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Titre original : Sand Liquefaction by Hypoplastic Model

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A.B. Tsegaye

Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands

Plaxis B.V., Delft, Netherlands

F. Molenkamp

Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands

R.B.J. Brinkgreve

Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands

Plaxis B.V., Delft, The Netherlands

P.G. Bonnier

Plaxis B.V., Delft, The Netherlands

R. de Jager

Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands

V. Galavi

Plaxis B.V., Delft, The Netherlands

ABSTRACT: In this paper the hypoplastic model by Wolffersdorff with the Intergranular Strain extension by

Niemunis and Herle has been used for modeling the undrained behavior of sand during static and cyclic loads.

The paper presents the hypoplastic equations and the Intergranular Strain concept in brief. Numerical simulations

of undrained triaxial compression and cyclic simple shear tests are performed.

INTRODUCTION

independence and incremental non-linearity, the general form of the hypoplastic equation (e.g. Kolymbas,

2000, Lanier, et al., 2004, Gudehus, 1996) is written as:

dependent constitutive model. The basic function in

hypoplasticity is of a general form:

non-linear parts of the hypoplastic stiffness matrix

respectively. The L and N matrices of Wolffersdorffs hypoplastic model, which uses a predefined

Matsuoka-Nakai yield criterion, are written as:

current stress state and is the current strain rate.

There are a number of hypoplastic models (Kolymbas, 1977, Wu, 1992, Gudehus 1996, Niemunis &

Herle, 1997, Wolffersdorff, 1996). In this study Wolffersdorff s version of hypoplasticity (Wolffersdorf,

1996) with the so called Intergranular Strain extension

(Niemunis and Herle, 1997) has been used to simulate

the undrained behavior of sand during static and cyclic

loading.

2

GENERAL FORMULATION OF

WOLFFERSDORFFS HYPOPLASTIC

MODEL

equation (1) using the representation theorem and

81

Table 1.

.

trace of a matrix obtained by summation of the diagonal terms, is a second order identity tensor, and fs

and fd are scalar factors included in the early 1990s to

account for the effect of density and pressure.

fs is a generalized function that contains the influence of the void ratio on the incremental stiffness and

the influence of barotropy (pressure) and is given as:

= 0

= 90

= 180

mR L

Mo

L+Nh

mR L

M90

mT L

mR L

M180

mR L

Table 2.

f()

(0 , 90 )

90

(0 , 90 )

180

f ()

M

d

M0

h:d

h

M

0

M90

h:d

h

M

d

M180

at the intergranular strain and during change of loading direction, is calculated from the basic hypoplastic

stiffness tensors L and N.

The various assumptions are depicted in Figure 1a.

The recent deformation history is stored in Intergranular Strain tensor with a generalized objective evolution

rule (Niemunis and Herle, 1997) given as:

the scalar, fd given as:

All but and are determined from the evolution

of the critical state, the upper and the lower bound

void ratio in e-logp plane following Bauers isotropic

compression law (Bauer, 1996) which is given as:

strain, R is a material constant and r is a parameter

that controls the Intergranular Stain evolution rate.

The tangent stiffness is assumed to degrade linearly

over as shown in Figure 1b, where is model

parameter for non-linearity of the tangent stiffness

degradation with .

Linear interpolation over of the set of constraints

given in Table 1 gives:

the lower bound void ratios at mean normal pressure

p, respectively; ei0 , ec0 and ed0 are the corresponding

values at zero mean pressure; hs = granulate hardness,

n = exponent to take pressure sensitivity into account.

3

A second interpolation follows based on the direction of the current strain rate, d = /||||, relative to

This interpolation is

the recent strain rate direction, h.

h:d,

between M180 and M90 and between M90 and M0 .

Linear interpolation over f() following the constraints in Table 2 gives:

DURING CHANGE OF LOADING

DIRECTION

the mechanical behavior of state dependent granular

material during monotonic deformation. The model

could also differentiate unloading and reloading paths.

The model however, is said to accumulate excessive

of plastic strains at small strain and during change

of loading direction leading to excessive pore pressure accumulation (Niemunis and Herle, 1997). Hence

they proposed the so called Intergranular Strain to

account for stiff behavior of soils at small strains and

during change of loading direction. A tangential stiffness tenor, M, which considers increased magnitude

denotes the scalar product between two tensors.

