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Psychological Assessment

1997, Vol. 9, No. 2, 83-88

Copyright 1997 by the American Psychological Association, Inc.


1040-3590/97/$3.00

This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.

WISC-III Subtest Scatter as a Function of Highest Subtest Scaled Score


John A. Schinka and Rodney D. Vanderploeg

Glenn Curtiss

James A. Haley Veterans Affairs Medical Center,


Tampa, Florida, and University of South Florida

Henry M. Jackson Foundation and James A. Haley


Veterans Affairs Medical Center

The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for ChildrenIII (WISC-III) standardization data were analyzed
to determine the frequency of occurrence for relative intersubtest scatter ranges. The relative scatter
range was denned as the difference between the highest and lowest subtest scaled scores based on
the value of the highest subtest scaled score. This approach to intersubtest scatter provides the
greatest precision in scatter analysis to help clinicians determine whether the amount of scatter
obtained in WISC-III clinical profiles is rare enough to be considered abnormal. For ease of clinical
use, tables are provided that report frequency of occurrence for the lowest subtest scaled score by
each level of highest subtest scaled score. Potential scatter range, rather than overall level of intelligence, was the primary determinant of the magnitude of scatter; the greater the possible range, the
larger the magnitude of scatter.

Since the introduction of the Wechsler scales in 1939, the


analysis of intelligence test subtest profiles has been a subject
of substantive clinical theorizing and research interest. The potential importance of variability in subtest profiles was spurred
initially by several reports (e.g., Black, 1974; Doehring, Reitan, & Klove, 1961; Simpson & Vega, 1971) of increased subtest
scatter in patients with demonstrable brain damage. Although
numerous studies have subsequently examined intelligence-battery subtest scatter in relation to a broad variety of forms of
psychopathology, there is little substantive evidence to support
the diagnostic utility of specific subtest patterns. Nevertheless,
highly recognized texts (e.g., Kaufman, 1990; Saltier, 1988)
provide strategies for generating clinical hypotheses based on
subtest scatter for the Wechsler intelligence scales.
As we have noted (Schinka, Vanderploeg, & Curtiss, 1994),
subtest score variability, or scatter, has been assessed by means
of three measures: (a) the absolute range (the difference between the highest and lowest subtest scaled scores, regardless
of the value of either score; Matarazzo, Daniel, Prifitera, &
Herman, 1988; McLean, Kaufman, & Reynolds, 1989; Silverstein, 1987, 1989); (b) the absolute subtest scaled score
range for different levels of IQ (Matarazzo et al., 1988); and

(c) the number of subtest scale scores differing by 3 points


from the individual's mean scaled score (e.g., at various frequencies of occurrence; McLean et al., 1989). Studies examining the relationships among these measures and demographic
variables for the revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
(WA1S-R; Wechsler, 1981) have shown that the range is the
most effective measure (Matarazzo et al., 1988; McLean et
al., 1989). Because scatter has been shown to increase with
increasing education or IQ with administration of the WAISR
to adults, tables presenting the frequencies of different scatter
ranges are typically broken down by levels of one of these
variables (e.g., IQ in Tables 4-6 of Matarazzo et al., 1988,
and Tables 4 and 5 in McLean et al., 1989). Matarazzo et al.
(1988) suggested that the greater intersubtest scatter observed
at higher IQ levels deserved further exploration, because statistically one would expect that widely deviate subtest scores
would average out, resulting in an IQ near the population mean.
Schinka et al. (1994), however, demonstrated that the amount
of scatter in the WAIS-R normative sample is simply a function of the potential range of scatter, and they provided tables
for examining the frequency of scatter on the basis of highest
subtest scale score.
In the manual for the latest edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III; Wechsler, 1991), the clinical importance of subtest scatter is recognized by the provision
of Table B5 (p. 266), which presents the percentage of children
in the standardization sample whose scores exhibited various
amounts of absolute scatter within Verbal, Performance, Full
Scale, and factor-based subtest groupings. Wechsler noted in
the manual that analyses conducted to establish whether scatter
varied with age or IQ level revealed no significant findings.

