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Statistics

Chapter 4 Review Probability


Things you need to know
1. The purpose of tree diagrams
2. The cards in an ordinary deck of cards
3. Probability formulas for or and and statements.
4. Conditional probability
5. Permutations and Combinations
6. Fundamental Counting rule

The math
1. How many possible outcomes would there be if three coins were tossed once?
2.

3.

If the probability that it will rain tomorrow is 0.41, what is the probability that it will not
rain tomorrow?
Find the probability of getting a number less than 5 when a die rolled one time.

4.

If a black suit is drawn from an ordinary deck of cards, what is the probability that the
card is a king?

5.

The staff at a small company includes: 5 secretaries, 18 technicians, 7 engineers, 5


executives, and 85 factory workers. If a person is selected at random, what is the
probability that he or she is an engineer?

6.

In a recent study, the following responses were obtained to the question, Do you favor
recycling in your neighborhood?
Yes
Males
Females

50

No

No opinion

35

20

10

10

If a response is picked at random, what is the probability that it came from a female or
that it indicated yes regarding recycling.
7. A single card is drawn from a deck. Find the probability of selecting a black card or a 10.

8. If a single card is drawn from an ordinary deck of cards, what is the probability of drawing
a card with a number on it.

9.

Box A contains the numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4. Box B contains the numbers 5, 6, 7, and 8. A
number is first drawn from Box A and then another number from Box B. Using the figure
below, how many outcomes are possible if one number is odd and the other is even.

10. An apartment building has the following distribution of apartments:


1 bedroom 2 bedroom 3 bedroom
1st floor

2nd floor

3rd floor

a.

If an apartment is selected at random, what is the probability that it is on the 3 rd floor or


has 1 bedroom?

b.

If an apartment is selected at random, what is the probability that is it not a 1 bedroom


apartment on the 3rd floor?

11.If one card is drawn from an ordinary deck of cards, what is the probability that the card
will be a queen of diamonds, a black jack, or a club?

12. According to popular belief, 80% of adults enjoy drinking beer. Choose a group of 4 adults
at random. The probability that none of them enjoy drinking beer is:

13.A recent poll found that 30% of those surveyed are worried about aggressive drivers on
the road. If two people are selected at random, what is the probability that both will be
worried about aggressive drivers on the road?

14.A coin is tossed 4 times. Find the probability that all 4 tosses are heads.

15.In a second grade class containing 12 girls and 10 boys, 2 students at random to give out
the math papers. What is the probability that both are girls?
16.A gumball machine contains 100 grade flavored balls, 200 cherry flavored balls, and 300
lemon flavored balls. What is the probability of getting 1 grape ball, 1 cherry ball, and 1
lemon ball if each was removed and then replaced before choose the next from the
machine?

17.A group of 10 male and 8 female students is talking about going out for pizza. If 50% of
the male students actually go and 25% of the female students actually go, find the
probability that a random student who goes out for pizza is male.

18.In a second grade class containing 15 girls and 9 boys, 2 students are selected at random
to give out the math papers. What is the probability that the second student chosen is a
girl, given that the first one as a boy?

19.There are 3 blue balls, 5 red balls, and 3 white balls in a bag of balls. If a person selects
two of the balls, what is the probability that the second one is white given that the first
one was blue?

20.A box contains blue chips and red chips. A person selects two chips without replacement.
If the probability of selecting a blue chip and a red chip is 1/6, and the probability of
selecting a blue chip on the first draw is 3/14, find the probability of selecting the red chip
on the second draw, given that the first chip selected was a blue chip.

21.In the Happy Hilltop Health Home, 20% of the residents play shuffleboard, 35% of the
residents play poker, and 15% of the residents garden. If 5% of the residents play poker
and garden, find the probability that a resident gardens, given that they also play poker.

22.If the letters A through H are to be used in a five-letter code, how many different codes are
possible if repetitions are not permitted?

23.A store manager wants to display 8 different brands of toothpaste in a row. How many
ways can this be done?

24.How many different ways can 5 brands of soda be displayed on a supermarkets shelf, one
at a time in a row?

25. If a menu has a choice of 6 appetizers, 5 main courses, and 2 desserts, how many dinners
are possible if each includes one appetizer, one main course, and one dessert?

26.There are 5 different mathematics courses, 4 different science courses, and 7 different
history courses. If a student must take one of each, how many different ways can this be
done?

27.A group of 5 children are choosing colored pencils to draw a picture. Each child is allowed
to select one color. The available colors are green, red, and blue. If the second child
refuses to use red pencils, the third child refuses to use blue pencils, and the fifth child
only wants green, then how many ways are there for the children to choose pencils?
Assume that there are 12 pencils available of each color, and different children are allowed
to choose the same color.

28.A business has eight locations to choose from and wishes to rank only the top three
locations. How many different ways can this be done?

29.How many different ways can four people: Andy, Betty, Cindy, and Doug, sit in a row at
the opera if Andy and Betty must sit together?

30.Each of 10 students wishes to buy a particular textbook, but only 5 textbooks are
available. How could one express the number of ways those textbooks could be
distributed among the students?

31.How many ways can a student select five questions from an exam containing 12
questions, if one of the five must be the last question?

32.A certain system has two components. There are 5 different models of the first
component and 9 different models of the second. Any first component can be paired with
any second component. A salesman must select 2 of the first component and 3 of the
second to take on a sales call. How many different sets of components can the salesman
take?

33.FizzFizz soda comes in two varieties, regular and diet. If a researcher has 10 boxes of
each, how many ways can he select 4 boxes of each for a quality control test?

34. A bookcase contains 5 statistics books and 8 biology books. If 2 books are chosen at
random, the chance that both are statistics books is

35.6 statistics professors and 7 chemistry professors are available to be advisors to a student
organization. The student organization needs two of the professors to be advisors. If each
professor has an equal chance of being selected, what is the probability that both
professors are chemistry professors?

36.If 50 tickets are sold and 2 prizes are to be awarded, find the probability that one person
will win both prizes if that person buys exactly 2 tickets.

37.A student and a professor each choose a number between 1 and 9 (1 and 9 both possible
choices). What is the probability that the two choose the same number?
38.Given ten students, four of which are female, if two students are selected at random,
without replacement, what is the probability that both students are female?

39.It has been reported that 3% of all cars on the highway are traveling at speeds in excess of
70 mph. If the speeds of four random automobiles are measured via radar, what is the
probability that at least one car is going over 70 mph?

40.On a five-question true-false quiz, a student guesses each answer. What is the probability
that the student gets at least one of the answers correct?

41.How many possible way are there to hang nine pictures along a wall?

42.a. Evaluate the following without a calculator: 8P4.

b. Evaluate the following without a calculator: 9C5.