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COOPERATIVE LEARNING METHOD IN INCREASING WRITING

ABILITY THROUGH TEACHING SPOOF TEXT TECHNIQUE

Baihaqi
Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan
Universitas Samudra Langsa
Jln. Kampus Meurandeh No. 1 Langsa

Abstract:

This writing is amied to observe cooperative learning method in


increasing writing ability through teaching spoof text technique. The
objective of the study was to find whether teaching writing spoof text
through cooperative learning method is effective to improve the
students achievement or not.
Based on the study, it is found that cooperative learning seems to
be effective for improving the students ability in writing spoof text. The
researcher hopes this technique can be used by other teachers to enable
the students to write spoof text.
Key Words: Cooperative Learning Method, Writing Ability and
Teaching Spoof Text Technique

A. Introduction
One of the language skills that will be learned is writing skill.
Writing is one of the four skills that are important to have in our daily
life thats why writing is very important to study. Furthermore, for
students, writing is become a necessary skill to master since it

frequently determines their academic success. Therefore, every


student is to learn how to write effectively.
Unfortunately, Indonesian students writing in English is still
low. According to Richards There is not doubt that writing is the most
difficult skill for L2 learners to master.1 The difficulty lies not only in
generating and organizing ideas, but also translating these ideas into
readable text. It means that the students are not able to write
English well. They can not use the good word and grammar in writing.
Based on the writers research it was not easy for the students to
write well in English. Most of them are bored and lazy in writing.
Therefore, they do not give full attention and enthusiasm in the
process of learning writing. They have some ideas in their mind, but
they do not know how to express their ideas in writing. Moreover
there are many mistakes in grammar when written their ideas into a
piece of paper. Most of them have bad scores in this skill. Writing is a
process and that we write is often heavily influenced by constraints of
genres, then these elements have to be present in learning activities.
There might be those who give promise of great of expectations for
writing in future but too many of them encounter handicaps that
hamper the production of intelligible and informative writing.
According to Gerot Spoof is a text which tells factual story,
happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending.
Refer to Hornby Spoof is a humorous copy of a film/movie,
television etc. Its mean the students will feel interested with the
topic because spoof text give entertains while study. And spoof text
has social function is to entertain and share the story.2 The example
of spoof text:
The Boss and the Trainee
1 Richards, Jack C. 2003. Methodology in Language Teaching. Unites States of
America: Cambridge University Press. P: 32

2 Gerot, Linda. 1995. Making Sense of Functional Grammar. Australia: Gerd


Stabler. P: 45

A Man joined a big Multi National Company as a trainee. On his


first day he dialed the pantry and shouted into the phone,
A Man
other side
Director
A Man
Director
A Man
Director
A Man

: Get me a coffee quickly! (The voice from the


responded
: "You fool you've dialed the wrong extension! Do
you
know who you're talking to, dumbo?
: No", replied the trainee.
: "It's the Managing Director of the company, you
fool!"
The man shouted back.
: "And do you know who YOU are talking to, you
fool?"
: "No", replied the Managing Director.
: "Thats good!" (Replied the trainee and put down
the phone.)

After studied spoof text the students will be able to increase


their writing ability. Because writing is one of the most important
skills in English, refer to Hornby explains, Writing is to make letters
or numbers on a surface especially using a pen or a pencil.3 Writing
is a process and that we write is often heavily influenced by
constraints of genres, then these elements have to be present in
learning activities. Through writing also, we know that someone has
mastered English. That is why teaching English based on
competence based curriculum hoped could make student able to
write.
In this research will use cooperative learning method to
increase writing ability through teaching spoof text technique.
According to Herrell Cooperative learning is a term used for a
collection of strategies in which students work together to
accomplish a group task.4 It will conclude that, to succeed, group
3 Hornby AS. 1996. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current
English. Oxford: Oxford University Press. P: 55

4 Herrell, Adriane. 2004. Fifty Strategies for Teaching English Language


Learners. (2nd Edition). United States of America: Person Merrill Prentice Hall. P: 77

work must be carefully structure; the students must be thoroughly


prepared through social skill-building activities; assignment be openend rather have preset answer; and the task must be such that a
group, rather than an individual to accomplish it
B.

