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Analysis and structural design of timber structures

Cross-Laminated Timber
Structural Design
Basic design and
engineering principles
according to Eurocode
Cross-laminated timber as an innovative structural
element opens up new possibilities in structural
timber construction. The present guideline is to
assist in properly exploiting and implementing these
possibilities in planning and execution.
Firstly, the two-dimensional construction product
cross-laminated timber (BSP or XLAM) is described
with respect to its manufacture and its properties.
This is followed by the description of the structural
behaviour, basic design principles and fire performance and then modelling assumtions and characteristic material values according to Eurocode.
Joining technology focuses on self-tapping woodscrews; this section is supplemented by general
design proposals. Structural behaviour of buildings
under horizontal loads and earthquake resistance
associated therewith conclude the general part.
Application examples underline the described contents for easier access and discussion of extensive
engineering models.
DI Dr. Markus Wallner-Novak
DI Josef Koppelhuber
DI Kurt Pock

proHolz Austria
November 2014

isbn 978-3-902926-03-6 | Euro 35

Cross-Laminated Timber
Structural Design
Basic design and engineering principles
according to Eurocode

Publication details
Owner and publisher
proHolz Austria
Working group of the Austrian
timber industry for promotion of
the application of timber
Chairman Hans Michael Offner
Managing Director Georg Binder
Project Management
Alexander Eder
1011 Vienna Austria
Uraniastrasse 4
T + 43 (0)1 712 04 74
info@proholz.at, www.proholz.at

Merk Timber GmbH


D-86551 Aichach
Industriestrae 2
T + 49 (0)8251 908 - 0
office@merk.de
www.merk.de

Design
Cover Gassner Redolfi, Schlins (at)
Reinhard Gassner, Marcel Bachmann
Contents Markus Wallner-Novak

Hasslacher Norica Timber


A-9751 Sachsenburg
Feistritz 1
T + 43 (0)4769 2249 - 0
info@hasslacher.at
www.hasslacher.at

Translation
Translation agency Allesprachen, Graz

Financial support by
Binderholz Bausysteme GmbH
A-5400 Hallein
Solvay-Halvic-Strae 46
T + 43 (0)6245 70 500 - 556
office@binderholz-bausysteme.com
www.binderholz-bausysteme.com
Haas Fertigbau Holzbauwerk
GesmbH & Co kg
A-8263 Growilfersdorf
Radersdorf 62
T + 43 (0)3385 666 - 0
Info@Haas-Fertigbau.at
www.haas-fertigbau.at
Mayr-Melnhof Holz Holding ag
A-8700 Leoben, Turmgasse 67
T + 43 (0)3842 300 - 0
holding@mm-holz.com
www.mm-holz.com

Stora Enso
Building and Living
A-9462 Bad St. Leonhard
Wisperndorf 4
T + 43 (0)4350 2301 - 3207
buildingsolutions@
storaenso.com
www.clt.info
Fachverband der Holzindustrie sterreichs
A-1037 Wien
Schwarzenbergplatz 4
T + 43 (0)1 712 26 01
office@holzindustrie.at
www.holzindustrie.at
Authors
DI Dr. Markus Wallner-Novak
DI Josef Koppelhuber
DI Kurt Pock

Print Eberl Print, Immenstadt (de)

1st edition english 2014, 600 copies


Translation on the basis of the German
version of September 2013
Price per copy 35 Euros, incl. vat, excl. shipment
isbn 978-3-902926-03-6
issn 1680-4252

Printed on pefc-certified paper. This product


originates from sustainably managed forests and
controlled sources. www.pefc.at
Copyright 2014 by proHolz Austria and the
authors. The publication and any contributions
and figures contained therein are copyrighted.
Any use beyond the limits of copyright without
the publishers approval is inadmissible and
punishable. proHolz Austria and the authors
endeavour to research or state, respectively,
information correctly and completely. However,
we ask for your understanding that no liability
can be assumed for the contents.

Foreword

The development of timber construction over the


past hundred years has been characterised by enormous innovation. The elements made of timber and
timber materials as well as the joining technique
have undergone constant further development.
The timber, or more exactly the individual board,
represents the basis for glued-laminated timber,
board stack elements or cross-laminated timber.
At the first glance, the relatively new construction
material cross-laminated timber its practical,
economically relevant use in the building sector
started about twenty years ago is a simple construction material. It consists of strength-graded
laminations, which are glued together crosswise
at 90 to an odd number of layer. Superficially,
a homogeneous wooden panel is formed. Upon
closer examination by the engineer, however,
the complexity of this structural element can be
noticed: it is an orthogonally layered, laminar
composite element made of wood with a complex
calculation basis.
Everything should be made as simple as possible,
but not simpler.
(Albert Einstein, 1879 1955)
The present structural design manual is giving
designers, engineering consultants and performers
an understanding of the basic principles for technically proper planning and application of cross-laminated timber. The main focus is on the structural
function of cross-laminated timber as a load-bearing
structural element and on the requirements associated therewith. For joining the cross-laminated
timber elements, design proposals were prepared.
The structural design guideline enables practitioners an easy and fast understanding of the construction product cross-laminated timber, since the
verifications required in terms of structural engineering are described with the associated engineering calculation models and explained on the basis
of practical examples. This structural design manual was meticulously and thoroughly prepared by
DI Dr. Markus Wallner-Novak and his co-authors
DI Josef Koppelhuber and DI Kurt Pock. Here, the
engineer will find answers to the essential issues
when it comes to the structural design of crosslaminated timber, so that this manual represents an
important contribution to practical dimensioning
of cross-laminated timber.
Wilhelm Luggin
Luggin Ziviltechnikergesellschaft m.b.H.

