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FOLKLORE ASSIGNMENTS

THE MONOMYTH IN ENGLISH FOLKLORE ROBIN HOOD

Compiled by
Rohib Adrianto Sangia
NIM. 137835102
rohib_sangia@yahoo.com

UNIVERSITAS NEGERI SURABAYA


PROGRAM PASCA SARJANA
S-2 PENDIDIKAN BAHASA INGGRIS
2014

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Table of Contents

Cover

Table of Contents

Introduction

Campbells Monomyth Theory

Synopsis of Howard Pyle's the Merry Adventures of Robin Hood

Robin Hood as a Myth

Archetypes in Robin Hood

Conclusion

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References

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Introduction
Joseph John Campbell (March 26, 1904 October 30, 1987) was an
American mythologist, writer and lecturer, best known for his work in
comparative mythology and comparative religion. His work is vast, covering
many aspects of the human experience. He wrote a famous book entitled
The Hero with a Thousand Faces. In his lifelong research Campbell revealed
many common patterns running through hero myths and stories from
around the world. Years of research lead Campbell to discover several basic
stages that almost every hero quest goes through (no matter what culture
the myth is a part of). He calls this common structure the monomyth.
Robin Hood (spelled Robyn Hode in older sources) is a heroic outlaw
in English folklore, and, according to legend, was also a highly skilled archer
and swordsman. Although such behavior was not part of his original
character, since the beginning of the 19th century (Holt, 1989: 184-185). he
has become known for "robbing from the rich and giving to the poor", (Seal,
2011: 45) assisted by a group of fellow outlaws known as his "Merry Men"(
Merry-man" has referred to the follower of an outlaw since at least the late
14th century). Traditionally, Robin Hood and his men are depicted wearing
Lincoln green clothes. According to some accounts, the legend has its roots in
the activities of actual medieval outlaws, or the ballads or tales that
circulated about them.
Robin Hood became a popular folk figure in the medieval period, and
continues to be widely represented in modern literature, films and television.
In the earliest sources Robin Hood is a yeoman, but later portrayals raise him
to the level of an aristocrat wrongfully dispossessed of his lands and made
into an outlaw by an unscrupulous sheriff (Knight, 2009: 142-143).
This paper will study about the application of Campbell the monomyth
structure in famous myth character from England Robin Hood.

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Campbells Monomyth Theory


Campbell's concept of monomyth (one myth) refers to the theory that
sees all mythic narratives as variations of a single great story. The theory is
based on the observation that a common pattern exists beneath the narrative
elements of most great myths, regardless of their origin or time of creation.
Campbell often referred to the ideas of Adolf Bastian and his distinction
between what he called "folk" and "elementary" ideas, the latter referring to
the prime matter of monomyth while the former to the multitude of local
forms the myth takes in order to remain an up-to-date carrier of sacred
meanings. The central pattern most studied by Campbell is often referred to
as the hero's journey and was first described in The Hero with a Thousand
Faces (Burton, 2010: 16). Campbell borrowed the term "monomyth" from An
enthusiast of novelist James Joyce from his work Finnegans Wake (Campbell,
1949: 30). Campbell also made heavy use of Carl Jung's theories on the
structure of the human psyche, and he often used terms such as
"anima/animus" and "ego consciousness"(Bonnet, 2006: 79).
There are stages in Joseph Campbells famous hero's journey from his
classic book The Hero with a Thousand Faces, Campbell pointed to certain
consistent patterns and structures in myths and stories which contained a
central character - the hero, along with mentors, allies and villains.
Campbells work was subsequently developed by Christopher Vogler
in his book The Writers Journey, into a 12-stages framework which is often
adopted to guide the development of fiction and film scripts. Most classic
films and tales from The Wizard of Oz and Gladiators to Homers Odyssey or
Tolkiens Lord of the Ring can he mapped onto the framework.
Essentially, the journey begins in the here's home, then takes him off
on an adventure in which he does battle until finally returning home, weary
yet triumphant, as a stronger character. As you consider how youd like your

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life to pan out, here are the most important stages that unfold in every hero's
story:

The call to adventure - the hero begins in the ordinary world where he
often denies or refuses to hear the call to adventure. He stays in his
comfort zone until he can stay there no longer.

Meeting a mentor - the hero meets someone to help him, a teacher or


guide who will show him the way forward.

Crossing the threshold - the hero takes the first brave step- He has
accepted the challenge.

The road of trials - the hero undergoes a series of ordeals that test him to
the limit anti meets a mixture of allies and enemies en the way until he
achieves his goal or reward.

Returning to the ordinary world with the elixir - finally the hero heads
home and personally transformed by the experience.

Synopsis of Howard Pyle's the Merry Adventures of Robin Hood


The book is a collection of twenty stories sourced from legend, all
woven together in a free-flowing narrative. It begins with the incident that
forces Robin to become an outlaw, and progresses to how several individual
characters joined his group of merry men and the adventures they had. One
of the earliest episodes deal with Robins meeting with Little John, where the
latter soundly defeats the outlaw in a duel with staffs. The famous incident of
Robin splitting an arrow with another soon follows.
There are fights galore, and Robin often ends up on the losing side.
However, the winner always ends up joining his band, as with Little John,
Will Scarlet and Midge the millers son. Other memorable characters like
Friar Tuck are also introduced, followed soon by more adventures. The river
crossing with Robin and the friar is one of the most humorous episodes in the
book.

