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PSCAD

Power Systems Computer Aided Design

Mahdi Davarpanah
ECE school of University of Tehran

PSCAD was first conceptualized in 1988 and is a flexible


graphical user interface to generate data files for the
EMTDC simulation program, therefore users of EMTDC
could now draw their systems, rather than creating text
listings.

PSCAD Limits (all Editions and Compilers)

Edition Specific Limits

Compiler Specific Limits

PSCAD USERS GROUP


The PSCAD Users Group (also known as the EMTDC
Users Group) is an informal forum for PSCAD/EMTDC
users worldwide. The Group maintains a web site and email
list server.
There are several good examples and some useful discussion
in the following web site:

http://bb.pscad.com

Minimum Recommended Specifications


for Hardware and Software
Processor : 500 MHz processor (higher speed recommended).
Operating system : Windows 98, NT 4.0, ME, 2000 or XP.
Memory (RAM) : 64 MB (128 MB or more recommended).
Hard disc space : 100 MB minimum. More space may be
required to save cases and output as you use PSCAD.

Additional : Digital Visual Fortran 5.0 is still supported,


but software Compaq Visual Fortran 6.x is recommended.
A free EGCS/GNU Fortran 77 compiler is provided, which
is sufficient to run most cases in PSCAD. However, certain
dimensioning limits will be imposed.

TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS


Components
A component (sometimes referred to simply as a block) is
essentially a graphical representation of a device model
Single-Phase Transformer component in PSCAD

Modules
Modules are a special type of component, where the basic
function of the component model is described using a
combination of other basic components, rather than code.

TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS

Projects
PSCAD allows the user to store everything involved in a
particular simulation (except output files) into one file called a
project. Projects can contain stored component definitions, online plots and controls, and of course the graphically
constructed system itself. There are two types of projects in
PSCAD:
Case projects which are saved with the file extension *.psc
Library projects are used to store component definitions and
viewable component instances, and can be used in any case
project. Library projects are saved with the file extension *.psl

Installation Cracked Version

Installation Cracked Version

Installation Cracked Version

Installation Cracked Version

Installation Cracked Version

1. Starting PSCAD

2. Main PSCAD Environment

1.Title(Active Project)
2.Menu Bar
3.Main Tool Bar

4.Workspace and Output Windows (If it is not visible, go to the main


menu bar and click on View | Workspace.)

2. Main PSCAD Environment


4.Workspace and Output Windows (If it is not visible, go to the main
menu bar and click on View | Workspace.)

Different Project Icons

Errors and Warnings

2. Main PSCAD Environment


4.Workspace and Output Windows
Active Project
the Projects section of the Workspace will allow you to
have multiple Projects loaded simultaneously. If a Case
Project is to be compiled and run, PSCAD needs to know
which one this is accomplished by selecting an Active
Case Project (Right-click on the project and select Set as
Active). The Projects, Runtime and Files sections of the
Workspace operate based on the Active Project.

2. Main PSCAD Environment


4.Workspace and Output Windows
Main Page Branch
This branch lists the various Module instances in the project.

Page Setup : Resize the page

3. Loading a Case Project


To load an existing Case Project:
Menu Bar : File | Load Project...
Main Toolbar : Load button
Hot Key : Ctrl + O

After Click on Open button, Double-click on the project title (or Rightclick and select Open) in the Workspace window to open and view the
main page of the project in the Circuit window of the Design Editor.

4. Main Page of the Project

The Master Library


It contains most of the components
required to build almost any circuit
To open the Master Library,
simply left double-click the title in
the Workspace.
Components stored in the Master
Library are categorized into several
Modules (located in the top-left
corner of the main page),
according to the functionality of
the component.

General Keyboard Shortcuts


[Ctrl +] X
[Ctrl +] C
[Ctrl +] V
A
R
M
F
Ctrl + Z
Ctrl + Y
Ctrl + F
Ctrl + O
Ctrl + S
Ctrl + U
Ctrl + W

Cut selection
Copy selection
Paste selection
Select all
Rotate selection
Mirror selection
Flip selection
Undo
Redo
Find function (search)
Load project
Save active project
Unload selected project
Invoke/Cancel Wire Mode

Keyboard Shortcuts in Plotting


Insert
+
P
X
E
Y
U
R
B

Insert an Overlay Graph


Zoom in to graphs
Zoom out of graphs
Zoom previous
Zoom x-axis extents
Zoom x-axis limits
Zoom y-axis extents
Zoom y-axis limits
Reset all extents
Reset all limits

Toggle grid lines

Ctrl + Left Mouse Hold Zoom horizontal aperture


Shift + Left Mouse Hold Zoom vertical aperture
Left Mouse Hold
Zoom to box (simultaneous

horizontal and vertical)

Creating a New Case Project


1. Creating a New Project

A new project entitled noname should then appear in the


Workspace window.

