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Advanced Overrunning Clutch Technology

Technical Paper
1978-02-01
Jules G. Kish
ABSTRACT This paper summarizes the results of a 3 year research
program to advance the state-of-the-art in helicopter free-wheel units
(overrunning clutches) by permitting operation at 20,000 rpm. By
designing the free-wheel unit to operate at engine input speed instead
of at the speed of the 2nd reduction where it is usually located, the
torque, and hence size and weight of the unit, will be reduced. ...By
designing the free-wheel unit to operate at engine input speed instead
of at the speed of the 2nd reduction where it is usually located, the
torque, and hence size and weight of the unit, will be reduced.
High Capacity Freewheels for Torque Converter Applications
Technical Paper
1993-03-01
Frank Fitz
The solution was found in an innovative, planar, vemier ratchet design
which incorporates low-mass, low-inertia struts to provide a fastreacting, positive-engagement, lock-up mode as well as a non-contact
freewheel mode to maximize overrunning performance. This paper
presents an evaluation of the MD used as a one-way clutch in high
performance, drag racing torque converter reactors.
Roller One-Way Clutch System Resonance
Technical Paper
1998-02-23
John M. Kremer, Paris Altidis
The OWC has two basic operational modes: 1) Engaged, and 2)
Freewheel. In this paper we will develop a means to predict the
freewheel-mode resonant response of a roller OWC system.

Generalized Equations for Sprag One-Way Clutch Analysis and


Design
Technical Paper

1998-02-23
David R. Chesney, John M. Kremer
This paper offers a similar analysis of another member of the one-way
clutch family, namely Sprag one-way clutches. Sprag one-way clutches
are clutches that freewheel in one direction, but transmit torque due to
the geometry of the sprag, when the races are rotated in the opposite
relative direction. ...Specifically, the paper discusses the theory of
operation, equilibrium equations, system deflections, system stresses,
and dynamic behavior of a sprag one-way clutch. The paper derives
and explains the fundamental equations in terms of dimensionless
units, in order to enable the use of either English or metric units.
...ABSTRACT In 1997, Chesney and Kremer wrote a paper entitled
Generalized Equations for Roller One-Way Clutch Analysis and Design
[1]. The paper explained both the static and dynamic behavior of roller
One-Way Clutches (OWC), and described the practical application of
esoteric stress equations to the design of roller OWCs.
Verification of the One-Way Clutch Race Stress Equation
Technical Paper
1996-02-01
John M. Kremer
ABSTRACT One-way clutch performance is dependent on its mating
races. If a race fails, the clutch fails. Accurate structural analysis of the
race is necessary to expedite the clutch system design. ...Accurate
structural analysis of the race is necessary to expedite the clutch
system design. Several equations are available for this purpose.
Sauzedde [1] presented hoop stress equations for the outer race based
on the work of Timoshenko [2].

Selectable One-Way Clutch in GM's RWD 6-Speed Automatic


Transmissions
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Farzad Samie, Chunhao Joseph Lee, Brice Pawley

ABSTRACT This paper described implementation of a selectable oneway clutch in the GM's RWD 6-speed automatic transmission [1]
content to replace the current one-way clutch and low/reverse plate
clutch. A selectable one-way clutch can hold torque or freewheel in one
or both directions depending on the desired operating mode. ...This
paper describes hardware design, vehicle implementation, and control
of the selectable one-way clutch. In additions, lower parasitic losses
due to low/reverse clutch removal is measured and compared with
production 6-speed RWD automatic transmissions. ...ABSTRACT This
paper described implementation of a selectable one-way clutch in the
GM's RWD 6-speed automatic transmission [1] content to replace the
current one-way clutch and low/reverse plate clutch.
DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF AUTOMATIC DIFFERENTIAL
LOCKING SYSTEM
Prof. A. S. Todkar, R. S. Kapare
A conventional differential that is non-lockeddifferential always
supplies close to equal
torque to each side. With an automotive differential if one wheel is held
stationary, the counterpart wheel turns at twice its normal speed.A
differential locking system introduced here can be engaged or
disengaged either manually or automatically, as per the conditions or a
sensor based system can be developed that will sense the difference in
speed or stalling of one wheel to lock the differ ential by sliding a dog
ring to get engaged in planetary gear spike shaft so that both wheels
will have same traction. If the difference in the speed of driven and
rolling wheelsis encountered then the differential is controlled to lock