Scope of Study
The scope of study will focus on the Cooperative Learning
Method in Increasing Writing Abililty could be described through
Teaching Spoof Text Method?

C.

Purpose of Study
Base on the problem, the purpose for this research is to know
whether cooperative learning methods are able to improve writing
ability through teaching spoof text method

D.

Method of Study
This method used in writing this study is library research
through identifying of reference list and then analyze and compose
into academic writing.

E.

Description
A. Definition of Writing
Writing is one way to communicate with other people. It is
representation of language which is used to express and explanation
ideas in textual-medium through the use of sign or symbols.
According to Harmer states that writing is a process and that we
write is often heavily influenced by constraints of genres, then these
elements have to be present in learning activities.5 Boardman states
that writing is a continuous process of thinking and organizing,
rethinking, and reorganizing.6 Writing is a powerful tool to organize
overwhelming events and make them manageable. Writing is really a
form of thinking using the written word. From the definitions above it

5 Harmer, J. 2004. How To Teach Writing. Pearson Education Limited.


England. P: 62

can be concluded that writing is a way to produce language that


comes from our thought. It is written on a paper or a computer
screen.
Writing is a complex skill, it involves a complex process done
step by step to pass on knowledge or message in our mind in a
written form, in which we have to use certain grammatical rules and
choose the right words in sentences. Each sentence in a paragraph
must have certain correlation with each other and organize in a good
order.
Actually, paragraph discusses the main idea of the essay; refer
to Zemach a paragraph is a group of sentence about single topic. As
cited by Oshima and Hogue state that a paragraph is a basic unit of
organization in writing in which a group of related sentences develop
one main idea.

A well-written paragraph contains six elements. They are:


a.

Topic sentence: It states the main idea of the paragraph.

b. Supporting sentences which develop the topic sentence.


c. Concluding sentence. It indicates the end of the paragraph
and leaves the reader with important points to remember.
d. Unity. It means that the discussion in the paragraph is only
one main idea, which is stated in the topic sentence, and then
each and every supporting sentence develops that idea.
e. Coherence. It means that paragraph is easy to read and
understand because the supporting sentences are in logical
6 Boardman, Cynthia. A. 2002. Writing to Communicate (Paragraph and
Essay). NewYork: Longman. P: 107

7 Oshima A, and A Hogue. 1999. Writing Academic English (3th Edition).


New York: Longman. P: 44

order and using appropriate transition signals connects the


ideas.
f. Cohesion. It means that all supporting sentence Stick
together in their support of the topic sentence.

B. Steps in Writing
Oshima states that steps to make a good writing, among others;8
1. Pre-writing
Writing, particularly academic writing is not easy. Writing takes
study and practice to develop this skill. For both native speakers and
new learners of English, it is important to note that writing is a
process, not a product. There are four main stages in writing
process: pre-writing, planning (outlining), writing and revising drafts,
and writing the final copy to hand in.
Steps in pre-writing include:

a. Choosing and Narrowing a Topic


If you are given a specific writing assignment (Such as an
essay question on an examination), then, of course, what you can
write about is limited. On the other hand, when you are given a free
choice of topic to particular aspect of that general subject. Suppose
you are interested in the environment. It would be impossible to
cover such as a big topic in a paragraph. You would have to narrow
the topic to perhaps environmental pollution, if that is your interest.
Environmental pollution, however, is still too broad a topic a for
8 Ibid. P: 46

paragraph, so you might event further narrow topic to a type of


environmental pollution, such as pollution of the oceans. However,
writing about ocean pollution is still too broad because it would
include pollution by oil, chemicals, sewage, and garbage. Therefore,
you might decide to write about oil as a source of ocean pollution.
Finally, you might make this topic even narrower by writing only
about the effects of oil spills on sea life. The point is, you must
narrow the subject of your paragraph to a specific focus so that you
can write about it clearly and completely.

b. Brainstorming
One way to capture your thought is by brainstorming, or listing
thoughts as they come to you. You might brainstorm are listing, free
writing, and clustering.

c. Listing
Listing is a brainstorming technique in which you think about
your topic and quickly make a list of whatever word or phrase come
into your mind. Your purpose is to produce as many ideas as
possible in a short time, and your goal is to find a specific focus for
your topic.
Follow this procedure:

Write down the general topic at the top of your paper.

