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Systems Overview

Process Technology

Broad Base. Best Solutions.

Carbon is Future.
SGL Group The Carbon Company.

Process Technology
The Business Unit Process Technology is a
premium technology provider for chemical and
related industry process systems, equipment and
after sales services. Our focus are high-tech
materials for demanding chemical applications.
With smart and sustainable solutions for an increasing number of industry we give proof of our
strong innovation culture.
Broad Base

Carbon has unique properties. It is indispensable in the


production of steel, aluminum and solar energy systems.
Carbon increases the performance of wind turbines and
reduces the weight of airplanes, cars and sports equipment.

Carbon substitutes other materials and contributes to a


reduction in CO2 emissions.

SGL Group is one of the leading manufacturers of carbonbased products and has the broadest product and technology portfolio, a global sales network and state-of-the-art
production sites in Europe, North America and Asia.

Our range of materials:


E graphite
E SiC
E PTFE
E reactive metals
E steel
Our range of services:
E process design
E engineering
E project management
E production and assembly
E commissioning
E after sales services.
With 9 manufacturing sites in 8 countries and a
continually growing worldwide sales and service
network, we are always close to our customers.

Reliability.
Efficiency.
Sustainability.

Powered by our Broad Base of competencies, products and services, we offer Best Solutions to
our customers. For the Business Unit Process Technology, those solutions are characterized by reliability,
efficiency and sustainability.
Best Solutions
E

Reliability

In a business that strongly depends on reliability we never compromise on quality and


safety. Our products deliver dependable results; our services are fast and competent.
The long-standing loyalty of our customers proves that we keep our promises on-time,
on-spec, on-budget.

Efficiency

Tailor made, innovative solutions and an integrated approach on chemistry, materials,


technology and design, ensure outstanding efficiency and improved customer value:
higher yields, lower operating cost, lower service and maintenance cost, longer service
intervals and less downtimes, and the extended product lifetime sum up to significant
lower total cost of ownership and to a higher return on investment for our customers.

Sustainability

In all industries that deal with resource- and energy- consuming processes sustainability
is of crucial importance. Based on innovative solutions, more than 60 % of our sales
contribute to the saving of resources and energy and to the reduction of greenhouse
gases.

Contents
Partnering with Our Customers

HCl Gas and Hydrochloric Acid

Sulfuric Acid

14

Exhaust Gas

16

Absorption of HCl Gas

Characteristics

18

Production of HCl Gas

Quench Process and Recovery

19

Evaporation and Concentration

10

Quality Management and After Sales Service

22

Stripping Processes

12

Process Technology Our Products

23
3

Partnering with Our Customers


in the Pursuit of Success
As an experienced material and equipment supplier,
SGL Group can rely on its wide-ranging expertise
to ensure the success of its customers.
Moreover, the team spirit of our highly qualified,
motivated workforce together with our worldwide
network of subsidiaries guarantee perfect solutions
for our customers around the globe.
Sustainable development is a key concept at SGL
Group. It is vital that our Systems and equipment
designers show respect for the environment, especially in terms of energy consumption and use of
materials.
Our systems combined

Engineering systems, general plant layout and CAD plant design

equipment for corrosive media


We offer customized Systems for your projects by

Our materials

using our expertise in materials and equipment

Our expertise in corrosion protection helps us to

made from DIABON and LICUFLON, and combin-

continuously improve our superior materials:

ing it with our process knowledge and value-

for the manufacture of our high-end equipment.

SGL Group can support you in the treatment of


all corrosive media by drawing on its vast experi-

DIABON: its unique chemical and physical properties open up a wide spectrum of applications

added engineering.

LICUFLON: PTFE-lined steel columns and vessels


with the lowest permeation rate available.

ence in handling:

Hydrochloric acid

Sulfuric acid

Our commitment

Flue gas with corrosive constituents

Throughout the world the chemical industry is coming

Acidic gases, e.g. from waste incineration

under the increasing pressures of competition and

These Systems rely on our decades of experience

costs. Long-term success in the face of this compe-

in corrosion-resistant DIABON and LICUFLON

tition will depend on the willingness of companies

equipment and material.