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Cross-sectional values for cross-laminated timber with fictitious build-ups Ceilings and roofs
Designation

Build-up

I0,net

W0,net

SR,net

AR,

I0,ef / ref
2,00 m

[cm4]

[cm3]

[cm3]

[cm2]

3,00 m

)/(

4,00 m 5,00 m
[cm4]

6,00 m

7,00 m
[]

XLAM
130 C5s

30l20w30l
20w30l

15.675
86 %

2.412

1.500

1.567

11.990
65 %

13.778
75 %

14.546
79 %

14.932
82 %

15.151
83 %

15.287
83 %

0,193

XLAM
150 L5s

30l30w30l
30w30l

22.275
79 %

2.970

1.800

1.856

15.186
54 %

18.422
65 %

19.924
71 %

20.709
74 %

21.163
75 %

21.447
76 %

0,184

XLAM
160 L5s

40l20w40l
20w40l

30.400
89 %

3.800

2.400

1.900

21.680
64 %

25.741
75 %

27.580
81 %

28.529
84 %

29.074
85 %

29.414
86 %

0,208

XLAM
220 L7s

40l20w40l
20w40l20w40l

74.196
84 %

6.739

4.800

2.319

43.594
49 %

56.360
64 %

62.921
71 %

66.530
75 %

68.676
77 %

70.042
79 %

0,217

XLAM
220 L7s2

30l30l30w40l
30w30l30l

80.933
91 %

7.358

4.800

2.529

42.978
48 %

57.680
65 %

65.856
74 %

70.550
80 %

73.412
83 %

75.260
85 %

0,188

Cross-sectional values for cross-laminated timber with fictitious build-ups Walls


Designation

XLAM
90 C3s

Build-up

30l30w30l

A0,net

SR,net

I0,ef [cm4]/i0,ef [cm]/ []

I0,net
Inet
Ibrut

W0,net

AR,

[cm2]

[cm4]

[cm3]

[cm3]

[cm2]

2,50 m 2,95 m 3,00 m 4,00 m 5,00 m 6,00 m []

600

5.850

1.300

900

975

5.120
2,92
86

1.600

1.300

11.083 11.737 11.796 12.613 13.035 13.277 0,155


3,72
3,83
3,84
3,97
4,04
4,07
67
77
78
101
124
147

1.560

1.050

1.114

6.532
3,30
76

15.675 2.412

1.500

1.567

13.088 13.722 13.778 14.546 14.932 15.151


3,81
3,90
3,91
4,02
4,07
4,10
66
76
77
99
123
146

0,193

1.800

1.856

17.130
4,36
57

0,184

96 %
XLAM
120 C3s

40l40w40l

800

13.867 2.311
96 %

XLAM
100 C3s

30l40w30l

600

7.800
94 %

XLAM
130 C5s

30l20w30l
20w30l

900

86 %
XLAM
150 C5s

30l30w30l
30w30l

900

22.275 2.970
79 %

Fictitious element build-ups


used in the guideline with
cross-sectional values for
dimensioning of elements
subjected to bending according
to Chapters 5 and 6 of the
present guideline.

)/(

ref

The element build-ups above are


fictitious and were defined independently of respective manufacturers.
The tables represent a possible listing
of the cross-sectional values for
dimensioning according to the
present guideline. For manufacturerrelated build-ups and corresponding
cross-sectional-values, please
contact one of the manufacturers.

A0,net
I0,net
W0,net
SR,net
AR,
I0,ef
i0,ef
ref
)/(

5.305
2,97
99

6.843
3,38
87

5.321
2,98
101

6.871
3,38
89

5.539
3,04
132

7.247
3,48
115

5.647
3,07
163

7.436
3,52
142

5.707
3,08
195

7.543
3,55
169

18.314 18.422 19.924 20.709 21.163


4,51
4,52
4,71
4,80
4,85
65
66
85
104
124

0,155

0,152

Net area in the direction of the top layers in cm2


Net moment of inertia in the direction of the top layers in cm4
Net section modulus in the direction of the top layers in cm3
Net static moment in the direction of the top layers in cm3
Equivalent area for determination of the decisive rolling
shear stress in cm2
Effective moment of inertia in the direction of the top layers in cm4
Effective radius of inertia in the direction of the top layers in cm
Reference length or buckling length in m
Slenderness (no unit)
Shear correction factor for calculation as a transversally
shear-flexible element (no unit)