Then make a list of every idea that comes into your mind
about that topic.

Use word, phrases, or sentences, and dont worry about


spelling and grammar.

d. Free Writing
Free writing is a brainstorming activity in which you write freely
about a topic because you are looking for a specific focus. Follow
this procedure:

Write a topic at the top your paper

Write as much as you can about the topic until your run out of ideas.

After you have run out of ideas, reread your paper and circle
the main idea(s) that would like to develop.

Take that main idea and free write again.

e. Clustering
Clustering is another brainstorming activity that you can be
use generates ideas. Heres how to use this technique: in the center
of your paper, write your topic and draw a balloon around it.

C. Planning (Outlining)
In the planning, you chose topics and narrowed them, and you
generate ideas by brainstorming.

According to Meyers states in organizing steps the writer does


as the following:9
a. Underline or highlight best ideas in your brainstorming list,
putting related ideas together. Add to the as more ideas occur
to you and remove or ignore the parts that are not related to
your choices.
b. Choose the part of the clustering diagram that has the best
ideas. Do a second clustering diagram that explores those
ideas in greater detail. Ignore the parts of the original diagram
that are not related to your choice.
c. Circle or highlight the best parts of your free writing. Do a
second even a third free writing on them, Ignore the parts of
each free writings that are not related to your choice. And
focus more specifically on your subject and add more details.
d. Outlining After selecting, subtracting and adding, the writer
can make an informal outline.

D. Writing and Revising Draft


After pre-writing, and planning is writing and revising several
draft until you have produced a final copy to hand in. remember that
no piece of writing is ever perfect on the first time. Each time you
write new draft, you will refine and improve your writing.

a. Writing the First Rough Draft


9 Meyers, Allan. 2005. Gateways to Academic Writing: Effective Sentences
Paragraph and Essay. New York: Longman.P: 107

The first step to write a rough draft from your outline. This is how
to proceed:

Write down the topic sentence and underline it.

Skip one or two lines per line of writing and leave margins of one
inch on both sides of the paper.

Write your paragraph, following your outline as closely as


possible. Try writing steadily.

Dont worry about grammar, punctuation, or spelling.

b. Revising Content and Organization


During the revision, do not try to correct grammar, sentence
structure, spelling, or punctuation; this is proofreading, which you
will do late. During the first revision, be concerned mainly with
content and organization. This is how to proceed:

Read over your paragraph carefully for a general overview.


Check to see that you have achieved your stated purpose.
Check for general logic and coherence.
Check to make sure that your paragraph has a topic sentence

and that the topic sentence has a central (main) focus.


Check for unity
Check to make sure that the topic sentence is developed with

sufficient supporting details.


Check your use of transition signal.
Finally, does your paragraph have or need a concluding
sentence? If you wrote a final comment, is it on the topic?

c. Proofreading the Second Draft

The next step is to proofread your paper to check for


grammar, sentence structure, spelling and punctuation.

Check over each sentence for correctness and completeness:

no fragments and no choppy or run-on sentence.


Check over each sentence for a subject and a verb, subject-

verb agreement, correct verb tense.


Check the mechanics, punctuation, spelling, capitalization,

typing errors
Change vocabulary words as necessary
Writing the Final Copy

After rereading the final copy, dont be surprised if you decide


to make a few minor or even major changes. Remember that writing
is a continuous process of writing and rewriting until you are
satisfied with the final product.