John A. Schinka, Psychology Service, James A. Haley Veterans Affairs


Medical Center, Tampa, Florida, and Department of Psychiatry, University of South Florida; Rodney D. Vanderploeg, Psychology Service,
James A. Haley Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Departments of
Neurology and Psychology, University of South Florida; Glenn Curtiss,
Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Tampa, Florida, and Psychology Service,
James A. Haley Veterans Affairs Medical Center.
This research was supported in part by the Department of Veterans
Affairs. Data reported in this article are standardization data of the

In this article we provide data on frequency of occurrence


for relative, rather than absolute, scatter ranges for the Verbal,
Performance, and Full-Scale subtest groupings for the WISCIII. The relative scatter range is defined as the difference between the highest and lowest subtest scaled scores based on the
value of the highest subtest scaled score. Use of relative ranges
assumes that, for example, a range of 6 may have a different
meaning when the highest subtest scaled score is 8 than it does

WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDRENTHIRD


EDITION. Copyright 1990 by The Psychological Corporation. Used
by permission. All rights reserved.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to John A.
Schinka, Psychology Service (116B), James A. Haley Veterans Affairs
Medical Center, 13000 Bruce B. Downs Boulevard, Tampa, Florida
33612. Electronic mail may be sent via Internet to schinka@forum.
va.gov.

83

84

SCHINKA. VANDERPLOEG, AND CURTISS

Table 1
Verbal Scale (5 Subtexts): Percentage of Cases by Highest Subtext Scaled Score
at or Below the Value for the Lowest Subtest Scaled Score

This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.

Lowest
subtest
scaled
score

Highest subtest scaled score

17+
100.0
98.3
95.4
82.8
70.7

16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

54.0

37.4
23.0
9.2
2.9
1.1

0.0

16

100.0
99.2
94.7
87.9
71.2
52.3
28.0
11.4
3.8
0.8
0.0

15

100.0
99.5
93.5
81.1
60.7
40.8
25.4

0.5
0.0

100.0
99.6
96.3
82.2
60.2
39.4
22.0
9.1
3.3
1.7
0.8
0.0

201
9.7
2.0
35.2

241
8.8
1.8
36.8

12.4

7.5
4.0
1.0

n
M
SD
%

174
11.3
2.1
38.0

132
10.5
1.7
34.3

14

13

12

100.0
97.7
87.9

luo.o

72.1

47.9
30.6
13.2

6.4
2.6
1.1
0.8
0.0
265
8.4
1.8
35.4

99.0
87.3
64.9

11

10

100.0
94.2

100.0

78.8

96.2

100.0

59.7
34.5
19.9
12.4
4.4
2.2
226
5.9

74.5
50.0
28.3
16.3
6.5
3.3
184
5.3

91.7

0.7
299
7.6

100.0
98.9
82.0
59.4
35.3
16.5
8.3
5.4
2.2
1.1
278
6.9

1.8

1.7

1.8

1.7

36.8

37.2

40.6

41.7

41.8

23.4
12.0
7.0
3.3
1.7

75.2

100.0

45.9

82.1

100.0

22.0
8.3
3.7
109
4.5
1.4
43.4

53.6
30.4
17.9
56
3.2
1.4
54.7

70.6
47.1
17.6
17

2.6
1.1
55.8

Note. M = mean lowest subtest score; SD = standard deviation of mean lowest subtest score; % =
proportion of the possible scatter range accounted for by average scatter (mean scatter range/highest subtest
score). Standardization data of the WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDRENTHIRD
EDITION. Copyright 1990 by The Psychological Corporation. Used by permission. All rights reserved.

