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Water Level Indicator

Description
This is the circuit diagram of a simple corrosion free water level indicator for home
and industries. In fact the the level of any conductive non corrosive liquids can be measured
using this circuit. The circuit is based on 5 transistor switches. Each transistor is switched
on to drive the corresponding LED , when its base is supplied with current through the
water through the electrode probes.
One electrode probe is (F) with 6V AC is placed at the bottom of tank. Next probes are
placed step by step above the bottom probe. When water is rising the base of each transistor
gets electrical connection to 6V AC through water and the corresponding probe. Which in
turn makes the transistors conduct to glow LED and indicate the level of water. The ends of
probes are connected to corresponding points in the circuit as shown in circuit
diagram.Insulated Aluminum wires with end insulation removed will do for the probe.
Arrange the probes in order on a PVC pipe according to the depth and immerse it in the
tank.AC voltage is use to prevent electrolysis at the probes. So this setup will last really long.
I guarantee at least a 2 years of maintenance free operation. Thats what I got and is still
going.

Components
T1 T5 BC 548 or 2N2222 Transistors
R1-R5 2.2K 1/4 W Resistors
R6-R10 22K 1/4 W Resistors
D1 D5 LEDs ( color your choice)

Notes:
Use a transformer with 6V 500 mA output for power supply. Do not use a rectifier! we need
pure AC. Use good quality insulated Aluminum wire for probes. If Aluminum wires are not
available try Steel or Tin.Copper is the worst. Try the circuit first on a bread board and if not
working properly, make adjustments with the resistance values. This is often needed
because conductivity of water changes slightly from place to place. The type number of the
transistors used here are not critical and any small signal NPN transistor will do the job.
Few other suitable type numbers are BC546, BC107, PN2222, BC337, BF494, ZTX300,
BEL187 etc. The circuit can be enclosed in a plastic box with holes for revealing the LEDs .

Water Level Indicator Circuit Diagram and Sensor Arrangement.

Water Level Indicator

If you need a fully automatic water level controller circuit then try this circuit Water
level controller. The circuit is fully based primarily on transistors. The sensing section is
somewhat similar to this circuit but there is additional circuitry for switching the pump
ON when the water level falls below a set level and the pump will be switched OFF when
the tank is full. Few transistors , one 555IC and an electromagnetic relay is used for
realizing the control section. The circuit is very simple cost effective , reliable and many
guys have successfully assembled it.I am also working on a float type water level
indicator/controller using the float type fuel gauge mechanism used in motor cycles.The

level sensor section is finished and now I am working on the control circuitry. I will add
the circuit here as soon as it is finished

BC548 Transistor Datasheet. Parameters


and Characteristics.

Type Designator: BC548


Material of transistor: Si
Polarity: NPN
Maximum collector power dissipation (Pc): 500mW
Maximum collector-base voltage (Ucb): 30V
Maximum collector-emitter voltage (Uce): 30V

Maximum emitter-base voltage (Ueb): 5V


Maximum collector current (Ic max): 100mA
Maximum junction temperature (Tj), C: 150
Transition frequency (ft): 300MHz
Collector capacitance (Cc), pF: 6
Forward current transfer ratio (hFE), min-max: 110-220
Noise Figure, dB: Package of BC548 transistor: TO92
LED

Resistor-2.2K (1/4 watts)