressive stress
strain curves for
pted with permission
from C. A. Pampillo and
H. S. Chen, Mater. Sci.
Eng., 13 (1974) 181.)

Shear Steps in a Metallic Glass

Shear steps terminating

inside material after
annealing at 250C/h,
produced by (a) bending
and decreased by (b)
unbending. Metglas
strip. (Courtesy of X. Cao
and J. C. M. Li.)

(a) Gilman model of dislocations
in crystalline and glassy silica,
represented by two-dimensional
arrays of polyhedra. (Adapted
from J. J. Gilman, J. Appl. Phys.
44 (1973)675 )
(b) Argon model of
displacement fields of atoms
(indicated by magnitude and
direction of lines) when
assemblage of atoms is
subjected to shear strain of 5
102, in molecular dynamics
computation. (Adapted from D.
Deng, A. S. Argon, and S. Yip,
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond.
A329 (1989) 613.)

Viscosity of Glasses

Viscosity of sodalime
silica glass and of
metallic glasses (AuSi
Ge, PdCuSi, PdSi,
C0P) as a function of
normalized temperature.
(Adapted from J. F.
Shackelford, Introduction
to Materials Science for
Engineers, 4th ed.
(Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice Hall, 1991), p.
331, and F. Spaepen
and D. Turnbull in Metallic
Glasses, ASM.)

Viscosity of Glasses

Viscosity of three
glasses as a function
of temperature. 1
P=0.1 Pa s.

Impressions Produced in Hardness Tests

Comparison of the impression sizes produced by various hardness tests on a material of 750 HV. BHN =
Brinell hardness number, HRC = Rockwell hardness number on C scale, HRN = Rockwell hardness
number on N scale, VPN = Vickers hardness number. (Adapted with permission from E. R. Petty, in
Techniques of Metals Research, Vol. 5, Pt. 2, R. F. Bunshah, ed. (New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1971),
p. 174.)

Brinell Impression

Impression caused by spherical indenter on metal plate in a

Brinell hardness test.

Rockwell Hardness Tester

Procedure in using Rockwell hardness tester. (Reprinted with permission from H. E. Davis, G. E. Troxel,
and C. T. Wiscocil, The Testing and Inspection of Engineering Materials, (NewYork: McGraw-Hill, 1941),
p. 149.)

Scales for Rockwell Hardness Tester

Vickers Hardness Test

Relationships Between Yield Stress and Hardness

Hardness Profile near a Grain Boundary

(a) Hardnessdistance profiles near a grain boundary in zinc with 100-atom ppm
of Al and zinc with 100-atom ppm of Au (1-gf load). (b) Solute concentration
dependence of percent excess boundary hardening in zinc containing Al, Au, or
Cu (3-gf load). (Adapted with permission from K. T. Aust, R. E. Hanemann, P.
Niessen, and J. H. Westbrook, Acta Met., 16 (1968)).291

Knoop Indenter

Details of the Knoop indenter, together

with its impression.

Nanoindenter apparatus

Topographic Features of the Berkovich Indentation

An impression made by means of Berkovich

indenter in a copper sample. (From X. Deng, M.
Koopman, N. Chawla, and K.K. Chawla, Acta
Mater., 52 (2004) 4291.) (a) An atomic force
micrograph, showing the topographic features of
the indentation on the sample surface. The scale
is the same along the three axes. (b) Berkovich
indentation as seen in an SEM.

Load vs. Indenter Displacement

Simple Formability Tests for Sheets

Simple formability tests for sheets. (a) Simple bending test.

(b) Free-bending test. (c) Olsen cup test. (d) Swift cup test.
(e) Fukui conical cup test.

Earing in Deep Drawing

Ears formed in a deep-drawn cup

due to in-plane anisotropy. (Courtesy
of Alcoa, Inc.)


Impurities introduced in the metal as it was made become elongated into stringers when
the metal is rolled into sheet form. During bending, the stringers can cause the sheet to fail
by cracking if they are oriented perpendicular to the direction of bending (top). If they are
oriented in the direction of the bend (bottom), the ductility of the metal remains normal.
(Adapted with permission from S. S. Hecker and A. K. Ghosh, Sci. Am., Nov. (1976), p.