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Robins love for disguises also shines forth in the adventures involving
an archery competition and his impersonation of a butcher where he sits and
dines with his arch enemy, the Sheriff of Nottingham. He also finds the time
to prevent a forced marriage and get the bride married to her lover, the
sensitive Allan a Dale.
Not all adventures involve Robin however; Little John has many of his
own, including living a temporary life of luxury, under the assumed name of
Reynold Greenleaf, in the service of the sheriff. This is soon followed by his
first defeat at single combat at the hands of Arthur a Bland, owing to the lack
of physical exertion while at the sheriffs.
The book ends on a happy note with King Richard the Lion heart
making an appearance in Nottingham. Intrigued by stories about Robin Hood,
he expresses an interest to meet the outlaw. Much to the sheriffs chagrin, the
King sets off in disguise to do just that. As expected, he is intercepted by
Robin who proceeds to rob him of his money and then treats him to a feast
and a show. Robin expresses his loyalty to the monarch and the King, who
has been impressed by the outlaws behavior, reveals himself and grants
them royal pardon.

Robin Hood as a Myth


Robin Hood has remained one of the most infamous outlaws in
European history. His popularity has transcended national boundaries and
his myths appear in Ireland, Scotland, Wales and England. Scholars have
often wondered how Robin Hood was able to remain such a prominent figure
of folklore for so long without dying out as other outlaw stories have.
Robin Hood was the legendary bandit of England who stole from the
rich to help the poor. The stories about Robin appealed to common folk
because he stood up againstand frequently outwittedpeople in power.
Furthermore, his life in the foresthunting and feasting with his fellow
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outlaws, coming to the assistance of those in needseemed like a great and


noble adventure.
The earliest known mention of Robin Hood is in William Langland's
1377 work called Piers Plowman, in which a character mentions that he
knows "rimes of Robin Hood." This and other references from the late 1300s
suggest that Robin Hood was well established as a popular legend by that
time.
One source of that legend may lie in the old French custom of
celebrating May Day. A character called Robin des Bois, or Robin of the
Woods, was associated with this spring festival and may have been
transplanted to Englandwith a slight name change. May Day celebrations in
England in the 1400s featured a festival "king" called Robin Hood.
Robin Hood, the legendary thief of England, stole from the rich and
gave the wealth to the poor. Stories about his life and adventures first
appeared in the late 1400s. It was originally associated with several locations
in England. One was Barnsdale, in the northern district called Yorkshire. The
other was Sherwood Forest in Nottinghamshire, where his principal
opponent was the vicious and oppressive Sheriff of Nottingham. Robin's
companions included Little John, Alan-a-Dale, Much, and Will Scarlett.
The Robin Hood ballads reflect the discontent of ordinary people with
political conditions in medieval England. They were especially upset about
new laws that kept them from hunting freely in forests that were now
claimed as the property of kings and nobles.
By the 1500s, more elaborate versions of the legend had begun to
appear. Some of these suggested that Robin was a nobleman who had fallen
into disgrace and had taken to the woods to live with other outlaws. Robin
also acquired a girlfriend named Maid Marian and a new companion, a monk
called Friar Tuck. His adventures were then definitely linked to Sherwood
Forest.

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Beginning in the 1700s, various scholars attempted to link Robin


Hood with a real-life figureeither a nobleman or an outlaw. But none of
their theories have stood up to close examination. Robin was most likely an
imaginary creation, although some of the tales may have been associated
with a real outlaw. Also at about this time, Robin began to be linked with the
reigns of King Richard I, "The Lionhearted," who died in 1189, and of King
John, who died in 1216. The original medieval ballads, however, contain no
references to these kings or to a particular time in which Robin was supposed
to have lived.
Later versions of the Robin Hood legend placed more emphasis on
Robin's nobility and on his romance with Marian than on the cruelty and
social tension that appear in the early ballads. In addition to inspiring many
books and poems over the centuries, Robin Hood became the subject of
several operas and, in modern times, numerous movies.

Archetypes in Robin Hood


Since Robin Hood as a hero, the archetypal analysis will be conduct
with theory from Campbell above. The first part is analysis of character
archetype.
Hero - The hero obviously Robin Hood himself who resembles a
defiant anti-hero by stealing from the rich and giving to the poor (opposing
society). He also resembles himself as the hero archetype by finishing the
task in saving the Maid Marian.
Loyal Retainer - Little john is resembled as loyal retainer by always
being loyal to the hero. He also is always by his side and assists him in his
tasks and quest, and accompanies him throughout the entire journey.