Table 2
Performance Scale (5 Subtesls): Percentage of Cases by Highest Subtest Scaled Score
at or Below the Value for the Lowest Subtest Scaled Score
Lowest
subtest
scaled
score
16
15
14
13
12
II
10
9
8
7
6

5
4
3
2
1
n
M
SD
%

Highest subtest scaled score


17+

100.0
99.6
97.6
91.0
81.6
66.5
51.0
31.0
19.2
10.2
4.9
2.0
1.2
0.4
0.4
245
9.4
2.3
49.6

16

15

100.0
98.3
96.0
91.3

100.0

77.5

62.4
42.8

24.9
12.1

4.6
2.3
0.6
0.0

99.6
98.2
95.5
86.5
71.7
56.5
34.5
22.0
12.1
4.5
2.2
0.9
0.4

173
8.9
2.1

44.5

223
8.2
2.2
45.7

14

100.0
99.2
97.0
89.8
77.4
62.6
42.6
24.5
15.1
8.7
4.2
2.3
1.1
265

13

12

100.0
98.2
91.8

100.0
99.7
92.3
84.3
66.2
48.1
32.8
18.1
10.8
4.9
1.4
287
6.4
2.1
46.5

75.3

7.8

51.2
34.1
18.3
10.1
4.9
1.2
0.9
328
7.1

2.3

1.9

44.6

45.1

11

100.0
97.1
88.0
72.0
50.2
34.5
22.9
12.7
7.3

3.6
275
6.1

82.8

100.0

100.0

60.6
40.4
21.2
15.2
10.1
99
4.8
1.9
47.1

83.6
54.5
38.2
18.2
14.5
55
3.9
1.6
51.1

92.0
76.0
68.0

10

100.0
99.5
92.5

100.0
99.0
94.9

73.5

50.5
34.0
18.5
9.0
5.0
200
5.2

2.2

1.8

44.4

48.3

44.0

32.0
25
2.9
1.7

58.9

100.0
93.3
73.3
60.0
33.3
15
2.4

1.4
60.0

Note. M = mean lowest subtest score; SD = standard deviation of mean lowest subtest score; % =
proportion of the possible scatter range accounted for by average scatter (mean scatter range/highest subtest
score). Standardization data of the WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDRENTHIRD
EDITION. Copyright 1990 by The Psychological Corporation. Used by permission. All rights reserved.

WISC-IU SUBTEST SCATTER

85

Table 3
Full Scale (10 Subtests): Percentage of Cases by Highest Subtest Scaled Score
at or Below the Value for the Lowest Subtest Scaled Score
Lowest
subtest
scaled
score
16
15
14
13
12

This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.

11
10

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
n
M
SD
%

Highest subtest scaled score


17+

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

100.0
98.3
94.5
85.1
68.8
46.1
30.1
16.3
8.3
5.0
2.8
1.1
0.6
362
8.4
2.1
55.3

100.0
98.2
92.8
79.2
59.3
42.5
29.0
14.5
6.8
3.2
2.3
0.9
221
7.7
2.1
51.9

100.0
99.3
99.3
97.2
88.7
76.1
51.4
33.8
23.2
12.3
4.2
1.1
0.4
284
7.1
2.0
52.5

100.0
99.3
97.3
86.4
67.0
42.5
26.9
16.0
9.5
5.1
2.7
294
6.5
2.0
53.8

100.0
98.1
93.8
79.5
56.8
35.7
12.1
12.7
5.9
2.8
322
5.9
1.9
54.4

100.0
99.6
97.8
88.2
73.2
50.7
33.1
21.3
10.7
5.1
272
5.2
2.0
56.7

100.0
98.5
95.0
82.0
59.5
38.5
25.0
10.0
5.0
200
4.9
1.8
55.8

100.0
92.6
86.1
64.8
43.4
24.6
15.6
122
3.7
1.7
62.7

100.0
98.5
94.1
76.5
55.9
35.3
25.0
68
3.1
1.6
65.0

100.0
97.5
72.5
52.5
37.5
40
2.4
1.3
70.0

100.0
90.9
90.9
72.7
11
1.5
0.9
79.2

Note. M = mean lowest subtest score; SD = standard deviation of mean lowest subtest score; % =
proportion of the possible scatter range accounted for by average scatter (mean scatter range/highest subtest
score). Standardization data of the WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDRENTHIRD
EDITION. Copyright 1990 by The Psychological Corporation. Used by permission. All rights reserved.