Creating a New Case Project


2. Opening the Main Page of New Project

You should sure, the current


project is activated, therefore if it
is necessary, in the Workspace
window, right-click on the title of
an inactive project and select Set
as Active.

By Rightclick | Open or Doubleclick on new project, you should then


see the project main page in the Circuit window of the Design Editor.

Creating a New Case Project


3. Saving Project Changes
a. You should utilize File menu | Save Active Project or
Ctrl+S . (Recommended: To save a selected project (either
active or inactive), right click on the project title in the Workspace
window and select Save from the pop-up menu.)

b. Select path and file name for new project.

Creating a New Case Project


4. Adding Components to a Project
There are a variety of ways to insert components into a
Project page:
a. Manual Copy/Paste: Open the Master Library and navigate to
the area containing the desired component. Right-click on the
component and select Copy, (or select the component and press
Ctrl + C). Open the project page where you wish to add the
component , right-click over a blank area and select Paste (or
press Ctrl + V).

b. Right-Click Menu: Right-click over a blank area of the page


and select Add Component. A sub-menu will appear
containing the most commonly used components from the
Master Library.

Creating a New Case Project


4. Adding Components to a Project
c. Library Pop-Up Menu: Press Ctrl + right mouse button: over
a blank area of the page to invoke the library pop-up menu
system. Select a component and it will be automatically added.
d. Control and Electrical Palettes: Left-click on any of the
palette buttons and then drag your mouse pointer over the
Circuit window - you should see the object attached to your
pointer. Continue to move the object to where you want it
placed, and then left-click again.

Creating a New Case Project


4. Adding Components to a Project
4.2. Some features about the components:
a. To move an object, place the mouse pointer over the object icon.
Press and hold the left mouse button. Now drag the mouse to move
the component. When you move a component, it will always snap to
the nearest drawing grid, even if the grid dots are not visible.
b. Objects can be cut, copied and pasted as many times as desired
within the Circuit window (Ctrl+X , Ctrl+C , Ctrl+V)
c. Rotate/Mirror/Flip
Hotkeys: Select the object and press the R, F or M to rotate, flip or mirror respectively.
Rotation Bar: Select the object or group of objects and then press one of the four
Rotation Bar buttons:

Creating a New Case Project


4. Adding Components to a Project
4.2. Some features about the components:
d. Deleting Objects : Select the object and press the Delete key. Note
that in PSCAD, deleting performs the same function as Cut.
e. Connecting Components Together :A connection is made
whenever wire components make contact with the end of another
wire, or when the input/output connection nodes of a component or
module are overlaid on top of each other. For example, two resistors
can be connected directly, or with a wire between them as follows:

Creating a New Case Project


4. Adding Components to a Project
4.2. Some features about the components:
e. Connecting Components Together :
It is important to note the difference between an electrical and a
control type component when connecting components together.
Electrical connection nodes cannot be connected to control (or data)
connection nodes and vice versa. For example, the following is an
illegal connection:

Creating a New Case Project


4. Adding Components to a Project
4.3. Assembling a Voltage Divider Circuit :
Open the Master Library and build the circuit of project by using
eight different components as shown below:

Creating a New Case Project


4. Adding Components to a Project
Locating the Single-Phase Source
1. There are three different source models
available in the Master Library we will
be using the Single Phase Voltage Source
Model 1 component.
2. Move the source component to an
appropriate place on the page. Left
double-click on the component to bring
up the component properties window.

Creating a New Case Project


4. Adding Components to a Project
Locating the Single-Phase Source
3. On the Configuration page, change the Source Impedance Type
Drop List to R (for purely resistive).
4. On the Configuration page, change the Rated Volts (AC:L-G,
RMS) input field from 110.00 [kV] to 70.71 [kV]. This will give
an internal source voltage of 100 kV peak.
5. Save your Project.

