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Egypt Exploration Society

The Isiac Jug from Southwark


Author(s): J. Gwyn Griffiths
Reviewed work(s):
Source: The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 59 (Aug., 1973), pp. 233-236
Published by: Egypt Exploration Society
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3856127 .
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233

ora particular
oracularsignificance
as randomselectionofstonesfroma container
of
arrangement
stonesdroppedfroma container
has had sucha significance
amongmanyprimitive
people.

J. M. OGDEN

Faience fromSinai and Cyprus


THE faiencelid fromSinai (B.M. I3214) recentlypublishedby J. D. Cooney(JEA 58 [1972], 284,

ofthepolychrome
faiencerhyton
a newparallelforthedecoration
fromKitionin
pi. XLV) affords
sometenyearsago.' On thelid and in thetop
Cyprus,foundand publishedby V. Karageorghis
aretwoverysimilaranimals:theyarebothin theflying
oftherhyton
register
galloppositionwith
thelineoftheirnecks,andbothare
theirheadsturnedbackandtheirhornsmoreorlesscontinuing
intended
to represent
thesamecreature
in
partofa frieze.Bothanimalsaremaleandareprobably
reallife,anantelopeaccording
toCooneyanda goataccording
toKarageorghis.2
The fewdifferences
betweenthetwo(extendedlegson theSinaianimal,and a morelife-like
gaiton thatfromKition,
onthebody,a stronger
tailanda different
whichalsohasdappling
angleforthepenis)do notobscure
theirbasicsimilarity.3
The Kitionrhyton
hasbeenshownbyKarageorghis
andotherswhohavediscussedittorepresent
a fusionofAegean,Syrian,
andEgyptian
ideas.It wasfoundina Late-Cypriot
artistic
IIC context
of
themiddleofthethirteenth
butitmayhavebeenmadeearlier,quiteprobably
in Cyprus
century,
wherea meeting
ofthethreetraditions
wouldbe natural.This
(orpossiblyon theSyrianmainland)
newparallelfromSinai,whichCooneydatesto Amenophis
theEgyptianlinksof
III, emphasizes
the rhyton.

GERALD CADOGAN

The Isiac jug fromSouthwark


A JUGfoundnear the Thames at Southwark,London, in 1912 bears thegraffito
LONDINIADFANUM
ISIDIS. This has beenusuallytranslated,
'London,nextdoorto thetempleofIsis'. Thus Taylor
and Collingwood,JRS 12 (1922), 283, who noted thatthe letterswere scratchedon afterthe clay

had dried,fromwhichtheyconcludedthat'in thatcase theaddressis thatofthetradesman


who
bottledthecontents
thanthatofthemanufacturer'.
rather
Cf.R. W. Moore,TheRomans
inBritain
theaddressofa public-house,
whoseproperty
thejug is', a view
(London,1938),I85: 'presumably
followedby Eve and JohnHarris,The OrientalCultsin RomanBritain(IPRO 6, Leiden,I965),
A.D.and
79 f.(see alsopl. I8). They tendto favoura date towardsthe end of thefirstcentury
thinkthatthejug 'belongedto a wineshop,or,moreprobably,
a tavernsituatedneara templeof
Isis .. .'. Theyshowthattaverns
weresometimes
builtcloseto temples.On thisviewthegraffito
willbe a designation,
ofthetavern.Vidman,SIRIS 317f.,no.75Ia, reproduces
thesame
virtually,
viewwithno comment;cf.AnneRoullet,TheEgyptian
andEgyptianizing
Monuments
ofImperial
Rome(1PRO 20, Leiden,I972),25 n. 6 ('theRomanjug froma Londontavernnearthe templeof
World(London,I971), I38, seemsto agree,forhe
Isis'). R. E. Witt,Isis in theGraeco-Roman
invokes(p. 303n. 32) an inscription
(Vidman,op. cit.,no. 540) inwhichtabernae,
shopsortaverns,
are dedicatedto Isis and Sarapis.
BCH 87 (I963), 368 ff.,fig.67, pl. 8; also MycenaeanArtfromCyprus(Nicosia, I968), 43 f., pl. 39, and
cover (best pictureof animal), and (with H.-G. Buchholz), Altagais und Altkypros(Tubingen, 197I), I57,
no. 167I a-d. Otherdiscussions:W. StevensonSmith,Interconnections
in the AncientNear East (Yale, I965),
on
the
Arts
and
L.
Studies
Late
the
66;
Astr6m,
Craftsof
44, 163,fig.
CyprioteBronze Age (Lund, i967), 54 f.,
2 The ancestorof this animalmay have been the agrimi,or wild goat,of Minoan art.
I23 f., fig.68.
3 Anothersuch animal on an ointmentdish of the EighteenthDynasty in Leiden (H. Kantor, AJA
5i
[1947], 69, pl. 21, c, D) is cited by Karageorghis(as above).
D 141