to address these technological and economic


challenges. As a supplier of state-of-the-art, com-

Our process equipment

mercially optimized Systems, SGL Group is your

SGL Group offers a wide range of innovative

ideal partner to gain the decisive edge over your

products made from our superior materials DIABON

competitors. SGL Group has a unique combination

and LICUFLON:

of materials, products and expertise at its disposal

Heat exchangers

Quenchers

Columns

HCl gas and hydrochloric acid

Vessels

Absorption of HCl gas

Synthesis units

Production of HCl gas from hydrochloric acid

Burner systems

Stripping processes

Pumps

Concentration of hydrochloric acid

to provide you with solutions for:

Tailored engineering and products

Modular design for optimal flexibility

Guaranteed performance

Worldwide leading quality standards

Most reliable operation

Lowest life-cycle costs

Highest safety standards

Our service
We are continuously working on improving our
project and order processing strategies and methods, focusing our attention on deadlines, quality
and costs to ensure increased customer satisfacPre-assembled skid-mounted unit; ready for use after
being connected to process plant

Sulfuric acid

tion. Our supplies include:

Project management

Engineering
Corrosion expertise

Dilution and concentration of H2SO4

Processes

Exhaust gas and flue gas

Equipment

Heat exchange (cooling/heating)

Electrical instrumentation

Cleaning of flue gas

Piping

Quench process and recovery of hydrochloric


acid

Plant design

DIABON

You in our focus

LICUFLON

When it comes to Systems our customers perceive

POLYFLURON

us as a reliable long-term partner and not just a


supplier.
Customer satisfaction is one of our most crucial

All other necessary materials

Electrical instrumentation

place great emphasis on advising customers so

Piping

that they receive the product that meets their exact

Steel structure

needs.
needs of our customers. Thermal and mechanical
details are developed by our engineers using the
most reliable and updated CAD and process simulation tools.
Advantageous Systems

Customer-oriented approach

Expertise in processes and their simulation

Corrosion and design know-how

Delivery
Equipment

goals and success criteria. This means that we

Systems are designed in accordance with the

Materials

Skid-mounted Systems

Services
Construction supervision
Commissioning supervision
Operator training
Maintenance training
Spare parts
Repairs

HCl Gas and Hydrochloric Acid


Absorption of HCl Gas

The absorption of hydrogen chloride in water or


dilute hydrochloric acid is a central operation in
the production of hydrochloric acid.
This technique is often used for gases from

HCl synthesis units

Chemical production plants


(e.g. MDI/TDI or metallurgical processes)

Waste incineration units.

HCl gas is brought into contact with water. In welldesigned processes, the absorption assures clean
flue gases and high HCl concentrations in the product acid. The absorption is a highly exothermic
process which heats up gas and absorption liquid.
Therefore, the absorption is often performed in
combined equipment DIABON heat exchangers
and DIABON columns. Depending on the HCl concentration in the feed gas, the absorption is either
isothermal or adiabatic.
Isothermal absorption
Isothermal absorption is more economic for higherconcentration HCl gases. Therefore, a watercooled DIABON falling-film absorber is used for
the main absorption with simultaneous cooling of
the produced hydrochloric acid. The falling-film
heat exchanger can be operated in a co-current or
counter-current mode. In co-current absorption,
both liquid and gas are fed at the top of the heat
exchanger. The acid solution and the gas with unabsorbed HCl leave the absorber at the bottom outlet. This gas is scrubbed in a downstream absorption column. The weak acid leaving at the bottom
is used as absorption liquid for the falling-film absorber.
An appropriate design with trays or packing
ensures that the specified emission limits are met.

Isothermal absorption system


with block heat exchanger, scrubber, pumps and tank

Adiabatic absorption
Adiabatic absorption is normally applied for lowconcentration HCl gases with constituents such as

Vent gas

solvents that need to be vented.


The HCl-containing gas is fed to the bottom of a

FIC

DIABON/LICUFLON column, while the absorption


liquid is fed at the top. Gas and liquid flow are

Scrubber

Absorption water

counter-current to ensure optimum absorption. The


height, diameter and internals are designed in
such a way that the desired acid concentration is
obtained and the purity of the vent gas is maximized. The heat of absorption generates an ele-

HCl gas

vated temperature of overheads and bottoms

Isothermal
absorber
(can be
combined with
a quencher)

product, thus evaporating additional amounts of


water. This water can be removed in a subsequent
DIABON condenser. The hot acid stream is cooled
in an integral or separate heat exchanger.