Creating a New Case Project


4. Adding Components to a Project
Add and Assemble
Add the remaining components (i.e., Wire, Resistor, Current Meter,
Data Label, Output Channel, and Ground components). Arrange all
components to form the simple voltage divider shown in the
following diagram:

Editing the
Component
Properties

Creating a New Case Project


4. Adding Components to a Project

Creating a New Case Project


4. Adding Components to a Project

Creating a New Case Project


4. Adding Components to a Project
Assigning a Meter to Output Channel
1. Add a Data Label component from the control palette to
main page of project.
2. Double click on it and rename Data Signal Name
according to the Signal Name of Meter component :

Creating a New Case Project


4. Adding Components to a Project
Assigning a Meter to Output Channel
3. Add Output Channel component to Main page of project, and
connect it to Data Label component, Double click on it and
change settings (specially Title which is displayed as the title
of curve). Unit of displayed signal is kV or kA.

Creating a New Case Project


4. Adding Components to a Project
Assigning a Meter to Output Channel
3. Add Output Channel component to Main page of project, and
connect it to Data Label component, Double click on it and
change settings (specially Title which is displayed as the title
of curve). Unit of displayed signal is kV or kA.

Creating a New Case Project


4. Adding Components to a Project
Plotting Results (Assigned meter to an Output Channel)
In order to view any results from our voltage divider circuit, we
must add a Graph Frame and set it up to display the waveforms:
Adding a Graph Frame: Right-click on the Output Channel component
called Mid Point Voltage to
bring up the pop-up menu. Select
Input/Output Reference |
Create new Graph with signal
This should create a new Graph
Frame, Overlay Graph and a Curve
Simultaneously. Right-click on the
Graph Frame title bar and Graph
Frame separately and change the
setting of properties.

Creating a New Case Project


4. Adding Components to a Project
Adding Another Graph and Curve
1. Overlay Graph :
Right click on Output Channel and select Input/Output
Reference | Add as curve, then Right click on existing graph and
select Paste Graph.

Creating a New Case Project


4. Adding Components to a Project
Adding Another Graph and Curve
2. New Graph in Existing Frame:
For adding a new graph with same time axis, first resize the frame
(click on title of frame and resize with drag on its marked corners)
then click on an existing graph for selection of it, then press
Ctrl+C and Ctrl+V .

Creating a New Case Project


5. Running the Project
Before running your new Project, ensure that it is the active
project in the Workspace window.
Save the Project (File | Save Project As)
Editing Project Settings
Press the Run button in the Main Toolbar, or from the main
menu select Build | Run.
Debug according to output window, if necessary.

Creating a New Case Project


5-2. Editing Project Settings
Right-click on the desired project in the Workspace window and
select Project Settings (you can right-click over a blank area of
any project page in Circuit view and select Project Settings
)from the pop-up menu

)Duration of Run (sec


This is the total length of the
simulation run, entered in
seconds If you start from time
zero, this is the finish time of
the run. If you start from a
snapshot file (pre-initialized
state), this is the length of run
from the snapshot time.

Creating a New Case Project


5-2. Editing Project Settings
EMTDC time step (micro Seconds):

)(:


.
EMTDC time step
.


.
.

.

Creating a New Case Project


5-2. Editing Project Settings
PSCAD plot step (micro Seconds):

20
.
50
. 1/1000[Hz]=0.001 [s] = 1000 [s] 1000=50*20
)
. (
.

Creating a New Case Project


5-2. Editing Project Settings
Start-up Method
There are two ways to start a simulation in PSCAD: The standard
method (i.e. from time = 0.0 seconds) and from a Snapshot File.

From Snapshot File : It is possible in PSCAD to run a case to a steady


state and then to take a snapshot at a certain instant during the run. All
relevant network data will be saved to a snapshot file, from which you
may start your case already pre-initialised. An input field is included
directly beside this field called Input File. Enter a name for the
snapshot file to be used here.

Creating a New Case Project


5-2. Editing Project Settings
Timed Snapshot
There are two ways to utilize a snapshot file: Single and
incremental snapshots. An input field is included directly beside
this field called Snapshot File. Enter a name for the snapshot file
to be created here. Another input field is included called Time.
Enter the time in seconds at which the snapshot is to be taken.

