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# EUROCODE 3 & BS 7608

in FEMFAT WELD

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## Eurocode 3 and BS 7608: overview

Assessment of weldings and parent material of steel
structures
Assessment using nominal stress or hot-spot-stress
Classification of the load-time history using rainflow or
reservoir counting method
Fatigue assessment using linear damage accumulation
according Palmgren-Miner in conjunction with one or two
slope SN-curves
Assessment of direct stress and shear stress
SN-Curves for particular classified details are given
Modifications of the basic SN-curves (sheet thickness
influence; weld improvement; annealing)
Klaus Hofwimmer, May 2005

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Eurocode 3
BS 7608

## Direct stresses lateral to the weld seam

w and shear stresses w will be used

## Chapter 3.3: The difference between the

greatest and least vector sum of shear
stresses in weld metal will be used;
=

1 =
2 =||
1 =
2 =||

= w

|| =

2
2
1.) w = sign( ) /|| + ||

w = 2 + 2
1.) w = sign( ) 2 + ||2 || + 3 2
2.) w =

3.) w = ||

## Klaus Hofwimmer, May 2005

2
2
2.) w = sign( || ) /|| + ||

3.) w =
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## Eurocode 3 and BS 7608: shear stresses in weld material

Eurocode 3
BS 7608

Thin shell finite elements delivers only one pair of shear stress components (xy =yx=)
that is not zero and cause distortion within the element plane. All other shear stresses
are zero.
z

zy =0
y

zx =0
yz=0
x

yx0

xz=0
xy 0

Thus using thin shell elements for FE-simulation (state of the art) can not be
computed and || =xy=.

w = 2 + 2

w =

w = ||

w =

w = 2 + ||2

w = 2 + 2

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## Eurocode 3 and BS 7608: used stresses in parent material

Eurocode 3
Max. principal stress in the
parent material without local
stress concentration effects due
to weld geometry => hot spot
stress

w = 1

BS 7608
Case 1: Direction of principal
stress nearly constant

w = MAX ( 1 , 2 , 3 )
Case 2: Direction of principal
stress rotates during a load cycle

## The algebraic difference between

the numerically greater peak
principal stress and the
numerically greater trough
principal stress should be used

## => Standard equivalent stresses already implemented in FEMFAT can be

used (max/min principal stress in FEMFAT BASIC, and max. principal stress and material characteristic shear
stress respectively in FEMFAT MAX)
Klaus Hofwimmer, May 2005

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## Eurocode 3 and BS 7608: fatigue assessment

Eurocode 3
Fatigue assessment for stresses
lateral to the weld seam w=

D =

ni
1
Ni

BS 7608
Fatigue assessment for combined
stress w=w(,||)

D =

ni
1
Ni

## Fatigue assessment for shear

No particular Fatigue assessment for
shear stresses parallel to the weld
stresses parallel to the weld seam w
seam w
ni
D =
1
Ni
Fatigue assessment for combined

D + D 1
=> will be done manually (postprocessor)
Klaus Hofwimmer, May 2005

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## Eurocode 3 and BS 7608: S-N curves for normal stresses

Eurocode 3

BS 7608

P=97.7%

P=97.7%

by the user

Fatigue strength
S0=Sr(N=107)
Change of slope from m to (m+2) at
N=107 cycles
Klaus Hofwimmer, May 2005

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## Eurocode 3 and BS 7608: S-N curves for normal stresses

S-N Curves of Eurocode 3, BS 7608 and FEMFAT

Log S

1000

160
112
80
56
40
C
F
W
FF-NWU

140
100
71
50
36
D
F2
S
FF-NUE/End

125
90
63
45
B
E
G
T

100

10
1.0E+04

1.0E+05

1.0E+06

1.0E+07

1.0E+08

1.0E+09

log N
Klaus Hofwimmer, May 2005

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Eurocode 3
P=97.7%

## Only curve 80 will

be used for welds;
curve 100 is valid
only for bolt joints

BS 7608

## No particular S-N curves for shear

stresses are used

database for
welds and parent
material

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## Eurocode 3: tubular joints and modified S-N curves

P=97.7%
P=97.7%

Entrys in the weld database for tubular joints and modified S-N curves are
necessary
Klaus Hofwimmer, May 2005