Hydrochloric
acid

Capacity and available sizes


LICA

Our Absorption Systems are proven solutions for

Tank

DIC

a capacity of 0.5 to 400 t/d of 100% HCl per


unit and for product concentrations in the range of
25 to 38% HCl.

Pump

Isothermal absorption of HCl gas

Cooling water

Condenser
Inert gases

FIC

Absorption
water
Absorption column
HCl gas
AIC

Cooler
LIC

Tank
Hydrochloric acid,
e.g. HCl 33%

Pump

Adiabatic absorption of HCl gas

Production of HCl Gas


from Hydrochloric Acid

HCl plant with synthesis, stripping and evaporation units

Many processes like the production of fumed silica


(highly dispersed SiO2) with the intermediate
product SiCl4 or the production of bisphenol require HCl gas as feed. Beside the direct synthesis
of HCl gas from H2 and Cl2, HCl gas can be produced by distillation of hydrochloric acid solution.

To minimize the consumption of steam and cooling


water, the feed stream to the column is heated with

Desorption

hot, azeotropic acid in a DIABON plate heat ex-

HCl gas is produced by distillation of hydrochloric

changer serving as an interchanger (recuperator).

acid solution with a concentration of 25 35% un-

The heat supply to the column can be ensured by

der pressure.

an integrated DIABON falling-film evaporator or

For this purpose, the HCl solution is fed at the top

an external DIABON reboiler. An HCl-rich gas is

of a DIABON or LICUFLON column.

generated at the top of the column.

Water is removed from the gas stream, increasing


the concentration of the HCl gas in the first
DIABON condenser and in subsequent DIABON
gas coolers. After passing through a LICUFLON
high-performance demister, a moisture content of
5 10 ppm in the product gas can ultimately be
achieved.

Advantages of our HCl distillation plants

The bottom product (azeotropic acid) has a con-

Production of highly pure, dry HCl gas with low


inert gas and moisture contents

centration between 16 and 20% HCl, depending


on process conditions. It can be fed back to the ab-

No compressor necessary for a pressure up to


6 bar g

sorption process and preheats the strong acid feed


in the DIABON interchanger (recuperator).

Gas pressure and temperature in accordance


with customers requirements

Minimized consumption of steam and cooling


water by optimal design

No risk of explosion

Capacity and available sizes


Distillation Systems can be fabricated in all standard sizes up to very large diameters. Distillation
units have proven references for capacities of 2 to
200 t/d of 100% HCl per column.

Vent gas

Condenser

Cooler

PIC

HCl gas

Absorption water

Absorption
column

Demister

FIC

TIC

Distillation
column
Untreated gas
containing HCl

Recuperator

LIC

Steam

FIC

Tank

LIC

Forcedcirculation evaporator

Cooler

Tank
Pump, concentrated HCl

LIC

Pump, azeotropic acid

Production of HCl gas from hydrochloric acid by


absorption/desorption process

Evaporation and Concentration


of Hydrochloric Acid
In industrial processes hydrochloric acid solutions

Two-Pressure Distillation System

are often polluted or diluted. To re-concentrate

HCl gas > 99% under pressure (up to 6 bar g) or

these solutions, either simple evaporation or distil-

concentrated acid is produced by distillation of

lation can be used.

hydrochloric acid solution. The process uses the


specific properties of hydrochloric acid, i.e. the

Evaporation

azeotropic concentration of hydrochloric acid is

One of the major standard operations in environ-

dependent on the pressure.

mental protection technology is the evaporation of

In the low-pressure column (< 1 bar abs), water is

liquid wastes. DIABON heat exchangers are used

removed from the azeotropic effluent of the high-

in the evaporation of dilute acids, aggressive flue

pressure column. This higher-concentration bottom

gas scrubbing water, landfill leachates and indus-

product is fed to the high-pressure column (> 1 bar

trial effluents.

abs), in which HCl gas is evaporated by an

Evaporation Systems are used if salts or other high-

external DIABON reboiler (thermosyphon). The

boiling substances have to be removed from HCl

produced gas is subsequently dried in several

solutions. HCl and water are evaporated. The

downstream condensers and a high-performance

waste products are retained in the concentrate.

