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SMACNA Architectural Sheet

Metal Manual
Peyton Collie
Project Manager Technical Resources
SMACNA

Architectural Sheet Metal


th
Manual 7 Edition
Completed update in early 2012
540 Pages (46 added)
188 CAD Drawings (29 new, many revised)

Drawings can be purchased separately

100s of editorial changes


Added soldering and sealant guidance and
fascia and coping wind test to appendix

SMACNAs Manual Development


Process And Procedures

Expertise is provided by a task force of SMACNA


members with subject-specific experience
The task force guides SMACNAs technical staff
in the development of content
Near-final drafts are distributed to local chapters
for review by local, experienced contractors
Posted on SMACNA's website for 60-day public
review
Some manuals go through the ANSI process using
an additional canvass method of review
Technical Inquiries provide a source of feedback

Technical Inquiries
Customer technical support service
Interpret SMACNA standards for:

Code officials
Designers
Members

Benefits of the service to SMACNA:


Source of user feedback for future manual
upgrades
Early indication of construction trends

Sheet Metal As An Architectural


Element

Basic building material, long history of use


Metals can be mixed to create totally unique
metalsand shapesfor unique buildings
Metal roofs are enjoying a resurgence of use
notably, cool roofs
Lowest-cost choice based on life cycle costing
Many important metal elements are often
invisibleFlashing!

Benefits Of Sheet Metal

Properly designed and professionally constructed


and installed by experienced contractors sheet metal
elements can last for centuries
Sheet metal fits all green building materials
measures, especially recycled content
Recycled content: steel = 25%; copper = 43%; lead =
55%; stainless steel = 50%
Energy efficiency per Florida Solar Research = lightcolored metal roofs VERY energy efficient
Light weight and versatile

Soldered sheet metal joints do not require


continuous maintenanceunlike ALL sealants

History Of Architectural
Metals

First used by the ship building industrylead used in


the 1500s with rolled copper use starting in late 1600s
New York City Hall used copper for roofing circa 1764
A copper roof was used on the rebuilt Old Senate
Chamber in 1819; replaced in a 1900 renovation
The slate roof on the White House was replaced with
sheet iron in 1804
The copper roof on the Old Church of Christ in Philly
lasted from the 1830s to 1967 when the substrate failed
Early metal roofs were batten-style or flat-seamed until
rolled tin production became common after the WBTS
when standing seam came to general use

ASMM Contents

Roof Drainage Design & Systems


Gravel-Stop Fascia >> Roof Edging
Copings
Flashing
Building Expansion
Metal Roofs
Wall Systems
Louvers & Screens
Miscellaneous Metal Structures
Historical Restoration >> Much New Material
Appendices >> Much New Commentary

Roof Drainage Design


Roof Area
Rainfall Intensity
Metal Selection
Gutter Type & Sizing
Downspout Type & Sizing

Conservative compared to codes

Expansion Allowances
Fastening Method Selection
Flashing Requirements

FIGURE 1-2 RECTANGULAR GUTTER STYLES

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11

Built-in Gutters
Subject of many Technical Inquiries
Poses greatest risk of water intrusion
Soldered or welded joints only
Use high-quality membrane underneath
Specific shapes address water freezing
Attention to expansion allowances
No single downspouts per roof section

FIGURE 1-5 ALLOWANCES FOR GUTTER EXPANSION

13

Fastening Method Selection

Appendix for fasteners and soldering


Screws best, SS best for treated wood

Commentary and illustrations


throughout detailing clips, cleats, reglets
Solder old fashioned TI?s

Solder permanent, sealants continuous


maintenance <<key advantage of solder!

Flashing Recommendations

Flashing section second largest in manual++


Incorrectly installed/designed flashing and
poor craftsmanship identified as major culprit
at mold conferences
Especially around windows!
Roof edges and bottom of wall also problem areas

Techniques in manual superior to the caulk


and pray approach
Inset reglets, embedded metal, counter flashing, use
of clips and cleats, etc.

Gravel-Stop Fascia (Edge)


Chapter covers a multitude of fascia
finishing methods for flat roof systems
Water should NOT be allowed to flow
over the edge of built-up roofs!
Be careful with ladders and never step on
the top (peak) of fascia edging
Another reason for controlled access

FIGURE 2-6 CAP FASCIA - INSTALLATION

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Copings

The horizontal top surface most vulnerable


point for water to enter an exterior wall
Water entering a wall travels horizonally

Copings provide a permanent water stop and


reduce wall-related maintenance
Metal copings provide an attractive, finished
appearance
Affected by new IBC wind uplift requirements

20

LOCKS AND SEAMS

22

Flashing

Possibly the most important chapter!