Table 4
Verbal Scale (6 Subtests, Digit Span Included): Percentage of Cases by Highest Subtest
Scaled Score at or Below the Value for the Lowest Subtest Scaled Score
Lowest
subtest
scaled
score
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5

Highest subtest scaled score


17+

100.0
98.1
89.6
82.0
71.1
58.3
40.3
25.1
10.0
4.7

2.8
0.9
0.9
0.0

3
2
1

n
M
SD
%

211
10.2
2.4
44.4

16

15

100.0
99.3
95.9
88.4
71.4
50.3
30.6
15.0
4.8
4.1

100.00
99.5
97.7
91.8
75.5
60.5
40.5
21.4
10.5
5.9

0.7

1.4

0.7
0.0

0.9
0.9
0.5
220
8.9
2.0
40.5

147
9.4
1.9
41.3

14

13

12

11

100.0
99.0
91.0
77.2
55.5
34.5
17.2
9.0
5.2
2.8
1.4
0.3
290
8.1
1.9
42.4

100.0
99.7
95.1
85.4
67.3
49.8
25.2
14.6
8.1
3.9
1.9
1.0
309
7.5
2.0
42.5

100.0
99.7
97.1
83.6
61.1
36.3
19.6
11.3
6.1
2.3
0.6
311
6.8
1.8
43.1

100.0
99.1
92.7
76.5
49.1
24.4
10.3
6.4
3.0
1.3
234
6.4
1.6
42.1

10

100.0
99.5
89.6
71.9
43.2
26.6
14.1

5.7
3.1
192
5.5
1.7
45.4

100.0
98.6
83.0
58.5
37.4
17.7
7.5
2.0
147
5.0
1.6
45.0

100.0
96.4
85.7
57.1
31.0
13.1
6.0
84
4.1
1.4
48.7

100.0
90.7
74.4
48.8
30.2
43
2.6
1.3
63.5

100.0
71.4
42.9
28.6
7

2.6
1.3
57.2

Note. M = mean lowest subtest score; SD = standard deviation of mean lowest subtest score; % =
proportion of the possible scatter range accounted for by average scatter (mean scatter range/highest subtesl
score). Standardization data of the WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDRENTHIRD
EDITION. Copyright 1990 by The Psychological Corporation. Used by permission. All rights reserved.

86

SCHINKA, VANDERPLOEG, AND CURTISS

Table 5
Performance Scale (6 Subtexts, Mazes Included): Percentage of Cases by Highest Subtest
Scaled Score at or Below the Value for the Lowest Subtest Scaled Score

This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.

Lowest
subtest
scaled
score

16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7

6
5

Highest subtest scaled score

17+

16

100.0
99.7
99.7
97.6
91.7
78.9
64.5
46.5
29.4
15.6

100.0
99.0
98.4
97.4
91.1
80.6
59.2
36.6
19.4

7.0
3.4
2.4

3
2

1'

0.6
327
8.6
2.2
530

n
M
SD
%

9.9
5.2
1.0
0.5
0.5
191
8.0
2.0
49.9

15

14

100.0
99.6
98.4
96.1
84.1
69.8
45.7
31.4
16.3

100.0
99.2
94.9
87.8
71.0
54.1
34.9
21.6

7.0

11.4

2.7
1.2
0.4
258
7.5
2.9
502

6.7
35
1.6
255
7.1
2.2
49 1

13

12

11

100.0
99.1
94.9
83.3
61.8
42.4
24.8
13.1

100.0
99.6
98.6
92.5
76.5
58.7
40.6
22.8
12.5

100.0
98.3
92.4
82.3
63.3
46.0
30.0
16.0

6.0
2 1

1.2
335
6.7
1.9
484

6.0
2.5
281
5.9
2.0
509

10

100.0
98.6
92.9
72.9
54.3
30.0

76
3.8
237
5.6
2.1

100.0
97.0
83.4
58.0
37.3
24.9
11.8

6.5
169
4.8
1.8

11.4

49 1

51.9

229
70
4.2
1.8
537

100.0
95.0
65.0
50.0
32.5
27.5

40
3.3
1.7
58.8

100.0
85.0
70.0

SOO
40.0

20
2.6
1.5
636

100.0
72.7
63.6
36,4

11
2.3
1.3
62.1

Note. M = mean lowest subtest score; SD = standard deviation of mean lowest subtest score; %
proportion of the possible scatter range accounted for by average scatter (mean scatter range/highest subtest
score). Standardization data of the WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDRENTHIRD
EDITION. Copyright 1990 by The Psychological Corporation. Used by permission. All right reserved.

