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Islam means submission and one of the ways to worship Allah is through obedience
which is called ibadah. Ibadah can be expressed by following the five pillars stated in
the Quran .Worship must be performed with niyyah (the right intention) and taqwa
(consciousness of Allah).


Shahadah (There is no god except God and Muhammad is the messenger of

Allah) express belief in tawhid (oneness of Allah denying it shirk (putting
anything alongside him)), recited aloud x5 daily, correct without hesitation,
believed in heart, understood perfectly and professed until you die
Salah brings person closer to Allah, x5 daily so is in mind all day (taqwa),
strengthens ummah as Muslims pray together throughout world, acting on
natural inclination to him (fitrah), shows gratitude, dedicate time so he comes
first, ask for forgiveness or advice, wudu and rakahs, duty, submission to him
(total prostration), response to his greatness, strengthens faith, gives peace
and stability, gives courage and hope, rewarded judgement day
Zakah (2.5%, sadaqah - voluntary donation) purify giver, receiver and rest of
money, teaches patience and perseverance, teaches sacrifice, money for all
to promote good and justice, cleanses greed and desire, money belongs to
Allah so returning it to true owner which is great spiritual blessing, given nobly
with niyyah not for admiration or pride, strengthens ummah, duty, rewarded
judgement day
Sawm - links Muslims throughout world so strengthens ummah, reminds of
poverty and hunger of some so develop compassion, makes everyone equal,
fasting at Ramadan 30x more effective, discipline, give to charity, concentrate
on spiritual matters not bodily (e.g. learn and reflect on Islam, read Quran,
pray, go to mosque), duty, pride and pleasure fasting, value food given by
Allah, strengthens family at meal times, give up bad thoughts and being kind
so brings spiritual fulfilment, drawn closer to angels who behave perfectly,
following Muhammad, rewarded judgement day, Eid brings everyone together,
those who are ill, soldiers, travelling, elderly, young, pregnant, menstruating or
breast-feeding need not fast, broken with dates and water like Muhammad,
Eid celebration: food (e.g. jalobi), presents, new moon go to mosque, special
prayers, new clothes, visit cemetery (includes dead)
Hajj see sheet

Salah is performed five times daily: first light - sunrise, midday - early afternoon, mid
afternoon, sunset - darkness and before bed. Dua is private prayer and can be done
anytime. Prayer can be performed anywhere clean and ideally with others. Friday
midday prayers must be attended by all men but women are excused because of
domestic duties as are children. The most important place to pray in Islam is at the
Mount of Mercy on Hajj where you are standing before Allah. The importance of
prayer is seen through the need of wudu and rakahs.

Wudu performed for respect and cleanliness (using water or sand if none)
1.Both hands up to wrists x3, 2.Rinse mouth x3, 3.Nostrils and nose x3, 4.Face
(r-l, t-f) x3, 5.Each arm x3, 6.Forehead to neck x3, 7.Behind and inside ears x3,
8.Back of neck x3, 9.Feet x3
1. Facing qiblah say how many units of prayer you will do with hands on your
face while saying There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the
messenger of Allah. Allahu Ahbar (Allah is the greatest).
2. Opening chapter of Quran and any other chapter said [silent] Glory and
praise be to you. Blessed is your name and exalted is your majesty.
3. While bending down say Allah is the greatest. [silent] Glory be to my great
lord and praise be to him.
4. While standing up say Allah hears those who pray to him. Our lord, all
praise be to you.
5. Bow down twice repeating Allah is the greatest. [silent] Glory be to my
lord, the most high Allah is the greatest. [silent] My lord forgive me.
6. Pray for the Prophet and peace whilst saying Allah is the greatest then
kneeling down [silent] I bear witness that there is no god but Allah. I bear
witness that Muhammad is his servant and messenger.

In Islam there are strict food laws. Food that is permitted is called halal while food
that is forbidden is called haram and includes pork, flesh-eating animals and meat
containing blood. However, all meat must be killed in a certain way to be halal: the
throat must be slit with a sharp knife while invoking the name of Allah (Bismillah),
making it an act of devotion by showing that life is not being taken thoughtlessly. No
food should be wasted by Muslims as it is a gift from Allah, only what is needed
should be eaten and the rest given to the birds.
Food is also during two occasions for a sacrifice. During Id ul adha on Hajj a sacrifice
is made to commemorate the story of Ibrahim being so devoted to Allah that he was
willing to sacrifice his son Ishmail. Two thirds of the meat is given to the poor. A
sacrifice is also made when a child is a week old as thanksgiving to Allah for the
birth. A third is kept for the family, a third given to friends and the remainder to the


The Dome: represents the universe that Allah has created

Minarets: used by muezzim for the call to prayer (adhan), high so draw
attention to mosque, four + dome represent the Five pillar of Islam
Crescent and Moon: represents Islam which means submission (to Allah)
Qiblah Wall: points to Meeca (Kabblah) which Muhammad said would be used
to worship Allah
Minbar: where the imam leads prayers from
Clocks for time at Mecca and time of prayers
Calligraphy: words from the Quran done in beautiful writing, act of devotion

Arabesque: Interweaving leaves in a floral pattern, deliberate mistake to show

only Allah is perfect, act of devotion
Beauty: helps you feel spiritual
Green: colour of nature and calming
The Quran has to be higher than any other book to show its importance
Lined carpets so people pray in lines together, strengthens the ummah and
show equality before Allah
Only decorate with geometric shapes, no statues or pictures of livings things,
so no idol worship takes place as it is shirk
Have to perform wudu, cover head and take off shoes, shows respect to Allah