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1970 A-level Pure Mathematics Paper I

1. Consider the system of equations

ax by c ,

(*) cy az b ,
cx bz a ,

where a , b and c are fixed real numbers.


(i) Show that (*) has a unique solution for x, y, z if and only if all the three constants a , b and c are
non-zero. In this case, solve (*).
(ii) Does (*) have solutions if all a , b and c are zero ? Determine the set of solutions in this case.
(iii) Prove that (*) has no solution if exactly two of the constants a , b and c are zero.
(iv) If a = 0 and both b and c are non-zero, find a necessary and sufficient condition ( in terms of b
and c ) for (*) to have solutions. Determine the set of solutions in this case.
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2. The two sequences of positive integers
a 1 ,a

,a

,..., a

, ... and b 1 ,b

, b 3 ,...

, ... satisfy the following conditions :


a 1 b 1 1, and

n 1

2b

n 1

for all positive integers n.


(i) Prove that for each positive integer n,
a

n, b n n,

and

2
n

2
2b n
( 1) n

(ii) Deduce from (i) that


an
an

2 if n is odd ,

bn
bn
a n 1
in terms of
(iii)Express
b n 1
show that

a n 1
b n 1

an
bn

2
a n
bn

if n

is

and

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3. Let f (x) x n a 1 x n 1 ... a n be a polynomial in x with real
coefficients. Denote by 1 , 2 ,..., n the n roots of f (x) .
a j ( j = 1 , 2 , ... , n )
(i)
Express the coefficients
in terms of the roots
1 , 2 ,..., n .
(ii) Prove that for each j , the complex conjugate j of j is again a root of f (x).
(iii) Show that if n is odd , then at least one of j is real.
(iv) Show that the converse of (iii) is not true by giving a polynomial x 2 a 1 x a 2
with real roots.
j k
(v) Show that j k for some
if and only if f (x) and its derivative f '
(x) have a non- constant common factor.
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4. (a)(i)Derive a formula for the number of combinations of n different objects taken r at a time, and deduce
from it the fact that the product of r consecutive positive integers is divisible by the product
1
2
.
.
.
r
.
3
(ii) By factorizing a a or otherwise prove that, if a, b are positive integers and
a > b, then a 3 b ab 3 is a multiple of 6.
(b)(i) In how many ways can 7 like balls be put into 3 unlike boxes so that each box contains at least
one ball?
(ii)
In how many ways can 7 unlike balls be put into 3 like boxes so that each box contains at least
one ball?
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5. (a) In this question , the elements of a matrix are all real numbers. Let I be the 2 2 unit matrix and

a1 a 2 a 3
A
b1 b 2 b 3

a 1 b1

, A' a 2 b 2
a b
3 3

Compute the matrix B = I + AA' , and prove that the 1 1 matrix

and only if x = 0 = y .
(b) Consider the equation

x
x y B
y

is zero if

1 2 3 4
(*) 1 xx 2 3 xx 4 0.
2 1 4 3
(i)Write (*) as two linear equations in x 1 ,x 2 ,x 3 ,x 4 .
(ii)If 3 , 4 are not both zero , prove that (*) can be written in the form

1 2

x 3 x 4 x1 x 2

2 1

1 , 2 , 3 , 4 .

6. (a)(i) Express 1
r

i
3

and

. Express

1 , 2

in terms of

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in the form r (cos i sin ), where


0 2 .

(ii)Let

n

k

(1

(b)

z3
z3

be the coefficient of x k in the binomial expansion of (1 x ) n . By expanding

i 2n
)
or otherwise, calculate the sums
3

1 2n 1 2 n
( ) ,( )
k 0 3 2k k 0 3 2k 1

n n1
k k

A complex number z = x + iy can be represented by a point with rectangular coordinates (x,y) on


the plane ( the Argand diagram ). If j = 1, 2, 3, 4, and Pj are the points on the plane representing
the complex numbers z j , prove the following statements :
z 3 z1
z 3 z1
PP

1 3 , arg
P2 P3 P1 .
(i)
z3 z2
P2 P3
z3 z2
(ii) The four points Pj lie on a circle if and only if
z1
z 4 z1

a real number.
z2
z4 z2

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7. Let Z be the set of all integers and p any non-negative integer. A relation R in Z is given by :
x R y if and only if x y is a multiple of p.
(i)
Show that R is an equivalence relation.
(ii)
Denote by a/R the equivalence class of a Z . List the elements of a/R.
(iii)
Denote by Z / R Z p the quotient set, i.e., the set of all equivalence classes. How many
elements does Z p contain if p = 0, and if p 0 ?
(iv)
Show that if a/R = b/R and a ' / R b' / R , then aa ' / R bb' / R .
(v)

If p = 7, show that

Zp \ 0 / R is a group with respect to the multiplication (x/R)(y/R) = xy/R.

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8. Let X be a set . Denote by X the set X{X} .