Design Improvement of Differential Casing through CAE Strain


Correlation
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Abhijit Londhe, Suhas Kangde, Sreenadh N
Abstract A differential casing is one of the important elements in the
vehicle power train, whose objective is to house differential gears and
take different loads coming from these gears. The function of a

differential is to drive a pair of wheels while allowing them to rotate at


different speeds. While taking a turn, the outer wheel needs to travel
more compared to the inner wheel. This is possible due to the
differential which rotates them at different speeds. This Paper
highlights a simplified methodology to capture the differential casing
failure and to resolve the same. The methodology adopted was then
correlated with the test measurements to increase the confidence.
During physical tests, strains are measured at different orientations of
the differential casing and correlated with simulation results.
Light Commercial Vehicle with Locking Differential
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Giovanni Giordani, Celso Fratta
In the light commercial vehicles and other wheeled vehicles, an open
differential is a device that allows each driven wheel to rotate in
different speeds during a curve or in limited grip conditions. On the
other hand, when one of the wheels loses the grip the differential will
direct all the torque available to the wheel that is spinning making the
vehicle get stuck. In certain applications, such as electrical power line
maintenance in rural areas requires a larger capacity drive vehicles
due to low friction terrain. To comply with this application requirement
was developed the locking differential speed sensitive that pulls both
wheels at the same time offering full locking axle and increasing the
traction capacity of the vehicle. The system automatically unlocks the
wheel with higher speed when the speed is different between them as
happened in a curve. For this project the locking system was applied to
a light truck, which is an innovation in the light commercial vehicles
Brazilian market.
Lightweight Differential
Technical Paper
2011-10-04
Ricardo Shindi Hosokawa, Roberto Stevaux, Alessandro Martins
For environmental issues, the Automotive Industry is always looking for
opportunities in terms of weight and size reduction. This consequently
results in fuel consumption reduction. This new concept is more
compact, lighter, quieter, more efficient and with higher performance.
These attributes are possible by a completely new differential design.
The architecture of this space-saving component is completely
different from traditional differential designs. Instead of using

conventional differential pinions, the Lightweight Differential has spur


gears arranged as a planetary gear set in one plane, as used in
automatic transmissions. This means that the required space and
weight are significantly reduced and the potential torque capacity is
noticeably increased. The lightweight or spur gear differential has
enormous advantages. It's possible to save up to 30 percent weight
compared with a classic bevel gear differential while creating up to 70
percent more axial space due to the streamlined design.
An Innovative Lightweight Differential for Small and Midsize
Cars
Technical Paper
2011-10-04
Matthias J. Derse, Mauro Moraes de Souza
In light of the global trend to reduce CO emissions, the pressure on
the automotive industry to further reduce vehicle weights is increasing.
Moreover, there is also a need to make more efficient use of the space
available, in order to take account of new requirements relating to
crash safety and increasing function integration (including dual-clutch
transmissions and hybrid applications). When it comes to gears, the
differential still offers great potential as regards the reduction of weight
and size. This paper will present a new, housing- or cage-less
differential that achieves the above-mentioned development goals
while keeping to the familiar and tested design principle of the bevel
gear set. Simultaneous product and process development and the use
of high-precision forging technologies facilitate cost-effective
production of this new differential.
Handling Performance of a Vehicle Equipped with an Actively
Controlled Differential
Technical Paper
2011-05-17
Ioannis Nerantzis, Emmanouil Athanasopoulos, Athanassios Mihailidis,
Stephanos Theodossiades
Vehicle handling is heavily influenced by the torque distribution to the
driving wheels. This work presents a newly developed differential,
designed to actively control the driving torque distribution to the
wheels. The new device incorporates an electric machine, which can
operate either as a motor or generator. A control unit monitors signals
from various sources in the vehicle, such as steering angle, yaw
acceleration and wheel rotational speed. Then, a control algorithm

takes into account the steering angle rate and the vehicle speed in
order to determine the suitable difference between output torque
values. The handling improvement capabilities are evaluated by
simulating in ADAMS/Car the driving behavior of a vehicle equipped
with the new differential. The model that has been used to simulate
vehicle handling is that of a Formula SAE type racing car. Results are
obtained using the following three types of differentials: an open
differential, a limited slip differential and the new actively controlled
device.
Angular Contact Ball Bearings for a Rear Axle Differential
Technical Paper
2003-11-18
Dirk Spindler, Georg von Petery
In passenger car axle differentials, axially preloaded tapered roller
bearings have been used exclusively since their rigidity and life are
sufficient for this application. In real life applications, the bearing
preload during transmission life is reduced due to wear in the contact
between the roller and the rib, and preload can even be lost
completely. This preload loss in the bearing supports has an immediate
effect on the tooth contact between the pinion and the ring and it
causes noise during operation and reduced gear teeth life. INA has now
developed a new bearing design that meets the requirements for high
rigidity, long life and no preload loss during operation. In addition,
friction losses in the bearing supports are reduced and transmission
efficiency increases because the tapered roller bearings used
previously have been replaced by an angular contact ball bearing.