LICUFLON demister.
To minimize the consumption of steam and cooling

Concentration

water, the hot effluent from the high-pressure

Concentrated hydrochloric acid can be produced

column heats up the cold azeotropic acid from the

from diluted solutions. These hydrochloric acid

low-pressure column (DIABON interchanger).

solutions can be concentrated by distillation to

Moreover, the vacuum column can also be heated

the azeotropic concentration (approx. 20%).

with the hot vapors of the high-pressure column.

Even higher concentrations > 20% can be achieved by means of a

Extractive Distillation System

1) Two-Pressure Distillation System, i.e. shift of

(CaCl2, MgCl2 or H2SO4)

the azeotropic point by pressure change


2) Extractive Distillation System, i.e. shift of the
azeotropic point by adding CaCl2, MgCl2 or

CaCl2, MgCl2 or H2SO4 can be used to modify the


chemical equilibrium in such a way as to enable
selective distillation.

H2SO4.

These processes can also be

Comparison of Systems

used to separate HCl solutions

CaCl2/MgCl2
H2SO4 extractive
extractive distillation distillation

Two-pressure
distillation

Heating
requirement*)

No specific
differences

No specific
differences

Slightly higher
demand

Cooling
requirement

Similar to
two-pressure

Slightly higher
demand

Similar to
CaCl2/MgCl2

Max. pressure

4 bar g

4 bar g

Highest pressure

Extractive agent

CaCl2/MgCl2

H2SO4

None

Process

Crystallization
a serious problem

H2SO4 corrosion

Extended control
& instrumentation

> 20 % into water and HCl


gas or highly concentrated
HCl solutions.

*) for feed solution 18 % HCI, in/out 25 C

10

The feed containing the extractive agent is depleted

If traces of other substances become trapped and

from HCl in the extractive distillation column. This

enriched in the extractive agent circuit or if the

diluted extractive agent solution is reconcentrated

use of these chemicals is undesirable, the preferred


option is to use two-pressure distillation for recov-

in a DIABON evaporation stage and then re-used.

ery of HCl from hydrochloric acid solutions.

Absorption water

H2O to
vacuum pump

Concentrated hydrochloric acid, Condenser


e.g. 33%

HCI

PIC

Steam-jet
vacuum pump

Distillation
column
Waste water

Demister

CaCl2 concentration
stage

FIC

Dilute acid, e.g. 10% HCl

TIC

TIC

Steam
LIC

Recuperator

Steam

FIC
LIC

Tank

Natural circulation
evaporator
Cooler

LIC

Tank
Concentrated CaCl2

CaCl2 + H2O

Production of concentrated hydrochloric acid CaCl2 distillation process

Steam
Steam-jet vacuum pump

H2O

Condenser

Vent gas

PIC

HCl gas
Distillation
column p<1bar

Waste water
Demister

FIC

Dilute acid, e.g. HCl 10 %

TIC

Distillation
column p>1bar

TIC

Steam
Recuperator

LIC

Steam

FIC

Tank

LIC

Natural circulation
evaporator
Cooler

Tank
Concentrated HCl

LIC

Azeotropic HCl

Production of HCl gas Two-pressure distillation process

11

Stripping Processes
Purification of Hydrochloric Acid

Stripping column in DIABON graphite


for purification of hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid or chlorine are used in the production of chlorinated organic chemicals like
methyl chloride. The hydrochloric acid by-product

medium. The temperature is often over 100C so

can be contaminated with undesirable volatile

that DIABON rings or a graphite packing are

constituents such as chlorine or chlorinated organic

used.

substances. These impurities have low boiling

As a result, low-boiling organic substances and a

points and can be removed by stripping or rectifi-

small amount of hydrogen chloride are vaporized.

cation in a single process step.

The purified hydrochloric acid leaves the system at

In this process, the feed stream enters at the top of

the bottom of the column. The stripping medium is

a DIABON or LICUFLON stripping column.

air, live steam or steam produced in an evapora-

Column internals ensure intensive contact between

tor. Overhead vapors can be condensed with

the liquid and the upward-flowing stripping

DIABON heat exchangers in order to separate


recyclable liquid phases.

12

Capacity and available sizes


Our stripping units operate successfully up to a
feed stream of 300 t/h of hydrochloric acid.