To the authors knowledge, this interpolation function has not so far been compared to experimental

82

tangent stiffness degradation with .

Figure 2. Effect of the parameters and r on the tangent

stiffness degradation curve (the reference curves (in bold) are

for mR = 5, = 6, r = 0.5).

out the validity of the assumptions (Tsegaye, 2009).

As a consequence of modeling the small strain and

cyclic behavior, the formulation of the Intergranular

Strain levies the hypoplastic model with five more

parameters- mR , mT , r R and . The procedures to

determine these parameters have been presented by

Niemunis (Niemunis, 2003). Nevertheless, the tests

required are cumbersome and some of the parameters r and may be abstract to the user. As such,

in hypoplastic simulations involving the Intergranular

Strain default values have often been used.

Using various empirical relations summarized by

Benz (2006), the parameter mR may be estimated from

a semi empirical relation given as:

Figure 3. The first set of curves show the small strain stiffness degradation for various values of the parameter mR

(varying mR from 2 up to 10 and holding = 6 and r = 0.5)

while the second set show the effect of the parameter and

r on the normalized limit strain, lim /R (the normalized limit

strain should be read for various values of and the values

r at the right axis).

of the void ratio, OCR is the over consolidation ratio

ref

(which can fairly be left out for sand), vur and Eur

are the unload-reload Poissons ratio and the unload

reload reference elastic stiffness respectively at a reference mean normal pressure (usually considered at

atmospheric pressure).

Proper determination of the parameter mT requires

a test with a 90 load reversal. In this study mT = 0.4mR

has been used. The parameter R can be obtained from

cyclic shear test. To observe the effect of the other

parameters r and we shall consider a one dimensional monotonic simple shearing, h > 0, where

equation (12) can be reduced to the form:

small strain stiffness GR and the residual shear stiffness

G in terms of , the following relation can be derived:

and effects of r and can be observed as shown in Figure 2. Very low values of r may not be desirable from

numerical convergence point of view and higher values increase the rate of stiffness degradation. Higher

values of tend to add to the constant (very small

strain) regime.

As shown in Figure 3, the normalized small strain

stiffness is asymptotic to G/GR = 1/mR . This marks

where the small strain stiffness is completely forgotten

and the hypoplastic model takes full charge. The corresponding strain level may be obtained from Figure 3.

(Tsegaye, 2009) we obtain:

83

strain is inherent to the hypoplastic equation. Hence

the dilatancy behavior of the model can be easily investigated from equation (24) by considering dq / dp = 3

for drained triaxial compression condition.

For undrained condition, the volumetric strain rate

can fairly be assumed zero. Hence, the ratio of the

deviatoric stress rate to the isotropic stress rate can be

written as:

memory strain, som in which the additional stiffness

is swept out (decayed out by more than a 90%).

The limit strain plotted in Figure 3 for various values

of and r is by using equations (18) and (19). A

fair estimation can be obtained by using the following

correlations.

Where lim is the limit shear strain level the Intergranular Strain remains active and is the normalized limit

shear strain. A and n may be estimated according to:

Considering equation (25) and instability condition at

dq / dp = 0,

behaves linear elastic with a shear modulus of GR .

Experimental results show this region is of a limited range to a shear strain level 106 or less (very

small strain range). However, in this formulation R

also determines the maximum shear strain level the

Intergranular Strain is active:

undrained instability line, IL , for triaxial compression

is obtained as:

fd,IL 1. The equation further shows the most important parameters that govern the slope of the instability

line during undrained triaxial compression simulation

are fd,IL and a. The function fd presented in equation

(10), can also be written as:

If we set lim = 103 , we require R 1.1 104 or

rather a choice of R = 1 106 will give a lim of

approximately 105 which is very small. The fact

that the Intergranular Strain decays relatively faster

requires higher value of R (than observed in experiments) to stay in the game. In fact this range can also

be controlled by the choice of the parameter r (for

smaller magnitude of r , we can obtain higher value

of ). However, significantly lower values of r may

lead to numerical non convergence yet it increases the

influence zone in a similar fashion as using higher

value of R).