Time-tested (old-fashioned) methods to prevent
moisture intrusion
Key component for the protection of the
structural elements and interior
Use and importance of flashing was specifically
mentioned by several speakers at NIBS-BEC
mold conferences
Soldered metal joints = no/low maintenance

FIGURE 4-4 COUNTER FLASHING SYSTEMS - INSTALLATION


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Building Expansion
Expansion and contraction = important design
factor for larger structures/additions
Movement accommodated by speciallydesigned interlocking expansion joints
Proper width of expansion joints based on the
total amount of expansion driven movement

FIGURE 5-3 BUILDING EXPANSION JOINTS ROOF AT GRAVEL STOP


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Metal Roofing

Early consultation with experienced sheet


metal contractor highly recommended
Two types of metal roofs:
Non-structural requires continuous support
Structural spans use intermittent supports
Compatibility of all materials and galvanic
reactions need to be understood
Support/underlayment design critical
Continuous enclosure barrier new challenge
in newer building codes & 90.1 NIBS BEC

FIGURE 6-5 STANDING SEAM ROOFS


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Standing Seam Roofs


Recommended for slopes of 1 in./ft or
greatersealants not typically used on
the vertical seam greater than 3 in./ft
Designers should consult local
contractors for recommendations based
on local conditions and experience
Evidence of declining uplift resistance as
seam height increases

FIGURE 6-8 BATTEN SEAM ROOFS


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Batten Seam Roofs

Recommended for slopes of 3 in./ft or greater


Copper or aluminum metal
Prominent ribs amplify the visual impact of roof
Offers architects the widest range of individual
expression
Size & shape of battens
Intersecting battens at various angles
Use in combination with other roof types and styles

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FIGURE 6-11 BERMUDA TYPE ROOFS


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Bermuda Roofs
Simulates the thick limestone shingles
used on roofs in Bermuda
Used on contemporary designed structures
Promotes a long, low look to the structure
Can be used in conjunction with battens to
define separate planes
Original function?

FIGURE 6-3 FLAT SEAM ROOFS


36

Flat Seam Roofs


Typically made from 20 x 28 sheets,
geometry is important
Copper or dead soft stainless steel is
recommended
Lock and seal all joints, solder joints on
slopes less than 3:12
Tapered-batten expansion joints required
on flat seam sections exceeding 30 feet

Appendices
Metal Applications and Specifications
Galvanic Corrosion
Sheet Metal Roof Test Report
Custom Fabricated Metal Roof Specs
Moisture and maintenance of envelopes
Fasteners
Soldering
Fascia and Coping Wind Tests

Galvanic Corrosion
Not well understood by many designers
Proximity of metals in chart
Passive SS simply means chemically
cleaned (changes characteristics)
Contact not required, runoff can cause
corrosion
Beware of HVAC condensate via copper
pipes to galvanized gutter

Galvanic Scale
ANODIC/CORRODED END/LEAST NOBLE
Zinc
Aluminum
Galvanized Steel
Cadmium
Mild Steel, Wrought Iron
Cast Iron
Stainless Steel, types 304 and 316 (active)*
Leadtin Solder
Lead
Brass, Bronze
Copper
Stainless Steel, types 304 and 316 (passive)
CATHODIC/PROTECTED END/MOST NOBLE
*Chemically cleaned usually with acidic solution

Sheet Metal Roof Test

UL Standard 580/Factory
Mutual

Static Water Penetration

Dynamic Water Penetration

Structural Load

Deflection

Not Wind Resistant

IBC Section 1504.5

Edge securement for low-slope roofs. Lowslope membrane roof system metal edge
securement, except gutters, shall be
designed and installed for wind loads in
accordance with Chapter 16 and tested for
resistance in accordance with ANSI/SPRI
ES-1, except the basic wind speed shall be
determined from Figure 1609.

SPRI STANDARD ES-1

Edge membrane retention SPRI Test RE-1


Force required to separate membrane from
edge device, strength of membrane key

Edge flashings SPRI Test RE-2


Force required to pull edge device off wall

Copings SPRI Test RE-3


Force required to lift coping off wall

How Compliance is Met


Designer calculates and specifies
minimum wind pressure (uplift)
Metal element must be manufactured or
custom fabricated to tested design
Metal element must be installed using
methods according to tested design
Metal element is inspected as fabricated
and installed as per a tested design

Fascia Pulloff Testing (Wind Uplift)

Pull Numbers

ASTM Standard Language

In applying the results of tests by this test


method, note that the performance of a wall
or its components, or both, may be a
function of fabrication, installation, and
adjustment.

SPRI Std Does NOT Require

Third party certification of construction


This provides no assurance correct element was
installed or installed correctly

Any type of stamp indicating compliance on


compliant elements
This was discussed at length during the
development of the SPRI standard and
determined to have no merit because it provides
false sense of compliance

Contractors Qualification Checklist

Jointly developed by AIA & SMACNA


Design limited only by imagination, not contractor skills
Positive impacts on project completion schedule
Ensures proper installation, increases architects options
for future creativity
Qualifies contractor based proven experience record
Assures two most important characteristics of
architectural elementsaesthetics & water tightness

Questions
Comments
Suggestions