when the highest subtest scaled score is 15. For ease of clinical
use, this work reports the lowest subtest scaled score for each
level of highest subtest scaled score, rather than a value for the
range. Clinically, the purpose of the analyses reported here was
to address the question, Given the participant's highest subtest
scaled score, what is the frequency of occurrence, or probability,
of his or her lowest subtest scaled score relative to the normal
sample?
Method
The participants were the 2,200 individuals of the WISC-ffl standardization sample described in detail in the WISC-III manual (Wechsler,
1991). In brief, participants were children, ages 6 through 16 years,
stratified on the basis of five demographic variables; age, gender, raceethnicity, parent education, and geographic region of residence. Our
analyses were derived from a data set that included subtest scale scores,
IQ scores, and data for these five demographic variables.
Ranges for subtest scaled scores were examined separately for the
Verbal and Performance scales and for all WISC-III subtests. Highest
and lowest subtest scaled scores were calculated for each participant,
and frequencies for the entire sample were then calculated for each
lowest scaled score across the range of highest scores from 6 to 17+.
Because there were so few highest scores of 18 and 19, scores of 17
and above were combined for the frequency analyses.
To expand further on Wechsler's (Wechsler, 1991) examination of the
importance of IQ level on subtest scatter, we examined the relative
relationships of highest subtest score and IQ to amount of subtest scatter.
In addition, the amount of scatter was examined as a function of its
proportion of the potential range. If the amount of scatter is primarily

a function of potential range, then the proportion should be relatively


stable across highest subtest scaled scores.

Results and Discussion


Tables 1 through 6 present the frequencies of occurrence of
lowest subtest scaled scores observed across the Rill, Verbal,
and Performance scales classified by the highest subtest scaled
score for both the 10- and 12-subtest administrations. The tables
are organized so that they indicate the frequency of a particular
value. Each entry shows the percentage of individuals whose
lowest subtest scaled score is at or below that level. For example,
the fourth column in Table 1 shows that for individuals with a
highest subtest scaled score of 14, only 1.7% had a lowest
subtest scaled score of 4 or less (i.e., a scatter range of 10 or
more) for the administration of five Verbal subtests.
Examination of the mean scatter across highest scaled scores
indicates that scatter increases with larger values for the highest
subtest scale score. These results are consistent with those reported previously by Matarazzo et al. (1988) for the WMS-R
and by Kaufman (1976a, 1976b) and Reynolds and Gutkin
(1981) for the WISC-R and Wechsler Preschool and Primary
Scale of IntelligenceRevised (WPPSI; Wechsler, 1989) standardization samples, respectively. The correlation between Full
Scale scatter and highest subtest scaled score was .48 for the 10subtest administration and .54 for the 12-subtest administration.
Correlations between Full Scale scatter and Full Scale IQ were
.06 and .07, respectively, for the 10- and 12-subtest administra-

87

WISC-m SUBTEST SCATTER


Table 6
Full Scale (12 Subtexts, Digit Span and Mazes Included): Percentage of Cases by Highest
Subtest Scaled Score at or Below the Value for the Lowest Subtest Scaled Score

This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.