Punch-Stretch Test

Sheet specimen subjected to punch

stretch test until necking; necking can be
seen by the clear line. (Courtesy of S. S.

Punch-Stretch Test

Schematic of sheet deformed by punch

stretching. (a) Representation of strain
distribution: 1, meridional strain; 2,
circumferential strain; h, cup height.
b) Geometry of deformed sheet.

Forming-Limit Curve

Construction of a forming-limit curve

(or KeelerGoodwin diagram).
(Courtesy of S. S. Hecker.)

Different Strain Patterns in Stamped Part

Different strain patterns in stamped part. (Adapted from W.

Brazier, Closed Loop, 15, No. 1 (1986) 3.)


Rankine, Tresca, and von Mises Criteria

Maximum-Stress Criterion

Maximum-Shear-Stress Criterion

Maximum-Distortion-Energy Criterion

Comparison of Rankine, von Mises, and Tresca Criteria

(a) Rankine, von Mises, and Tresca

(b) Comparison of failure criteria with
experimental results. (Reprinted with
permission from E. P. Popov,
Mechanics of Materials, 2nd ed.
(Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall,
1976), and G. Murphy, Advanced.
Mechanics of Materials (New York:
McGraw-Hill, 1964), p. 83.)

Displacement of the Yield Locus due to

Plastic Deformation

Displacement of the yield locus as the flow

stress of the material due to plastic
deformation. (a) Isotropic hardening. (b)
Kinematic hardening.

Tensile and Compressive Curves for Al2O3

Failure Criteria for Brittle Materials

(a) Simple model for solid with cracks. (b) Elliptical flaw in elastic
solid subjected to compression loading. (c) Biaxial fracture
criterion for brittle materials initiated from flaws without (Griffith)
and with (McClintock and Walsh) crack friction.

Failure Criteria for Brittle Material

Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion

Griffith Failure Criterion

McClintock-Walsh Crtierion

von Mises Criterion for a Polymer

Translation of von Mises ellipse for a polymer due to the presence of

hydrostatic stress. (a) No hydrostatic stress, (b) with hydrostatic stress.

Shear Yielding and Crazing for Amorphous Polymer

Shear yielding and crazing for an amorphous polymer under biaxial stress. The
thicker line(delineates the failure envelope when crazing occurs in tension.(After
S. S. Sternstein and L. Ongchin, Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Of Polymer Chem.,
Polymer Preprints, 10 (1969), 1117.)

Failure Envelope for a Fiber Reinforced Composite

Failure envelope for a unidirectional E-glass/epoxy composite under biaxial loading

at different levels of shear stress. (After I. M. Daniel and O. Ishai, Engineering
Mechanics of Composite Materials (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), p.

Plane-Stress Yield Loci for Sheets with Planar Isotropy

Plane-stress yield loci for sheets with

planar isotropy or textures that are
rotationally symmetric about the
thickness direction, x3. (Values of R =
2/1 indicate the degree of anisotropy.)

Stress vs. Strain Rate for Slow-Twitch

and Fast Twitch Muscles

Stress-Strain Cures of Some Biological Materials

Stressstrain response for some

biological materials.

Mechanical Properties of Biological Materials

Stress-Strain Response of Elastin

Stressstrain response for elastin; it is the

ligamentum nuchae of cattle (Adapted from Y.
C. Fung and S. S. Sobin, J. Biomech. Eng., 1103
(1981) 121. Also in Y. C. Fung, Biomechanics:
Mechanica l Properties of Living Tissues
(NewYork: Springer, 1993) p. 244.)

Stress-Strain Response of Cortical Bone

Tensile and compressive stressstrain

curves for cortical bone in longitudinal
and transverse directions. (Adapted from
G. L. Lucas, F. W. Cooke, and E. A. Friis,
A Primer on Biomechanics (New York:
Springer, 1999).)

Effect of Strain Rate on Tensile Stress-Strain Curve

of Cortical Bone

Strain-rate dependence of tensile response of

cortical bone. (Adapted from J. H. McElhaney, J.
Appl. Physiology, 21(1966) 1231.)