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Everyone is different - different genders, races, religions and therefore is treated
differently with different social standing, wealth etc. It says in the Quran that all
humanity descended from one original soul (raih) through Adam (soil) and Eve
(living) who were created by Allah to be his deputy on Earth. Therefore we are all
spiritually equal in the eyes of Allah and are part of the ummah. No one is superior to
another except in amount of faith and how closely they follow Allahs will.

Muslims believe that although spiritually equal, men and women are different for a
purpose. Their different physical characteristics have been given for their differing
duties which are equal for both genders. Muhammad set high standards for
treatment of women.

Society: men are a step above women and have advantages over them but
women still have the same rights (Quran)
Education every Muslim has a duty to be educated (Muhammad),
education allows you to truly fear Allah (Surah); in some Muslim
countries 25% of university students are women, education banned in
strict Muslim countries such as Saudi Arabia and Afghanistan (Malala
Yusef shot for disputing this)
Work primary duty is the family but can work if it doesnt shame her
or her family, can be paid for being a housewife, husbands duty is to
support the family; any money she earns is hers
Dress women should be modest and not display themselves except
to close family and other women, men should also have modesty and
respect womens (Quran), modesty is the special characteristic of
Islam (Hadiths); hijab required in strict Muslim countries seen as
oppressive (banned in France), prevents women being seen as objects
and appreciated instead for their personality, not stared at, dont have
to conform to stereotypes
Politics in strict Muslim countries few rights and less worth, lives
dictated by male family members; women allowed to vote in Saudi
Arabia, third of Egyptian parliament female; females in positions of
power: Sultana, ruler of Egypt, Benazir Bhutto PM of Pakistan, Aisha
and Ume Warqa political activists of early Islam
Domestic: Care for the family and the home, most important part of the family
Mother responsible for (religious education of) the children, children
take religion of the father; idea you should be dutiful to your mother
repeated four times, has the greatest right over man (Muhammad)
Wife men shouldnt mistreat their wives, the best men are those who
treat their wives well, if a man is unhappy with his wife he should be
happy about a good quality she has (Quran); arranged marriage
common, people with a well-known background, love intoxicates the
mind, you should marry for religious devotion (Quran); only one
husband but men can have multiple wives if they treat them all equally,

doesnt have to use husbands name, anything she owns before or

earns during the marriage is hers; Muslim men can marry previous
Christians and Jews but the women must marry Muslims
Religion separate sections of mosque, dont have to attend Friday
prayers, menstruating/ pregnant women excused from fasting but make
up for it later.

Islam, unlike Sikhism, is not pluralistic in its view of the true religion. Therefore
Muslims invite others to follow the ways of Islam which they believe is a natural
inclination all are born with (fitrah). However, although proselytising (unlike Judaism)
with dawah (call to Islam) encouraged, it is forbidden for there to be compulsion in
religion with non-Muslim worship being accepted in most Muslim countries (let him
who will, believe, and let him who will, reject Surah 18:29, To you be your Way and
to me mine. Surah 109:4-6). In the Quran it says the greatest wrong a Muslim
commit is the abandonment of religion (apostasy) which is very seriously punished in
strict Muslim countries, often by death.
Islam has close ties with the other two Abrahamic religions Christianity and
Judaism. In the Quran it says that these religions are the same as that revealed to
Muhammad (the last and greatest of the shared prophets with these religions) with
Allah being God of all. Therefore, with this shared history, they call Christians and
Jews People of the Book (Christians are nearest to the Believers in love Quran).
Muslim men are even permitted to marry women who have reverted (because
everyone is born with fitrah and thus Muslim) from these religions to Islam (but
Muslim women cant because children take the religion of the father).
However, these religions havent been responsible with their revelation so their
followers should still be called to Islam. For example, it says in the Quran that the
Christian ideas of Jesus the Messiah and his resurrection deny Tawhid (oneness of
Allah). Islam is much less accepting of Buddhism, which doesnt even include the
notion of a god, and Hinduism which involves multiple gods therefore denies Tawhid.
Despite these differences, the Quran says that all distinct communities will be
judged according to their own book on the Last Day (any who believe in God and
the Last Day and work righteousness shall have their reward with their Lord Surah

Muslims believe that there isnt a chosen race by Allah and therefore are not a
distinct race but rather come from many different countries. And amonf His signs is
the creations of the heavens and the earth, and the variations in your languages and
your colours Surah 30:22. O mankind! We created you from a single pair of male
and female and made you into nations and tribes that you may not know each other
(and not that you may despise each other) Surah 49:1. Muhammad chose that no
race has superiority and even chose a Black slave as the first Muezzim.
However, they can be the object of racism (Islamophobia) which has been
exacerbated in recent years due to high-profile Muslim terrorist groups. The Race
Relations Relations Act (1976) forbids discrimination based on racism and inciting

racial hatred is a crime with a Religious Discrimination Bill also being published in
2005. The Runnymede Commission began to investigate Islamophobia in the UK in
1997 aiming to overcome the racial inequality in society.
Muslims are allowed to fight against racism but should let not the hatred of others to
you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. One such example of this
was Malcolm X, a Black American Muslim, who encouraged violence against white
people. He, however, changed his ideas after Hajj and was assassinated by the
Nation of Islam (a racist black group he was once the leader of) in 1965.


Muslims live according to Shariah, derived from the Quran with further guidance
from the Sunnah, which determines if something is right (halal) or wrong (haram).
Through this Muslims live according to Allahs will with taqwa and thus also improve
society. If someone commits a wrong it should be made right as Muslims strive for
justice in all aspects of life. However, true justice can only manifest with Allahs help
and by following his path.
In Islam, justice should be determined by the victim. This can come in many forms
up to an equal wrong back: incarceration, physical punishment, compensation
(diyyah). However, it says in the Quran it is best for the victim to simply forgive (if
their honour is maintained doing so) like the merciful and forgiving Allah and souldnt
be resentful or hold grudges but they are fully justified in seeking justice. If a
wrongdoer is yet to commit an act they should first be reasoned with in attempt to
stop them and become a friend.
Examples of forgiveness can be seen in:
Saladin sent water and fruit to his enemy when asked during a war
Muhammad refused the destruction of Taif when offered even though the
people there threw rocks at him and drove him out of town
The Peace and Reconciliation Council court-like body assembled after the
abolition of the apartheid in South Africa for the violations committed during it

Muslims believe that for everyone this life is a test, but not beyond what we can bear,
which determines the life to come (akirah). The circumstances (e.g. wealth, race,
gender) of this life are irrelevant to that decision as they are Allahs will. We are
instead tested on our character, reactions to good and bad fortune and our way of
life we have free will thus are responsible for our own salvation. This is recorded by
two angels throughout your life with Allahs judgment on the Last Day based upon
this. If we ask for forgiveness with niyyah before death then the merciful and
forgiving Allah will accept but after it is too late. If you die before the Day of
Judgment, the angel of death takes you to await it in Barzakh. The reward received
is paradise and the punishment is Jahannam.