234

BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS

ad is of someimportance
The preposition
in theinterpretation.
MadameRoullet,op. cit.25,
is
so
some
The
not
with
that
it
means
'near'.
matter
implies
emphasis
simple.Ad canalsomean'in'
or 'at'-frequently
in vulgarLatinand occasionally
in respectable
contexts:see Stolzand
literary
Schmalz, Lat. Gr.: Syntax, 90 (5th edn., 1928) withthe remarksof F. Schulz,JRS 33 (I943), 58
and H. I. Bell, JRS 36 (I946), I30; Hofmannand Szantyr,Lat. Syntaxund Stilistik(1965), 2I9;

TheArchaeology
Thes.L.L. I, 522, II ff. This possibility
was realizedby R. G. Collingwood,
of
RomanBritain(London,I930), I74 ('at thetempleof Isis'); cf.GordonHome,RomanLondon2
hardtosquarewithhissubsequent
explanation).
(London,I948),205; R. E. Witt,op. cit.138(though
with
a senseofpurpose:see Thes.L.L. I, 528,
is
combined
Such a meaning,
sometimes
however,
ad finalem
where,inter
alia, CIL VI, 5197is cited:'disp[ensa25 ff.('ex locinotione
partim
transit'),
tori]ad fiscumGallicum';cf. OxfordLat. Diet.(1968),34, sections42 and 44. This, it maybe
is themeaninghere:'in,and fortheuse of,thetempleofIsis.'
suggested,
in viewof the demotic
Such an interpretation
althoughradicallydifferent,
provesattractive,
been
has
which
from
on
a
recently publishedbyA. F. Shorein the
inscription drinking-cup Egypt
lineis 'The cupsofthe
ofthefirst
BritishMuseumQuarterly
36 (I97I), 16-19. Shore'stranslation
shrineofIsis-the-great
(Esoeris)oftheislandofPaos'. The lastlinegivesthedateofthededication
itto 26 OctoberA.D.73. If a drinking-cup
ofthebronzebowl:Shoreconverts
mightseemto be an
to
reference
the
is
removed
of
the
of
a
shrine
Isis, surprise
by inscription's
unexpected
appurtenance
notonlyperformed
us thattheseguildsofworshippers
the'menoftheguild'. Shorereminds
strictly
but also indulgedin
a shrineof the deityin a publicceremony,
religioustaskssuch as carrying
HereI shouldliketoquotehisownwords:
as a partoftheirreligious
convivial
obligations.
meetings
ofthe
inthereligious
observations
element
wasanimportant
occasions
wineandbeeroncertain
Drinking
a
becomes
n
of
hwrw
swr
texts
in
the
demotic
that
this
was
So
'days drinking'
activity
guilds. prominent
fine.
a
of
which
involved
from
the
absence
of
tomeanthesessions
term
technical
members,
payment
(bmsi)
in theirpractice
influenced
in certain
bythesocial
aspectstheguildsin Egyptwereprobably
Although
wereinkeeping
observances
theirreligious
oftheHellenistic
andthiasos
ofthesymposium
customs
world,
and
lunarfeast,
from
thenameofan ancient
theirdemotic
withnativetradition;
name,itseems,derives
Period.
in
the
existed
constitutions
formal
written
that
evidence
thereis some
pre-Ptolemaic
(Shore,op. cit. 17 f.)