Blind flange of a LICUFLON


evaporation vessel

Purified acid

Vent gas

Condenser

Stripping column
TIC

Separator
Hydrochloric acid
LIC
FIC

Untreated
acid

Forced-circulation
evaporator

Organic substances

Pump
LIC

Recuperator

Tank

Pump

HCl stripping process with steam stripping column for purification of hydrochloric acid

13

Sulfuric Acid
Dilution and Concentration of H2SO4
out
Dilution water

Cooling
water
in

FIC

TIC

Acid mixer

Acid cooler

DIC

Dilute acid

Concentrated sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid dilution system

Dilution of sulfuric acid

Advantages

In many sectors of industry, there is a continuous

Chemical industry
(pigment, fertilizer, wholesale trade, etc.)

Sulfuric Acid Dilution Systems with DIABON heat


exchangers produce a homogeneous acid of a

demand for sulfuric acid:

constant quality and temperature.

High safety standard

Steel and metallurgical industry


(pickling, metal refining, etc.)

Automotive industry (batteries)

Concentrated, viscous sulfuric acid (98 99%) is


produced by sulfur burning. However, most technical applications need diluted sulfuric acid.
The sulfuric acid dilution process is very exothermic. After dilution, the temperature can rise up to
180C. Dilution is carried out in a DIABON or
LICUFLON mixing device.
The liquids are pumped by DIABON pumps
through a static mixer or a DIABON multi-pass
heat exchanger to ensure complete mixing.
The dilution can be performed continuously see
flowchart or in a batch process.

14

Complete pre-assembled module for dilution of sulfuric acid and tempering of


electroplating baths

Concentration of sulfuric acid


Sulfuric acid is diluted in many industrial processes
such as gas drying. A concentration system is used
to minimize sulfuric acid waste or recycle concentrated H2SO4.
In graphite equipment, sulfuric acid can be
concentrated up to about 80% in vacuum evaporation. At higher concentration and temperatures
over 170C, the sulfuric acid starts to oxidize
graphite and FLUROSIC silicon carbide can be
used instead.

through a DIABON heat exchanger overheating

The concentration process can be done in a loop

the liquid. Vapor and liquid are separated in an

with natural or forced circulation. A DIABON

evaporation chamber.

pump feeds H2SO4 or forces the sulfuric acid

Alternatively, a DIABON falling-film evaporator


can be used. In this DIABON equipment, vapor
and liquid separate in the bottom outlet chamber

Steam-jet
vacuum pump

of the DIABON heat exchanger.


The process is very energy-intensive. In order to

Steam

save energy, several evaporation stages at differCondenser

ent pressure levels can be used. Two- and threestage Concentration Systems can achieve 45% to
65% lower steam consumption compared to a
single-stage design.
The optimum DIABON equipment maximizes

Evaporator

energy efficiency, improves resource recovery and


LIC

reduces waste.

Tank
TIC

Capacity and available sizes

PIC

Tank

H2SO4 feed

LIC

Sulfuric Acid Dilution Systems have been built for


capacities ranging from 0.5 to 100 m3/h of diluted
H2SO4.

Concentrated
H2SO4
Condensate

Single-stage sulfuric acid concentration


system for low flow rates

15

Exhaust Gas
and Flue Gas
Exhaust gas treatment

Flue gas heat exchanger

Due to the aggressiveness of the substances

DIABON modular heat exchangers for flue gas

involved, corrosion problems can occur in almost

treatment are used in the power generation industry

any process aimed at preventing pollutant emis-

and in waste incineration in combination with wet

sions and recovering harmful substances from

scrubbing processes. In these processes, hot flue

exhaust gases. By combining our expertise in the

gases are cooled to condensation temperature in

field of exhaust gas cleaning and heat recovery

a DIABON heat exchanger, scrubbed, and then

with our range of corrosion-resistant materials, we

reheated in the same heat exchanger.

can offer tailor-made engineering solutions for

Modular heat exchangers are operated as

your particular problem:

gas/gas heat exchangers or as condensers to

Equipment and Systems for cooling and reheat-

achieve proper heat transfer and complete con-

ing flue gases

densation. The saturated flue gases can be cooled

DIABON cooler for very hot gas inlet tempe-

in the condensers below the dew point. DIABON

rature up to 1,000C for water-cooled heat

is an optimum material for such applications, due

exchangers.

to its excellent thermal conductivity.

