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In-line sampling of basic oxygen

steelmaking dust
Tobias Heinrich
Anthony Griffiths
Martyn Griffiths
Andrew Hopkins
Julian Steer

Basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS) process
Dust characteristics
Dust extraction

Sampling location and requirements

Vertical particle distribution in slurry
Sampling design and installation
Sample preparation and results

BOS process

Dust characteristics

Quantity: 15 20 kg per tonne of liquid steel

Particle size: 90% with diameter less than 100 microns
Composition: Fe 50-80%, Zn 1.7-6.5 %, Ca 3.0-8.8 %

Dust extraction

BOS converter during blow period

BOS dust extraction system

Sampling location and requirements

Sampling location:

15 metres above ground

Solids : 0.3 50 g/litre
Flow velocity: 2.7 3.0 m/sec
CO gas hazard

Representative sample to be
directed to ground level
Quick installation
10 litre samples
Sampling every 30 sec

Rouse number

Measurement of vertical particle distribution

Ratio between fall velocity and upwards velocity

Rouse number definition:


Shear velocity:


Bed shear stress:


Fall velocity:


Submerged specific gravity:


Vertical particle distribution in slurry




Total sediment


Rouse number

Bed load

> 2.5

Suspended load: 50 %

> 1.2, < 2.5

Suspended load: 100 %

> 0.8, < 1.2

Wash load

< 0.8

Vertical particle distribution in slurry

Particles under 200 microns

transported as wash load
200 - 600 micron particles
transported as suspended load
No bed load since all BOS dust
particles are under 600
Sampling over complete cross
section of pipe

Sampling design

Three inlets to sample over wide

cross section
Inner diameter of the three
sampling pipes much larger than
diameter of the largest particles
System was initially primed with
vacuum cleaner
Flow velocity in three sampling
pipes: 2.8 m/sec

Sampling installation

Sampler and flow meter installed in

slurry pipe

Three way valve on ground level for

extraction of slurry

Sample preparation

Samples weighed and left for particle settlement

Wet vacuum cleaner used to reduce majority of waste water
Samples dried, weighed and ground with a ring mill
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for analysing chemical composition
Laser diffraction particle size analyser and sieves for analysing particle size

Sampling results
Generic dust mass and particle
size profile during a BOS heat

Mass flow profiles

Composition profiles
Particle size profiles
Giving insight into how
dust varies during each
Allowing correlations
between process changes
and dust generation to be
Research into treatment
and recycling possibilities


The in line sampling design allowed samples representative of the process to be

taken at regular intervals.
Difficulties due to the sampling location including the height and gas hazard were
overcome by moving the actual sampling activity down to ground level in a safe
Prior to the sampling process the particles and the flow characteristics were
analysed, allowing a suitable sampling system to be designed.
To ensure a representative sample was generated, the slurry was extracted at
three different slurry depths under close to isokinetic conditions.
This work has shown how to overcome various sampling difficulties by the use of
practical, technical solutions.


The authors wish to express their gratitude to Tata Steel UK for the
financial support and ongoing assistance in this study and the practical
assistance and guidance provided by:
Fiona Abbott
Claire Grainger
Kevin Linsley

Thank you for listening.

Any questions?


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