Lowest
subtest
scaled
score

16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5

Highest subtest scaled score

16

15

14

13

7.8
5.0
2.6
1.5
463
7.6
2.1

100.0
99.6
99.6
97.5
92.8
77.6
62.0
40.9
22.4
10.1

100.0
99.4
96.6
89.2
66.5
44.6
30.8
17.2

3.8
3.0
1.3
237
6.9
2.0

6.2
2.8
1.5
325
6.5
1.9

100.0
99.7
98.6
93.2
80.1
58.1
39.2
23.6
16.2

100.0
99.7
97.8
88.4
66.5
46.7
26.6
17.2

9.1
3.7
296
5.8
2.1

59.9

56.9

57.0

58.7

17+

100.0
98.5
93.3
83.2
66.3
44.5
24.4

13.4

3
2
1

n
M
SD
%

12

11

7.8
4.7
319
5.4
1.9

100.0
95.9
87.3
64.5
40.8
24.1
11.4

100.0
98.0
88.5
66.9
48.0
31.8
14.9

5.3
245
4.7
1.7

6.1
148
4.5
1.8

58.1

60.8

59.5

10

100.0
97.7
92.0
78.4
51.1
28.4
18.2

100.0
84.8
63.0
43.5
30.4

88
3.3
1.6

46
2.8
1.5

66.6

68.9

100.0
96.0
76.0
60.0
52.0
25
2.2
1.4
72.5

100.0
83.3
6
1.2
0.4
82.9

Note. M = mean lowest subtest score; SD = standard deviation of mean lowest subtest score; % =
proportion of the possible scatter range accounted for by average scatter (mean scatter range/highest subtest
score). Standardization data of the WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDRENTHIRD
EDITION. Copyright 1990 by The Psychological Corporation. Used by permission. All rights reserved.

tions. Thus, these results are consistent with those reported for
the WAIS-R by Schinka et al. (1994) and confirm the findings
of Wechsler (1991) concerning the relationship of IQ to scatter
in the WISC-II1.
Tables 1 through 6 also present the average amount of scatter
as a percentage of potential scatter range (i.e., the average scatter

standardization sample with marked subtest scatter did in fact

divided by the highest subtest scaled score). It is clear that the

have undiagnosed pathology, it is very unlikely that all participants with marked subtest scatter did. Even very marked subtest
scatter is likely to reflect the state of normal individual differences in many or most cases. Third, the meaning of marked
scatter should only be addressed within the context of the
WISC-III subtests under consideration, the assessment ques-

proportion of average scatter is relatively stable across highest


subtest scaled scores, at approximately 38% for the Verbal, 46%

tion, and all of the assessment (including remaining WISC-III


subtests), medical, neurological, psychological, and psychoso-

for the Performance, and 54% for the Full Scales for the 10-

cial information.
An example may be useful. A scatter range of 9 within the
Verbal subtests in the 10-subtest administration is in itself not

subtest administration. For the 12-subtest administration, the


percentages climb approximately 5 percentage points, as would
be expected because of the contribution of an additional subtest
score to the range of scatter.
Tables 1 through 6 in this study provide the most precise
tables available to help clinicians determine whether the amount
of subtest scatter obtained in WISC-III clinical profiles is rare
enough to be considered remarkable, and hence, of potential

a meaningful finding. In contrast, a highest scale score of 14


on Vocabulary or Comprehension combined with a lowest scale
score of 5 on Arithmetic (base rate of occurrence of these
highest-lowest score values = 3.3%; see Table I ) would be
consistent with an arithmetic learning disability in the course
of a learning disability evaluation.

clinical importance. In this regard, comments and caveats made


by other authors on the interpretation of scatter (e.g., Kaufman,

References

1990) bear repeating. First, the base rate for any given level of
scatter is likely to be underestimated by most clinicians, especially when considering scatter across both Verbal and Performance subtests. The use of tables, such as the ones provided
herein, should be consulted whenever there is a question of
scatter of potential diagnostic significance. Second, even marked
subtest scatter is not necessarily indicative of pathology when
it constitutes the only evidence of neuropsychological deficit.
Although it is possible that some participants in the WISC-III

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This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.

SCHINKA, VANDERPLOEG, AND CUKTISS


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Reynolds, C. R., & Gulkin, T. B. (1981). Test scatter on the WPPSI:
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Silverstein, A. B. (1987). Two indices of subtest scatter on Wechsler's


intelligence scales: Estimated vs. empirical values. Journal of Clinical
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Silverstein, A. B. (1989). Reliability and abnormality of scaled-score
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Simpson, C. D., & Vega, A. (1971). Unilateral brain damage and patterns of age-corrected WAIS subtest scores. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 27, 204-208.
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Received June 10, 1996
Revision received September 30, 1996
Accepted October 12, 1996

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