E. Teaching Writing
Many reason for getting students to write, both in and
outside class. Firstly, writing gives them more thinking time than
they get when the attempt spontaneous conversation. Refer to
Harmer when thinking about writing; it is helpful to make a
distinction between writing-for- learning and writing-for-writing.10
According to Kendall Teaching Writing Language Learner can be a
challenge because students frequently get confused what they want
to say as they work.

11

10 Harmer, J. 2007. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Pearson


Education Limited. England. P: 92

11 Kendall Juli, Khoun Outey. 2006, Writing Sense. Stenhouse Publisher


Portland, Maine. P: 154

Teaching writing actually is not easy because in writing needs


some understanding such as grammar, vocabulary, punctuation,
etc. as cited by Susan process writing shift the focus from the
finished product to the processes which pupils need to go through
as writers.12 Refer to Heaton that the writing skills are complex and
difficult to teach requiring mastery not only of grammatical and
rhetorical devices but also conceptual and judgment elements.

13

Based on the statement above it seems that teachers have


to more concern about teaching writing because it needs more skills
in writing than others. So teacher should give some strategies to
improve the students writing. One of them is using some interesting
techniques in writing to make the students enjoy and easy to write.

F. Definition of Spoof Text


A spoof text is a piece of text that retells an event with a
humorous twist. Spoof usually to explain the processes involved in
the formation (evolution) of a sociocultural phenomenon, the text
sends up the field of natural science, using the explanation genre to
do so. It can be said that to retell an event with a humorous twist.
According to Gerot Spoof is a kind of text that retells an
event with humorous twist. It is usually a result of systematic
observation and analysis.

14

Refer to Oxford Dictionary explains A

spoof is a humorous copy of a film/movie, television, etc.

12 Brindley, Susan. 2005, Teaching English. Open University. P: 64

13 Heaton, J.B. 1990. Writing English Language Test. London: Longman. P:


185

14 Gerot, Linda. 1995. Making Sense of Functional Grammar. Australia:


Gerd Stabler. P: 127

According to Gerot , generic structure of spoof includes:15


a. Orientation:
Sets the scene or provides the setting and introduces participants
b. Event (s):
Tell what happened
c. Twist:
Provides the punch line

Sample of Spoof Text:


The Boss and the Trainee
A Man joined a big Multi National Company as a trainee. On his first
day he dialed the pantry and shouted into the phone,
A Man
other side

: Get me a coffee quickly! (The voice from the


responded)

Director
know who

: "You fool you've dialed the wrong extension! Do you


you're talking to, dumbo?

A Man
Director
The man

: No", replied the trainee.


: "It's the Managing Director of the company, you fool!"
shouted back.

A Man
fool?"
15 Ibid. P: 138

: "And do you know who YOU are talking to, you

Director
A Man
the phone.).

: "No", replied the Managing Director.


: "Thats good!" (Replied the trainee and put down

G. Definition of Cooperative Learning


According to Hornby Cooperative is involving doing
something together or working together towards a shared aim.16
Refer to Herrell Cooperative Learning is term used for a collection
of strategies in which students work together to accomplish a group
task.

17

The Group Task is structured so that each member of the


group is expected to perform an assign task. Because of the
embedded structure of the unique tasks the assigned to each
member of the group, cooperative learning is much more affective
than ordinary group work usually done in classroom situation.
Appropriate training and structure is introduced into the process.
These opportunities for verbal instructions in small groups. They are
encouraged by the members of the groups and can participate at
the level at which they are able. English Language learners working
in cooperative groups must be given assignments according to their
level of English proficiency, which requires the teacher to be aware
of theirs stages of language acquisition and their levels of ability in
English reading and writing.