Systems for recovering heat from the exhaust ga-

The corrosive substances contained in the gases,

ses of larger heating plants.

such as HCl, HF, SO3, and other water-soluble

See also our brochure DIABON Economizers

substances, e.g. Hg, are absorbed in the con-

for Heat Recovery

densing water. As a result, the condensate is very

Equipment and complete Systems for cleaning

corrosive. Since our DIABON heat exchangers are

hydrogen halide-containing exhaust gases and

resistant to almost all concentrations of these

recovering hydrogen halides.

gaseous or condensed substances, there is no risk

DIABON quenchers for cooling and DIABON

of corrosion at material temperatures up to 300C.

absorbers for subsequent absorption of pol-

Damage by pitting, crevice corrosion or stress-

lutants from flue gases and exhaust gases.

corrosion cracking is unknown with DIABON.

Plant components and equipment for thermal


decomposition of waste, including subsequent
exhaust gas cleaning and recovery of acid
components.

DIABON graphite compared to other materials


DIABON

Compared to

Higher temperature tolerance

fluoropolymers
(massive solid, coating, lining)

Diffusion is almost inexistent

fluoropolymers
(massive solid, coating, lining)

Small defects cause no failures

fluoropolymers (coating, lining)


or glass-lined materials

Lower brittleness and sensitivity to shocks

glass and glass-lined materials

Almost universal corrosion resistance*)

metals, fluoropolymer-lined steel


glass, glass-lined materials

*) See our brochure DIABON Graphite for Engineered Process Equipment

16

Specific performance requirements for

In the temperature range in which water

heat exchangers

condenses, the HCl and HF gases present in the

Flue gas heat exchangers used in condensation

flue gases are absorbed as hydrochloric and

processes are therefore classed as heavy-duty


equipment and have to meet very demanding

Combinations of the phenomena described


above can occur during startup and shutdown if

requirements:

hydrofluoric acid respectively.

A leak-tight design must be guaranteed even at

all the temperature ranges are passed through

high temperatures. This requirement is critical

slowly and corrosive vapors flow through the

during startup and shutdown, when the material

heat exchanger.

is subjected to additional stress and attack due


to thermal expansion and corrosive condensates.

In the cooling of flue gases, condensation of sulfuric acid and hence severe corrosion can occur
at temperatures of approx. 160C, resulting in
the destruction of non-resistant materials in the
equipment.

Gas/gas heat exchanger of modular design


fabricated with DIABON graphite
for cooling flue gas with fresh air

17

Characteristics
of Our DIABON Flue Gas Heat Exchangers

Gas/liquid heat exchanger of


modular design in DIABON
graphite for the condensation of
flue gas with cooling water

The sealing between tube and tube sheet must withstand thermal stresses and also be resistant to high
temperatures and corrosion.
This requirement is fully met by the DIABON joining
technique. As the tubes and tube sheets are made
of the same material, variations in temperature

The combustion gases are passed through the in-

have no adverse consequences; no stresses due to

side of the tubes. Owing to the high gas velocity,

thermal expansion arise. The tubes of DIABON

no dust deposition problems occur even if the elec-

heat exchangers are joined to both tube sheets

trostatic dust precipitator fails.

without seals. The ends of the tubes, and the holes

The cleaned gases pass through the shell space of

in the tube sheets, are conical in shape. These con-

the heat exchanger. To ensure trouble-free opera-

ical components are cemented together with an ad-

tion, the gases should be free from salt droplets.

hesive consisting of synthetic resin and DIABON

The steel structure is lined with a resistant material,

cementing powder. The joint produced is gas-tight

which is selected according to the gas composition

and used under normal conditions up to a materi-

and temperature.

al temperature of approx. 200C. If specially im-

Experience shows that flue gas heat exchangers

pregnated material is used, service up to approx.

fabricated from DIABON ensure high operational

300C is possible.

reliability and long service.