einer
He proceedsto citea numberofrelevant
studies,amongwhichW. Erichsen'sDie Satzungen
is
of
basic
der
Ptolemderzeit
aus
importance.
(Copenhagen,1959)
Kultgenossenschaft
agyptischen
enSgypte
refers
menowtoMme F. de Cenival'sstudy,LesAssociations
Shorealsokindly
religieuses
demotiques
(IFAO, Cairo,1972).
d'apr&slesdocuments
buta problem
wouldfitthejug fromSouthwark
It is clearthatsucha background
admirably,
mustbe facedbeforeonecanaccepttheconnection.It is a farcryfromEgypt('theislandofPaos',
thedatesinvolvedare
P;-hr,is notyetlocated:see Shore,p. I8 n. 4) to RomanLondon,although
sure
that
of
we
be
were
Can
one
another.
guilds worshippers foundin thewestern
fairlycloseto
see Vidman,Isisund
RomanEmpirein theIsiac cult? For Greeklandstheevidenceis plentiful;
to Vidman'sinitial
demurs
Rdmern
Griechen
und
den
bei
ff.
I970),
67
only
(Berlin,
(One
Sarapis
the dictumof
contrast
was
the
that
'eine
Kultverein
claim,
typischgriechische
Erscheinung';
of
Rev.
'an
form
and
Harv.
Skeat
Theol.
Nock,
Roberts,
29 (I936), 85:
Egyptian
organisation',
in Thessaloniki,
to an inscription
R. E. Wittin
thoughtheycitesomeGreekanalogies.)Referring
who 'met
AncientMacedonia(Symposium,I970), 33I, citesa board offourteentepaW/o'pot
aVVKArraTa

theaccentofthefirst
in privateforconvivial
purposes'.(I havecorrected
word.)

Writingin BIFAO 55 (1955), 178, Jean Leclant expressessome scepticismas to whetherone

dans leur
shouldreallyexpectto findin theWest 'des cenaclesde devotsdes cultesegyptiens,
last
is
one
a
The
a
and
detailed
vindication
of
its
originalite
propre'.
phrase rigorous
application

BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS

235

wouldbe difficult.
wereto
Buttherecanbe no doubtat all thatcollegiaofIsiac priestsorbelievers
be foundin severalofthewestern
reviewed
oftheRomanEmpire.Leclanthas himself
provinces
recentdiscoveries
in hisvaluablesurveys
in Orientalia;
andVidman,op. cit.87 f.,providestangible
withRomeandItaly. In an inscription
evidence,
beginning
(oftheend ofA.D. ii) fromPotaissain
or Cluj) a collegium
in
of
Isidis
the
modern
Romania
south-east
Turda
m.
Dacia,
Klausenburg
(17
is mentioned;
itspaterandquaestor
arenamed;see CIL iii, 882(Mommsen)= Dessau,ILS 436I
forthecult,a
= Vidman,SIRIS 300,no. 698. A morespecializedIsiacguild,oneoflamp-makers
is mentioned
in an inscription
of Isis as a rivercollegium
Illychiniariorum,
(A.D. ii) on a statuette
goddessfoundinPratumNovumwhichis nowintheCordobaMuseum;seeA. Garciay Bellidoin
a W. Deonna(Brussels,1957), 238-44withpi. 36,andinhisLes Religions
orientales
dans
Hommages
romaine
SIRIS
Also
from
cf.
no.
Vidman,
l'Espagne
320,
757.
(1PRO 5, Leiden, I967), II3 f;
an Isiac association
Spain(Valencia)comesa briefbutrevealing
inscription
(A.D.i-ii)whichmentions
ofslaves:'sodalicium
colentesIside[m]';see CIL II, 3730and6oo004(Hiibner)
= Dessau,
/vernarum/
ILS 44I2 = Vidman,SIRIS 322, no. 762. W. Liebenam,Zur Geschichte
und Organisation
des
romischen
Vereinswesens
shows
that
sodalicium
was
with
(Leipzig,I890), I66,
synonymous collegium
intheimperial
inTrierin I950, evenifnotdirectly
era. AgaintheHelenmosaicdiscovered
Isiacin
ideasin a syncretistic
linkwiththeDioscuri,especially
someEgyptian
significance,
maywellreflect
ideas relating
to thecosmicegg; see K. Parlasca,Die r6mischen
Mosaikenin Deutschland
(Berlin,
hisearlierviewsin TriererZeitschrift
1959), 56 f.,modifying
19 (1950), 109-25. The food-bearing
aroundthemosaiccertainly
ofworshippers,
in this
figures
suggestthebanquetsofan association
'a
kind
of
as
Parlasca
Other
views
also
the
case,perhaps,
TheosophicalClub',
suggests.
recognize
ofthe 'Casti'(R. Egger)or ofthe 'Nemesiaci'(J. Moreau); cf.G.
presenceof a Kultverein-one
undKunstelemente
imromischen
Deutschland
Grimm,Die Zeugnisse
dgyptischer
Religion
(IPRO I2,
Leiden, I969), pls. 22 f. withp. 73.
A moredirectconnection
withthepractices
ofthecultis alsopossible.Apuleius,Metam.xi. 24,
the
A.D.
describes
ceremonies
oftheFirstInitiation
about
ofLuciusas culminating
in
writing
170,
'welcomefeastsandmerry
he saysthat'therewasa sacredmealand
banquets';twodaysafterwards
was dulyconsummated'.Some ofthesebanquetsmay,of course,havebeenthose
myinitiation
ofworshippers.
A littlelaterTertullian
arranged
bytheassociation
(Apol.39) was sayingthatthe
firewatchmen
willhaveto be summoned
cenae
adfumum
Serapiacae,andhisreference
maywellbe
to Rome. A good deal has beenwritten
abouttheKAL'vr
of Sarapis. Whatis hererelevant
is the
evidenceofitspopularity
outsideEgypt.Youtie,Harv. Theol.Rev.41 (I948), 15 n. 34,saysthat'a
fromPrusa';hisp. 12 n. 15 refers
toMendiningclubofinitiates
maybe attested
bytheinscription
del'spublication
ofthisin BCH 24 (1900), 366 f.; it belongsto thesecondcentury
A.D. On p. 0o
n. 4 YoutiepointsoutthatbythissameeraSarapis'wasworshipped
bya dineor diningfraternity'
at Cologne. For theinscription
whichprovesthissee nowGrimm,
op. cit.,pl. 30 and p. 83 ('SolSerapiscum sua dine'). Greekcentresofthecustom(Delos, Priene,Mylasa)are invokedby L.
ActaAnt.Hung.9 (1961), 291; andhethenrefers
on a vessel(actually
Castiglione,
(p. 293) toa relief
on itslid)fromWestheim
nearAugsburg
whichshowSarapisandIsis onthebanqueting
couch;see
also Grimm,op. cit.,figs.39 f. and pi. 44 withp. 81.
It is,moreover,
natural
to connect
theSouthwark
jug withothervesselsonwhichthenameofIsis
hasbeeninscribed.In 1960 a fragment
ofan amphorawasfoundin a largehousein Delos(ii-iB.C.)
ICIzO[C. See Leclant,Orientalia32 (1963), 212. Fromthecoastalsiteofthe
bearingthegraffito
ancientEmporiaein north-eastern
Spainhas comea vaseofterrasigillata
(Dragendorff,
24-5) with
A.
Les
thegraffito
see
dans
Garcia
orientales
I 12 no.7.
ISIDI;
romaine,
y Bellido, Religions
l'Espagne
A smalljug discovered
at Cologneborea similarinscription:
see Grimm,op. cit. I37, no. 17 and
to Grimmitis nolongeraccessible,
noris anyinformation
Vidman,SIRIS 309, no.723. According
aboutitsshapeavailable.Grimmrightly
groupstheSouthwark
jug withtheothersherementioned,

