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AC voltage

controllers
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Semnan Un.

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Semnan Un.

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Semnan Un.

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Semnan Un.

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Semnan Un.

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Semnan Un.

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4.1.1 Single-phase AC voltage controller


VT1
VT2
u1

io

u1
O

uo

R uo

O
io
The phase shift range
(operation range of phase
delay angle):

O
u VT

Semnan Un.

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40

Resistive load, quantitative analysis


RMS value of output voltage
Uo =

( 2U sin t) d(
2

t) =U1

1
sin2 +
2

(4-1)

p current
RMS value of output

Uo
R
RMS value of thyristor current
Io =

IT =

1
2

(4-2)

2U1 sin t
U 1
d( t ) = 1 (1
R
R 2

sin2
)
2

(4-3)

Power factor of the circuit


=

P UoIo Uo
=
=
=
S U1I o U1

Semnan Un.

1
sin 2 +
2
N. Esakandarian

(4-4)
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Inductive (Inductor- resistor) load , operation principle


u1
VT 1
VT2

io

uG1
R

u1

uo

The phase shift range:

O
uG2
O
uo

O
io

uVT
O

Semnan Un.

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t
t

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Inductive load, quantitative analysis


Differential equation

d io
+ Ri o = 2U 1 sin t
dt
io t = = 0
(4-5)

180
140

/()

Solution

2U1
io =
sin( t
Z

) sin(

)e tg

Considering io =0 when t= +

(4-6)

100
60
20
0

We have

sin( +

) = sin(

0
=9

75
60
45
30
15
0

)e tg

20

60

100
/()

140

180

(4-7)

The RMS value of output voltage, output current, and thyristor current can then be
calculated.
Semnan Un.

N. Esakandarian

43

4.1.2 Three-phase AC voltage controller


Classification of three- phase circuits
i a VT1

u a VT
3

ub

Ua0'
ia

VT4
b

VT5

uc

ua

n'

VT6
c

ub
uc

Y connection

ia

b
c

VT2

ua

Line- controlled connection

ub

ub

uc
c

Branch-controlled connection
Semnan Un.

ia

ua

uc

a
b

Neutral-point controlled connection


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3- phase 3- wire Y connection AC voltage controller


i a VT 1
ua

ub
uc

VT3
VT5

Ua0'

VT4
b

n'

VT6
c
VT 2

For a time instant, there are 2 possible conduction states:


Each phase has a thyristor conducting. Load voltages are the same as the source
voltages.
There are only 2 thyristors conducting, each from a phase. The load voltages of
the two conducting phases are half of the corresponding line to line voltage,
while the load voltage of the other phase is 0.
Semnan Un.

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4.2 Other AC controllers

4.2.1 Integral cycle controlAC power controller

VT1
VT2
u1

io

Conduction 2 N
uo angle = M

2U1

uo

R O
M

2
M

u1

uo,io
3
M

4
M

Line period
Control period = M*Line period

=2

Circuit topologies are the same as AC voltage controllers.


Only the control method is different.
Load voltage and current are both sinusoidal when thyristors are conducting.
Semnan Un.

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Spectrum of the current inAC


power controller

0.6

There is NO
harmonics in the
y sense.
ordinary
There is harmonics
as to the control
frequency. As to the
line frequency, these
components become
fractional harmonics.

Semnan Un.
Esakandarian

0.5
0.4

IO/I0m

03
0.3
0.2
0.1
2

8 10 12 14

Harmonic order as to
control frequency
0

Harmonic order as to
line frequency

N.
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4.2.2 Electronic AC switch


Circuit topologies are the same as AC voltage controllers. But the back- to- back
thyristors are just used like a switch to turn the equipment on or off.
ApplicationThyristor-switched capacitor (TSC)

Semnan Un.

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TSC waveforms when the capacitor is switched in/out


uVT 1
uC

iC
VT1

us

VT2

us

uC
C

uVT 1

t
VT1

iC
VT2

t1

t
t2

The voltage across the thyristor must be nearly zero when switching in the
capacitor, and the current of the thyristor must be zero when switching
out the capacitor.
Semnan Un.

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TSC with the electronic switch realized by a thyristor and an antiparallel diode

uVT
uC

iC
VT

us

VD

us

uC

uVT

VD

iC

VT

t 1 t2 t 3 t 4

The capacitor voltage will be always charged up to the peak of source


voltage.
The response to switching- out command could be a little slower
(maximum delay is one line-cycle).
Semnan Un.

N. Esakandarian

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4.2.3 Chopping controlAC chopper


AC chopper
Modes of operation
VD1

V1

i1

u1

V2

VD2

V3
VD3

VD4
uo
V4

R
L

u>0, io >0: V 1 charging, V 3 freew heeling


u>0, io <0: V 4 charging, V 2 freew heeling
u<0, io >0: V 3 charging, V 1 freew heeling
u<0, io <0: V 2 charging, V 4 freew heeling
Semnan Un.

N. Esakandarian

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Typical waveforms

Output voltage

200t/ms

Input current with


Single-phase output

200 t/ms

Input current with


3-phase output

Semnan Un.

200t/ms
N. Esakandarian

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