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Villain - Prince John represents as the villain by opposing everything


right and just by taxing the poor citizens till they do not have a single plant.
He also abuses his power as a prince. He also sets traps for Robin Hood, and
plans to execute Friar tuck.
Damsel in distress Maid Marian, the true lover for Robin Hood,
returns love him. For Robin Hood, she is the ultimate reward and goal. Even
though Robin Hood is an outlaw she loves him with all her heart.
The Mentor Friar Tuck takes the role of the mentor, because he
constantly is giving Robin Hood information of taxes, he is the wise and he
constantly keeps the moral up for the town.
The Devil Figure Sir Hiss is Prince Johns adviser and keeps his heart
evil by constantly reminding him about his horrible brother King Richard. He
also has hypnotized King Richard to go on a crusade to keep him busy while
Prince John fills in for King.
The Shadow The sheriff of Nottingham loves to collect taxes, not
because he gets paid, its because he loves seeing the townsfolks sad and
miserable. He also hates Robin Hood because he gives hope to the town by
stealing from the rich and give to the poor. He is the shadow because in the
end when Robin Hood is in the castle thy have a duel.
The Henchmen Trigger and Nutsy are brother and sister vultures and
are basically the town guard. Nutsy carries a halberd and she is extremely
stupid and the mayor is always trying to shot her up. Trigger caries a
crossbow and he is more alert and into the job.
The Secret Rebel Lady Kluck has always hated Prince John but has
kept her mouth shut because she knew the consequences. She is a good
friend of Maid Marian and because of that she lives with her.
Star-Crossed Lovers Robin Hood and Maid Marian have loved each
other since they were kids. Once they were separated, they dreamed of each

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other every day. In the end, they find each other and get married because
they could not stand being apart anymore.
The second part is analysis of situational archetypes. The situational
archetypes which will be explored in Robin Hood are the quest, the task, the
journey, and the trap.
The Quest Through the story, Robin Hood tries to destroy the regime
of Prince John to stop the oppression of the people through taxes.
The Task The task for Robin Hood is stealing from the rich
(preferably Prince John) and giving them to the poor. With taxes going up
though it is hard to keep with the stealing. This task is next to impossible
with all those guards and the mayor always hunting Robin Hood.
The Journey The journey is one for love and to save ones people. He
tries to get Maid Marian to his side and he tries to hold Prince John off until
King Richard arrives.
The Trap Prince John insists on capturing Robin Hood and to make
sure that happens he sets a trap. He makes an archery tournaments and th
prize is a kiss from Maid Marian. Prince John knows he is good in archery so
it is a perfect trap.
The final part is analysis of Symbolic archetypes. The symbolic
archetypes which will be drilled in Robin Hood are haven versus wilderness,
the castle, the tower, the fog, the night time and the day time.
Haven Versus Wilderness The haven for Robin Hood and Little John
is the camp that they make. And the dangerous wilderness is the castle of
King Richard because of all the hostile guards.
The Castle Instead of providing safety for the hero it provides a safe
house for the villain. The castle happens to have twos Robin Hood wants. The
first id Maid Marian and the other is the money that the citizens need to
survive.

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The Tower The prison tower is the tower in the story as it is trapping
everyone who cannot pay taxes (in other words everybody)
The Fog Robin Hood is escaping the castle and dives in the moat and
it looks like he is shot with arrows by the guards. We think this is a time of
uncertainty therefore it is the fog
The Night Time - When the people are in jail, Friar Tuck gets arrested
and it cannot get any worse it just so happens that it is night time to
symbolize misery, darkness, and evil.
The Day Time. When everything is nice, peaceful, when King Richard
returns, Prince John is arrested, Robin Hood is married and pardoned it all
takes place in the day time to symbolize light innocence and happiness.

Conclusion
Robin Hood is a heroic outlaw in English folklore, and, according to
legend, was also a highly skilled archer and swordsman. Robin Hood became
a popular folk figure in the medieval period, and continues to be widely
represented in modern literature, films and television.
Robin Hood was originally associated with several locations in
England. One was Barnsdale, in the northern district called Yorkshire. The
other was Sherwood Forest in Nottinghamshire, where his principal
opponent was the vicious and oppressive Sheriff of Nottingham. Robin's
companions included Little John, Alan-a-Dale, Much, and Will Scarlett.
Since Robin Hood as a hero, the archetypal analysis will be conduct
with theory from Campbell about the heros journey. By analyzing the story,
it reveals several archetypes. They are character archetypes, situational
archetypes, and symbolic archetypes.

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REFERENCES

Bonnet, James. 2006. Stealing Fire From The Gods : The Complete Guide to
Story For Writers and Filmmakers. Studio City, CA: M. Wiese
Productions.
Burton, Kate. 2010. Live life, love work. Hoboken, NJ: Capstone/Wiley.
Campbell, Joseph. 1949. The Hero With a Thousand Faces. Princeton, N.J:
Princeton University Press.
Holt, J. C. 1989. Robin Hood. London: Thames and Hudson.
Knight, Stephen Thomas. 2009. Robin Hood : A Mythic Biography. New York:
Cornell University Press.
Seal, Graham. 2011. Outlaw Heroes in Myth and History. London: Anthem
Press.

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