Been & Jefferies (1985) and e and ec are the current

material void ratio and the corresponding critical state

void ratio at the current confining pressure respectively. The function fd depends not only on the state

parameter but also on ec and ed which in turn are

dependent on the mean normal pressure. Figure 3

illustrates the effect of fd,IL and IL on the slope of

the instability line during undrained triaxial compression simulation. However, instead of equation (28),

fd = (1 + a ) has been used, where a is considered a

material constant which is held 1 in the figure disregarding the pressure dependence. Similar curves

have been experimentally investigated (e.g. Chu, et al.,

2003, Wanatowuski, 2007).

From now on we can leave the Intergranular strain

complication aside as it will not affect the elaborations

qualitatively.

Elaboration of the general hypoplastic equation for

triaxial compression stress state (e.g. Niemunis, 2003,

Tsegaye, 2009) gives

COMPRESSION AND CYCLIC SIMPLE

SHEAR

Where, = q/p, p = ( 1 + 2 3 ) 3, q = 1 3 ,

v = 1 + 23 and q = 2(1 + 23 ) 3 are considered

liquefaction behavior of the so called Castro Sand B

(Been and Jefferies, 2004) during monotonic triaxial

84

Table 3.

Basic parameters

Symbol

unit

values

symbol

unit

values

ed0

ec0

ei0

c

hs

n

[0 ]

[MPa]

0.5

0.8

0.97

30.5

1107

0.26

0.2

2

R

mR

mT

r

1E-4

5

2

0.5

6

Figure 5. Evolution of the critical state, and the maximum

and the minimum void ratios (following Bauers exponential

isotropic compression rule) and various Castro sand drained

triaxial compression test results.

plane) show liquefaction (stress path directing to

zero effective stress), dense samples (with an initial

void ratio below the critical state void ratio) could

show increase in undrained strength climbing up after

the phase transformation line. Moreover, undrained

cyclic simple shear simulations show cyclic mobility and liquefaction. However, the hypoplastic model

without application of the Intergranular Strain accumulates excessive pore pressure underestimating the

undrained shear strength of the samples. Application of the Intergranular Strain helped to reduce this

excessive accumulation of pore pressure around the

hydrostatic axis in the undrained triaxial compression

simulations. During undrained cyclic shear simulations, the number of cycles leading to liquefaction is

very much underestimated if the Intergranular Strain

is not considered.

Figure 4. Slope of the Instability line for a triaxial compression test in hypoplastic constitutive model, M = 6sin c /

(3-sin c ). Parameters and functions with the subscript-IL are

at the point of instability.

compression test. The hypoplastic parameters determined for this sand are shown in Table 3 (Tsegaye,

2009). Due to absence of cyclic shear data, the Intergranular Strain parameters used are which we found

common in literatures.

Figure 4 shows the evolution of the critical state

and the bounding void ratios.The evolution parameters

(hs and n) have been determined based on the gradation curve following the empirical relations given by

Gudehus & Herle (Herle, I. & Gudehus, G. 1999).

CONCLUSION

In modeling the mechanical behavior of granular materials, soil mechanics offers two strong theoretical

concepts: the theory of presence of a critical state and

the stress dilatancy theory. The attempt of modeling of

deformation behavior of granular soil under the critical

state theory involves at a minimum the initial state and

an experimentally well defined critical state. Intermediate states can be considered as interpolation between

these known boundaries, similar to boundary value

problem (Tsegaye, 2009). The stress dilatancy theory

offers a mathematical tool that captures the experimentally proved shear volume coupling. In modeling

the liquefaction behavior both frameworks are essential. The reference hypoplastic model has a strong

grip on both frameworks which makes it an interesting tool for modeling the deformation behavior in

general and liquefaction behavior in particular of granular soils. While the model appears appealing due its

firm theoretical and experimental base, the question

of uncertainty and fuzziness of the initial state and the

grain diameter and d0 = 1 mm

Results shown in Figure 5 are drained simulations

of triaxial compression test on Castro sand samples

under different initial state. The numerical results

show remarkably close trend to experimental results.

