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Bushong: Radiologic Science for Technologists: Physics, Biology, and

Protection, 8th Edition


Answers to Challenge Questions
Chapter 28: Digital Fluoroscopy
1. a. Method of temporal subtraction that results in successive subtraction images of
contrast-filled vessels.
b. Matching two or more images in space.
c. Time required for the x-ray tube to be switched on and reach the selected level of
kVp and mA.
d. Temporal subtraction refers to a number of computer-assisted techniques whereby
an image obtained at one time is subtracted from an image obtained at a later
time. Energy subtraction uses two x-ray beams alternately to provide a
subtraction image resulting from differences in photoelectric interaction. Hybrid
subtraction combines temporal- and energy-subtraction techniques.
e. Charged-coupled device.
f. Region of interest.
g. One line at a time sequential instead of interlaced.
h. Sum multiple images to increase S/N.
i. Connecting point on a system.
j. Picture Archiving and Communications System.
2. Improved contrast resolution because of postprocessing procedures, instant access to
spot films, signal-to-noise improvement by frame averaging, and instant image
subtraction for contrast studies.
3. The acquisition of a series of images is followed by contrast administration, followed
by another series of images. The precontrast and postcontrast images can be summed
to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and then subtracted from one another to produce
an angiogram or other such image of contrast-filled anatomy.
4. Interlaced = alternate video lines. Progressive = sequential video lines.
5. There are spurious electrical signals resulting from small stray electrical current and
thermally induced stray currents. Cooling electronics always reduces electronic
noise.
6. Subtraction of two images at different kVp.
7. The number of video lines and bandwith of the image monitor.
8. 0.45 mm 0.45 mm.
9. That each pixel can contain up to 4096 values, each value representing a different
shade of gray.
10. The spatial resolution of all digital images is pixel limited. We cannot image
something smaller than a pixel. Theoretically, therefore, for digital fluoroscopy a
limited spatial resolution is field of view divided by matrix size.
11. Approximately 1.6 MB.
12. 0.12 mm.
13. Computers, monitors, transmission medium.

Copyright 2004 by Mosby, Inc.

Answers to Challenge Questions


14. A computer an A to D converter and a D to A converter.
15. Dose should be the same but experience shows it to be higher because of ease of
image acquisition.
16. 33 ms.
17. Approximately 70 kVp.
18. Direct digital, no lag, long life.
19. Postprocessing to reregister the image.
20. High SNR results in better contrast.

Copyright 2004 by Mosby, Inc.