Example 2. Short Circuit Current in AC Systems

-K = 0o ik (t ) = I k [sin(t )] -K = 90o ik (t ) = I k [e

t / T p

cos(t )]

Example 2. Short Circuit Current in AC Systems

Example 2. Short Circuit Current in AC Systems


1. Transfer Data to Excel :
a. If a simulation has been run and a particular Curve contains data,
you can copy all or a portion of this Curve data to the clipboard.
Right-click over the corresponding Curve and select Copy Data to
Clipboard from the pop-up menu.
b. Paste clipboard data in Excel
Software and save in Data1.xls

Example 2. Short Circuit Current in AC Systems


2. Impedance Calculation by MATLAB :
a. Phasor Calculation of current and voltage is done by DFT.m
(written m-file).
b. calculation of impedance can be possible based on phasors.
clear, clc, fs=1000; %Sampling Frequency
LW_P=20/20; m_iHM=1; fn=50; Lw=LW_P*fs/fn; WindowLength=fs/fn; Delta_Teta=360/WindowLength;
Angle=-(floor((Lw-1))/2)*Delta_Teta:Delta_Teta:(floor((Lw-1))/2)*Delta_Teta;
FC_real=2.0/LW_P/WindowLength*sin(m_iHM*Angle*pi/180);%Filter Coefficients
FC_imag=2.0/LW_P/WindowLength*cos(m_iHM*Angle*pi/180);%Filter Coefficients
Data=xlsread('Data1.xls'); V=Data(:,2)'; %V= Voltage
for i=1:length(V)
if i<Lw
clear Signal
Signal(1:Lw-i)=0;
Signal=[Signal V(1:i)];
else
Signal=V(i-Lw+1:i);
end
Real=sum(FC_real.*Signal);
Imag=sum(FC_imag.*Signal);
m_dPhasor_V(i)=Real+j*Imag;
V_abs(i)=abs(m_dPhasor_V(i));
end

Example 2. Short Circuit Current in AC Systems


2. Impedance Calculation by MATLAB :
subplot(3,1,1),plot(V_abs,'b'),grid on, xlabel('Time [ms]'), ylabel('Main Harmonic of Voltage [kV]')
I=Data(:,3)'; %I = Current
for i=1:length(I)
if i<Lw
clear Signal
Signal(1:Lw-i)=0;
Signal=[Signal I(1:i)];
else
Signal=I(i-Lw+1:i);
end
Real=sum(FC_real.*Signal);
Imag=sum(FC_imag.*Signal);
m_dPhasor_I(i)=Real+j*Imag;
I_abs(i)=abs(m_dPhasor_I(i));
end
subplot(3,1,2),plot(I_abs,'b'),grid on, xlabel('Time [ms]'), ylabel('Main Harmonic of Current [kA]')
Z_abs=abs(m_dPhasor_V./m_dPhasor_I);
Z_abs(1:200)=0;
subplot(3,1,3),plot(Z_abs,'b'),grid on,xlabel('Time [ms]'), ylabel('Estimated Impedance [Ohm]')

Example 2. Short Circuit Current in AC Systems


3. Phasor Calculation by PSCAD :
Calculation of current and voltage phasors are done by FFT
component

Master Library | Meters | FFT

Example 2. Short Circuit Current in AC Systems


3. Phasor Calculation by PSCAD (FFT component) :
Number of Harmonics
7 (16 samples per second) , 15 (32 samples per second) ,
31 (64 samples per second) , 63 (128 samples per second)

Phase Output Reference


Select Sine or Cosine. This determines if the phase output is
referenced to a sine wave or a cosine wave

Frequency Tracking?

For situations where the fundamental frequency is variable, the


use of a frequency-tracking device is available to the user for
better estimation of phase angle.