16 Hornby AS. 1996. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current


English. Oxford: Oxford University Press. P: 193

17 Herrell, Adriane. 2004. Fifty Strategies for Teaching English Language


Learners. (2nd Edition). United States of America: Person Merrill Prentice Hall. P: 156

H. Teaching Writing Spoof Text Through Cooperative


Learning

Teaching English as a foreign language for Indonesia


Students is not easy. The teacher asked to use a suitable technique,
media or method to teach effectively because effective teaching is
the basic factor for the success learning process including learning
writing.
Cooperative Learning, commonly referred to as CL, is a kind
of instructional sequence, i.e. a model of lesson planning. Steps in
using cooperative learning strategies in the classroom are:
a. Assigning Groups and Building a Team: Divide the class into
group. Provide a team-building activity as warm-up for helping
students to see the advantages of cooperative learning and
getting to know each other. Each time a new team is formed,
there should be a team building activity to help members
become familiar with each others capabilities
b. Assigning Roles within the Groups: Give the team members
cards that identify their assigned roles and list clear
descriptions of their duties. Usually one member is designated
as the leader, one as note-taker, one as reporter, one as time
keeper. Its also helpful to give each member a name tag which
designates the role to be played so that all members of the
group are aware of the roles of all the member.
c. Assigning the Task: Give each team a task to complete and
remind each member of the roles they are expected to serve
to assist the others in completing the task. The leader keeps
everyone working and focused. The note-taker keeps record of

the team activity, the reporter shares the information or result


which the class at the completion of the activity, and timekeeper makes sure they are on the task and moving toward
completion of the task within the time limit.
d. Intervening Ensure Full Participation: The researchers role is
crucial in establishing the tone of cooperation and group
interaction of its members. Without Appropriate team-building,
expectations, and validation of the contributions of all
individuals within the group, cooperative learning exercises
might actually be detrimental to the academic and linguistic
development of English learners. The researcher must
carefully monitor group participation and intervene whenever
a student is being excluded from the group process or taking
over the work of the group. To monitor these behaviors,
researcher listens to make sure every members of the group is
being given chance to talk, watch for physical signs the
students are being included from the group. The researcher
can do this by monitoring a personal skill or strength that
excluded members can contribute to the task, or by asking
question such as Is everyone having a chance to talk?
e. Reporting back to the Class: Provide an opportunity for the
groups to report back to the class at the end of the assigned
time. Each group should share their solution.
f. Debriefing and Examining the Group Process: Give each group
an opportunity to debrief, discussing the process and the roles
each team member played in the success of the group. Have
each group fill out a group report form that that focuses on
both product and process.

Through this method, teacher can motivate students to learn


spoof text interestingly and enjoyably. After researcher presents
about spoof text, students can easily write paragraph especially
about spoof text.

F. Conclusion

The researcher concluded that the students ability in writing


report text was improved through teaching spoof text technique such
as presentation, practice and production technique. The researcher
indicated that teaching spoof text technique can be adopted for
increasing writing ability especially in cooperative learning method. By
using this technique the researcher stated that writing ability skill for
English Learning can be increased and able to motivate the student in
studying of English writing at school.

Reference

Brindley Susan, 2005, Teaching English, Open University

Boardman, Cynthia. A. 2002. Writing to Communicate


(Paragraph and Essay). NewYork: Longman.

Gerot, Linda. 1995. Making Sense of Functional Grammar.


Australia: Gerd Stabler.
Harmer, J. 2007. How to Teach English. Pearson Education
Limited. England.
Harmer, J. 2007. The Practice of English Language Teaching.
Pearson Education Limited. England.
Harmer. J, 2004, How To Teach Writing, Pearson Education
Limited. England
Heaton, J.B. 1990. Writing English Language Test. London:
Longman.
Herrell, Adriane. 2004. Fifty Strategies for Teaching English
Language Learners. (2nd Edition). United States of America:
Person Merrill Prentice Hall.
Hornby AS. 1996. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of
Current English. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kendall Juli, Khoun Outey, 2006, Writing Sense, Stenhouse Publisher
Portland, Maine
Meyers, Allan. 2005. Gateways to Academic Writing: Effective
Sentences Paragraph and Essay. New York: Longman.
Oshima A, and A Hogue. 1999. Writing Academic English (3th
Edition) . New York: Longman

Richards, Jack C. 2003. Methodology in Language Teaching.


United States of America: Cambridge University Press