Drained softening is well predicted for dense samples.

The dilatancy behavior has been captured. The model

however seems to accumulate more volumetric strain

than seen in the experimental results.

Model runs for undrained triaxial compression

test, as shown in Figure 6, could show liquefaction

behavior. While contractive samples (whose initial

85

cyclic shear simulations on various samples of Castro

Sand (Exp. = Experiment, W = With Intergranular Strain,

Wo = with out Intergranular Strain).

also lays on the test apparatuses. Reaching the critical state requires apparently a very large deformation

which can be beyond the apparatuses allow.

The stress dilatancy formulation quantifies the volume change due to shearing (contractive or dilative).

This coupling is captured by the hypoplastic model

used in this study. However, it gives stronger contractive sense than shown by experiments. This leads

to unrealistic accumulation of pore pressure during

undrained monotonic and cyclic loading. As shown in

various undrained simulations, application of the Intergranular Strain reduces the strong contractive sense of

the hypoplastic model during monotonic loading and

the excessive ratcheting behavior during cyclic loading leading to better prediction of the pore pressure

on various Castro sand samples at different initial states.

The measurement of the initial state is prone to disturbance. Determination of the initial state is also liable to

the assumption of homogeneity. The determination of

the critical state requires performing a number of tests

at various confining pressures. Various samples are

likely to show scatter in reaching the critical state. For

relatively dense samples, reaching the critical state is

difficult because of stress localization. The limitation

86

for soils. Mech. Res. Comm. 4: 367372.

Kolymbas, D. & Herle, I. 2005. Hypoplasticity as a Constitutive Framework for Granular soils, in Soil Constitutive

Models: Evaluation, Selection and Calibration, J.A.Yamamuro and V. N.Kaliakin (eds). American Society of Civil

Engineers.

Lanier, J., et al. 2004. A general formulation of hypoplasticity. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical

Methods in Geomechanics 28: 14611478.

Niemunis, A. 2003. Extended hypoplastic models for soils.

Bochum University Soil Mechanics and Geotechnics

Niemunis, A. & Herle, I. 1997. Hypoplastic model for cohesionless soils with elastic strain range. Mech. Res. Comm.

2(4): 279299.

Tsegaye, A.B. 2009. Evaluation of material models for

liquefaction. MSc. Thesis. Department of Geotechnical

Engineering. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands

Wu, W. & Bauer, E. 1993. A hypoplastic Model for barotropy

and pyknotropy of granular soils, in Modern approaches

to plasticity, D. Kolymbas (eds). Soil Constitutive Models.

Elsevier. 225245.

Wolffersdorff, P.A. 1996. A hypoplastic relation for Granular Materials with a Predefined Limit State Surface.

Mechanics of Cohesive-Frictional Soils, 1(3): p. 251271.

Wanatowski, D. 2007. Undrained instability of loose sand

under plane strain conditions and its engineering application. Foundations of civil and environmental engineering

10: 131141.

its importance, the Intergranular Strain formulation

suffers from parameters that require complicated test

procedures and perhaps some parameters which are

too abstract. In this regard, we feel the need for experimental investigation and appropriation of the various

parameters.

REFERENCES

Bauer, E. 1996. Calibration of a comprehensive hypoplasticity model for granular materials. Soils and Foundations.

36(1): 112.

Been, K. & Jefferies, M. 1985. A state parameter for sands.

Geotechnique, 1985. 35(2): 99112.

Been, K. & Jefferies, M. 2004. Stress-Dilatancy in very loose

sand. Can. Geotech. J. 41: 972989.

Benz, T. 2007. Small Strain Stiffness of Soils and its Numerical Consequences. PhD Thesis. Stuttgart University

Chu, J. & Wanatowski, D. 2008. Instability Conditions of

Loose sand in plane strain. Journal of Geotechnical and

Geoenvironmental Engineering 134: 136142

Gudehus, G. 1996. A comprehensive equation for granular

materials. Soils and Foundations. 36(1): 112.

Herle, I. & Gudehus, G. 1999. Determination of parameters of

a hypoplastic constitutive model from properties of grain

assemblies. Mechanics of cohesive-Frictional Materials.

4: 461486.

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