Home Work1.
Short Circuit Current in Three Phase AC Systems

Example 3. Capacitor Switching in AC Systems


L

di
d 2i 1
+ VC = V0 L
+ i =0
dt
dt 2 C

i( s )
2
=0
LS i( s ) LSI ( 0 ) V0 + VC ( s ) +
di V0 VC ( t )
C
I ( t ) = =
LI ( 0 ) = V0 VC ( 0 )

dt
L
L S 2 i( s ) SI ( 0 ) I ( 0 ) +

1
i( s ) = 0
C

L S2 + 1

LC

1
,
0 =

LC
sin 0 t
i( t ) =
Z
0
L

Surge Im pedance of the circuit Z 0 =

0
L1
= sin 0 t

S 2 + 02

I ( 0 ) = 0 , V = V0 VC ( 0 ) i( s ) =

Example 3. Capacitor Switching in AC Systems


d 2VC
d 2VC
di
+ VC = V0 LC
+ VC = V0
+ 02VC = 02V0
2
2
dt
dt
dt

V
S VC ( s ) SVC ( 0 ) VC ( 0 ) + 02VC ( s ) = 0 0
S
02V0
) SVC ( s
= ) VC ( s
+

S ( S 2 + 02 ) S 2 + 02

VC ( 0 ) = 0 , I ( 0 ) = CVC ( 0 ) = 0 VC ( t ) = V0 + ( VC ( 0 ) V0 ) cos 0 t

02V0
1
S

= +
2
2
2
2

S ( S + 0 ) S S + 0


300 900 .
2
. 1/3 1/5
0/5 3 .

Example 3. Capacitor Switching in AC Systems

Example 3. Capacitor Switching in AC Systems

Example 4. DC Motor Starting

dc CT

TL = 0.7 + 5 .

Example 4. DC Motor Starting



220 dc 11.5 .

.

Example 4. DC Motor Starting

Example 4. DC Motor Starting

AC

Example 4. Fault Analysis in a System

400

Example 4. Fault Analysis in a System

Hydro Generator
Properties

Example 4. Fault Analysis in a System

AC1A (AC Machine Exciter)


Properties

Example 4. Fault Analysis in a System


Main Transformer

Example 4. Fault Analysis in a System

Slider

Example 4. Fault Analysis in a System

Source Voltage

) (
.

Example 4. Fault Analysis in a System


Transmission Line and Cable
1. Three conductor transmission systems of very short length (i.e.
less than 15 km for a 50 s time step) can also be represented using
an equivalent PI Section, where only the admittance and impedance
data of the line segment is entered.
2. The transmission lines and cables are modeled using one of three
distributed (traveling wave) models:
Bergeron
Frequency Dependent (Mode)
Frequency Dependent (Phase)
For all of these Frequency Dependent models, detailed conductor
information (i.e. line geometry, conductor radius) must be given.

Example 4. Fault Analysis in a System


Transmission Line Modeling
There are two basic methods for constructing a transmission line:
1. Building a transmission line composed of two basic components
(two Electrical Interface blocks which display the begin and end of
Transmission Line and one Transmission Line Configuration block
which can include tower cross-sectional geometry, ground properties
and conductor data.
The Transmission Line Interface
components may also appear in
single-line view.

Example 4. Fault Analysis in a System


Transmission Line Modeling
There are two basic methods for constructing a transmission line:
2. The second method allows you to incorporate the electrical
interface directly into the Transmission Line Configuration
component, when using single-line mode. The figure below represents
the equivalent transmission line to that shown above.

Example 4. Fault Analysis in a System

Transmission Line

Default view of Transmission Line Configuration block,


where the transmission line is graphically defined.

Example 4. Fault Analysis in a System

Transmission Line Modeling: Selection the proper configuration


from Master Library and paste on the page of Transmission Line
Configuration block.

Example 4. Fault Analysis in a System

2. Control of Fault

CVT

IEC186 CVT
.

-2000
500 .
) (
.
CVT
.
.

.

CVT
IEC186
Solid ) CVT ( %10

. ) RL ABB
( RLC
.

CVT
IEC186
Solid ) CVT ( %10

. ) RL ABB
( RLC
.

CVT PSCAD

C1 C2
Lcomp
CVT
.
.
) (PT
12 25
.
] [RP LP ] [RS LS ] [Rbur Lbur RPbur
)(burden
.

) Ferroresonance Suppression Circuit (FSC
.

CVT

RP
L

Rf1 = 3.9

RP = 0.025

C1 = 5 nF

Lf1 = 0.0394 H

LP = 0.25 mH

C2 = 95 nF

Rf2 = 0.1

Rbur = 133.36

LComp = 85 H

Lf2 = 0.01 mH

Lbur = 0.318 H

VT Ratio = 200

Cf2 = 0.68 nF

RPbur = 78500

RS = 0.025

Rf3 = 3

LS = 0.25 mH




.

-
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.

.



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.3 Node

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.4 Finish

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