(i) Express the elements of


, , ,
,{},... . and ... .

and

by

. ( Here

(ii) Show that

AB

means that A is a proper subset of B . )


(iii)Consider the sequence

A 0 , A 1 , A 2 ,..., A n ... (n t

, ... .
By induction on j , show that
(a) A j {A i : i j } for every non-negative integer j ;
Aj .
(b)if i < j , then A i

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9. Let X = { x :

0 x 4}

,Y={ x:

0 x 3}

, and let

f : XX

be the mapping defined by f(x) = x/2 . For any positive integer n , denote by f n
the composite mapping f f f ( n times ) .
(i) Show that f is an injective but not a surjective mapping.
(ii) Prove that if

S Y

g : XY

is such that

f[X \ S] Y \ S

, then the mapping

defined by

f ( x ) for x S,
g ( x )
for x S
x

mapping.
(iii)Let Z {x : 2

is a bijective

3}. Show that

ZY \ f [X].
(iv)Let S be the union of Z and all the subsets of X of the form
positive integer. Plot S on the real line and prove that
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f[X \ S]Y \ S.

[ Z], where n is any

1970 A-level Pure Mathematics Paper II


1. (a)Show that 2 cos(

2k

2k 1
2k 1
) sin
sin (
) sin (
). Hence , or
n
n
n
n

otherwise , prove that for any positive integer n greater than 1,

) . . . cos ( 2( n 1) ) 0 .
n
n
(
A
A
.
.
.
A
(b) On a plane , a regular polygon
of n sides n 3) is inscribed in a
1
2
n
cos cos (

circle with centre O and radius r . If P is any point on this plane , prove that
PA 1

PA

2
2

. . .

PA

2
n

n ( OP

r 2 ).

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2. Let (C) be the circle x 2 y 2 1 .
(i) Find the equation of the tangent to (C) at the point (-1, 0), and the equations of the two tangents to
(C) passing through the point (3, 0).
(ii) Prove that the circumcircle (C ') of the triangle formed by these three tangents has the equation
2 x 2 2 y 2 3x 9 0 .
(iii) Find the equation of the locus of the point P from which the tangents to (C) and (C ') are of equal
length.
(iv) Find the equation of the circle intersecting (C) and (C ') at right angles and with centre on the xaxis.
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x2
y2

1 are the points F(c, 0), F'(-c, 0), where


a2
b2
FP F
c 2 a 2 b 2 . Prove that if P is any point on the hyperbola, then
= constant.

3. (a) The foci of the hyperbola

'P

(b) If the curve x 2 y 2 1 is tangent to the straight lines 5x - y - 4 = 0 and 5x +


2y + 2 = 0, find the values of ,. Sketch the curve obtained, and find the points of contact
of the curve with the straight lines.
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4. (a) Find the following limits :
( n 2 1 n ) ;
(i) nlim

sin( 1
1 x
1 x
)
x 1
2 x
(b)
If f(x) 3 x 2 (6 x ) ,

lim(

lim (
(ii) n

n n)

(iii)

x )

(i) find the values of the constants a and b so that

lim (f ( x ) ax b)0;
x

(ii) find the maxima and minima of f(x) ;


(iii) sketch the graph of y = f(x)
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5. (a) Let x n and y n (n = 1, 2, . . . ) be two infinite sequences. Prove that if
lim x n a and lim y n b , where a and b are real numbers,
n
n

( x n y n ) = ab.
then lim
n
lim
n

Hence or otherwise prove that

1
(1 c c 2 . . .c n ) 0, where
n

(b) A manufacturer can sell x items at a price of a - bx dollars each, and it costs cx+d dollars to
produce the x items . Here a , b , c and d are constants such that a > c > 0 , b > 0 . How many items
should be produced to make the maximum profit ? ( Your answer should be an integer. )
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6. (a) Prove the existence or non-existence of the limit of each of the following functions as x tends to 0 .

(i )
(b)

cos

x sin

1
x

(iii )

Let f be a function defined on the real line by

x 3 sin

f ( x )

(c)

(ii )

1
x

1
x

if x 0,
if x 0.

Prove that f '(0) =0 , but the second derivative of f at x = 0 does not exist.
Find the derivative of each of the following functions :

(i ) y [sin (cos 3x )] 2

(ii ) y

3x 3 arcsin x ( x 2

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7. (a) Find the (real) points of intersection of the graphs of x 2 4 y 2 1, x 2 y 2 2 y

(b) Prove that the solution set of x 2 4 y 2 1, x 2 y 2 2 y is

S {( x , y) :

1
1
y , x 1 4y 2 } ,
3
2

and sketch the graphs of this solution set.


(c) Find the area of A , where A = {(x,y) :

x 2 4y 2 1, x 2 y 2 2 y}

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8. (a) Find the values of the constants A, B so that

(x

2 x 4
1)( x 1) 2

A x B

x 2 1

for all x .
Hence or otherwise , find the indefinite integral

(x

2
1

x 1
( x 1)

2 x 4
dx
1)( x 1) 2

(b) Find the following indefinite integrals :


(i)
9

x3

dx,

(ii )

dx
( x a )( b x )

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(a) Let f be a continuous and periodic function of period T (0) defined on the real line R
( i.e. f (x + T ) = f (x) for all x R . )
x T
T
f ( t )dt
f ( t )dt
(i) Prove that for any x R , we have x
0
(ii) Prove that there exists a constant c such that the function
G( x ) cx

f ( t )dt is a periodic function of period T.

(b) Sketch the area bounded by the x - axis and the curve x = a ( t - sin t ) ,
y = a ( 1 - cos t ), where a is a positive constant and 0 t 2 . Find the volume of the solid
generated by revolving this area about the x - axis.
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