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10

Eurocode 3

BS 7608

## 40% Reduction of the

compressive part of the stress
amplitude at parent material or
annealed weldings

## 40% Reduction of the

compressive part of the stress
amplitude at parent material or
annealed weldings

## Sheet thickness influence:

R , t

25
= R
t

R ,t = R
Klaus Hofwimmer, May 2005

0.25

16
= R
t

fr t > 25mm

R ,t

fr t 25mm

R ,t = R

0.25

fr t > 16mm

fr t 16mm

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## Eurocode 3 and BS 7608: thickness influence

Sheet Thickness Influence (0-100mm)
2
1.8

## Influence Factor R/R,t [-]

1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
thickness influence FEMFAT

0.6

0.4

0.2
0
0

10

## Klaus Hofwimmer, May 2005

20

30

40
50
60
Sheet Thickness t [mm]

70

80

90

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100

12

## haigh diagram according DS 952

for material St52-3
=> Care should be taken both
considering of mean stress
influence and reduction of
compressive stresses at the same
time
Klaus Hofwimmer, May 2005

## It has been experimentally shown that

at weldings, when high tensile residual
stresses are present, fatigue strength is
a function of stress range alone; mean
stress and stress ration have no
significant effect.
Eurocode 3 and BS 7608 make the
assumption that high tensile residual
stresses are present and mean stress
influence is neglected .
A possible way to consider mean stress
influence is according DS 952.

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N1 / N2
3.0 / 5.0

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14

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15

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16

!
w
w

## Element material label to assign the detail category

Node color or displacement coordsys. label to define weld seam line
Weld ends and the middle of the seam will be treated the same way
Dominant stress direction will be determined by FEMFAT automatically
Klaus Hofwimmer, May 2005

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17

## Nodes assigned with special material according detail category

No stress gradient effect should be considered; this could be done by
either:
- using node color C200; no gradient influence only for nodes with color 200
or:
- switch off stress gradient influence manually on the GUI; this effects all nodes

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18

FEMFAT
Material
No.

Detail Category
Eurocode 3

BS 7608

160
EC3:
160

--

141

140

142

125

143

112

144
145
146

100
90
80

-T
E

147

71

148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163

63
56
50
45
40
36
90
71
56
50
45
36
50*
45*
36*
--

modified
S/N

tubular joints

140

F2
-G
-W
----------S

## Fatigue assessment of parent

material using detail class A is
not included in the BS 7608
=> Detail category 160 of EC3
3 and fatigue strength)
Class S in BS 7608 is for shear
connectors in concrete.
=> not implemented

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(R=0.1)

## (c) longitudinal stiffener joint

Klaus Hofwimmer, May 2005

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20

Test Results
400

## Nominal stress range, S (MPa)

350
300
280
260
240
220
200

k = 4.5

k = 4.5

180
160
140

k = 3.1

120
100
90
80
1e+4

Cover plate
Longitudinal stiffener
1e+5

1e+6

1e+7

## Fatigue life, Nf (cycles)

Klaus Hofwimmer, May 2005

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21

## Eurocode 3 and BS 7608: verification using test results

Finite Element Models

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22

## Eurocode 3 and BS 7608: verification using test results

Finite Element Models

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23

## Eurocode 3 and BS 7608: verification using test results

Finite Element Models

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24

## Eurocode 3 and BS 7608: verification using test results

Cruciform Joint
R=0.1; S=0.9*Pmax/A

300
Test Results

280

EUROCODE 3 (P=50%)
BS 7608 (P=50%)

260
Stress Range [MPa]

## FEMFAT 4.4.1 (P=50%)

240

Test
Results(Test
(P=50%)
Potenziell
Results)

220
200
180
160
140
120
100
1,00E+04

1,00E+05

1,00E+06

1,00E+07

Klaus Hofwimmer, May 2005

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25

## Eurocode 3 and BS 7608: verification using test results

Cover Plate Joint
R=0.1, DS=0.9*Pmax/A

220
Test Results
EUROCODE 3 (P=50%)
BS 7608 (P=50%)
FEMFAT 4.4.1 (P=50%)
Potenziell
(Test
Results)
Test
Results
(P=50%)

## Stress Range [MPa]

200

180

160

140

120

100
1,00E+04

1,00E+05

1,00E+06

1,00E+07

Klaus Hofwimmer, May 2005

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26

## Eurocode 3 and BS 7608: verification using test results

Longitudinal Stiffener Joint
R=0.1, DS=0.9*Pmax/A
200

## Stress Range [MPa]

180

160

140

120

Test Results
EUROCODE 3 (P=50%)
BS 7608 (P=50%)

100

Test
Results(Test
(P=50%)
Potenziell
Results)

80
1,00E+04

1,00E+05

1,00E+06

1,00E+07