236

BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS

to numerous
and he refers
votiveinscriptions
on pottery
vesselsinvolving
Sarapis,luppiterDoliwiththecultis therefore
chenus,and Mithras.A connection
highlyprobable.

At the same time,thefunctionof thesevesselsseemsto have varied. The amphorafromDelos is


likelyto have been used to carrythe Osirianholywater,intendedforlibationsand lustrations.Cf.
amphoram';it is perhapsthevase carriedbythelast
Apuleius,Metam.xi. 10 fin.,'etaliusferebat

onthereliefattheSchlossGlienicke
desUrchristenfigure
(acquiredin Italy);see Leipoldt,Umwelt
des
documents
tums,2III (Berlin,I967), no. 293 and M. Malaise,Inventaire
priliminaire
egyptiens
enItalie(1tPRO2I, Leiden,1972), pl. 26 withp. 236, wherehesuggests
'situleou ciste?',
decouverts
in theIsiac groupin the
thefactthata situlais neverheldin thisway. The thirdfigure
ignoring
an amphora;see
it is notstrictly
Vaticanmaybe holdinga vasewitha similarfunction,
although
Leipoldt,op. cit.,no. 292 and Malaise, op. cit.,frontisp.The otherinscribedvesselscitedabove may
well have carriedwine, and the drinking-cuppublishedby Shore provideswelcomeillumination;

itmentions
a shrineofIsis,anditsallusionto a guildofworshippers
likethejug fromSouthwark,

was writtenafterthe clay had driedis no


pointsto the mostlikelyuse of thejug. That thegraffito
was probablysupplyinga varietyof wine-users,and in this
on thisview; the pot-factory
difficulty
ofa shrineofIsis.
J. GWYNGRIFFITHS
case theywereadherents

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