18

Quench Process and Recovery


of Hydrochloric Acid
to stack

FIC

FIC

Emergency
water
Absorption water
Absorption column

LIC

FIC

H2O
NaOH
reducing
agent

Alkaline absorption

LIC

AIC

Flue gas
containing HCI
FIC

Salt solution

Waste water
Hydrochloric
acid

Quencher

LIC

Quench process with recovery of


hydrochloric acid in an absorption
column and removal of chlorine

Gases from incineration units often contain considerable amounts of hydrogen chloride and elemental chlorine. To facilitate the treatment of these
exhaust gases in downstream Systems, they must
be reliably cooled to temperatures close to the

Systems made from DIABON graphite fully meet

saturation point (60 90C), either immediately

these requirements. On its way to the stack, the gas

after incineration, after heat recovery in a steam

flows through a DIABON pipe quencher, a

generator or after passing through a DIABON flue

DIABON or LICUFLON absorption column operated

gas heat exchanger. In addition, recycling of the

with fresh water, and finally through an alkaline

HCl gas as industrial-grade hydrochloric acid is

absorption unit for Cl2 removal, which is operated

desirable. Finally, in order to meet the emission re-

with water, NaOH and a reducing agent (e.g.

quirements, any Cl2 present in the flue gases must

Na2SO3).

also be removed.

19

In the DIABON quencher, the top-fed gas causes


evaporation of the circulating liquid. Gas and
liquid flow together through the quenching pipes,
which allow the gases to be quickly and reliably
cooled to temperatures close to the saturation
point. The liquid is circulated by DIABON pumps

complete absorption of hydrochloric acid.

This increases the HCl recovery rate if the temperature of the HCl solution is too high after the

The first absorption column ensures complete


saturation of the gases after quenching and

and can be cooled in a DIABON heat exchanger.

The quencher can be combined with a DIABON

absorption stage.

falling-film absorber for removal of higher heat

In the first absorption column, the HCl gases are

loads (high concentration of HCl in waste gas)

absorbed in counter-current by fresh water. This

or with a DIABON plate heat exchanger in the

column is usually operated at atmospheric pres-

quencher circuit for lower heat loads.

sure. The HCl solution is added to the circulating

integral distillation stage.

(packed section), the inert gases are absorbed in


counter-current by a mixture of water, NaOH and
a reducing agent (e.g. Na2SO3).

In certain cases, high hydrochloric acid concentrations can only be attained by means of an

quenching liquid. In the second absorption column

In subsequent treatment stages, highly pure


hydrochloric acid can be produced by removal
of chlorine or metal salts.

DIABON quench processes for the recovery of


hydrochloric acid can handle different loads
regarding flow, concentrations and waste gas
constituents. The processes comply with the
requirements of all current international emission
regulations.

20

Flue gas scrubbing with DIABON


graphite pipe quencher (installed
height 1.3 m approx.) mounted on a
co-current scrubber. Liquid feed: to
pipes at left, to cooling ring at top

Capacity and available sizes


Quenchers can be fabricated up to very large diameters. This enables very large flue gas flow rates
(up to approx. 200,000 Nm3/h) to be treated in a
single unit. Depending on the chosen design
(e.g. with or without a cooling ring), DIABON
quenchers can be used at temperatures from 150
up to 1,600C.
The obtainable HCl concentration in the recovered
acid depends on the composition of the flue gas.
Normal concentrations are 15 to 30%.

21

Quality Management
and After Sales Service

After Sales Services


Anytime and Everywhere
We take care of our products during the entire
operational lifetime. We aim to provide the best
customer service anytime and everywhere.
Quality Management
E

Continuous quality assurance


is an integral part of the SGL
Group corporate philosophy.
Our quality management system
is certified in accordance with
ISO 9001:2008. In order to
guarantee consistently high
quality to our customers, we work
according to a key performance
indicator orientated quality
management system.

22

Depending on specifications
we are able to meet specific
requirements like the Pressure
Equipment Directive 97/23/EC
Annex III, Module H/H1, AD
2000 Merkblatt N2 as well as
ASME U Stamp, Section VIII,
Part UIG.

E
E
E

 aintenance genuine spare parts supply,


M
failure analysis, repair, field service
Fast emergency support
Start-up assistance
Consulting for continuous improvement

Our service specialists as well as our service centers


work in a global network to support you best.

Process Technology
Our Products

System Solutions
E Syntheses
E Distillation and concentration
E Purification
E Dilution
E Absorption
E Desorption
E Thermal destruction and recycling
E Reactors and converters
E Heat storage
E ...

Equipment Solutions
E Graphite and SiC heat exchangers
shell & tube, block and plate type
E Columns and internals
E Vessels
E Quenchers
E Pumps
E Rupture discs
E PTFE piping and bellows
E PTFE hoses
E ...

After Sales Services


E Maintenance
E Emergency support
E Start-up assistance
E Consulting
E ...

23

Regional Sales & Service Center


Central and East Europe

Asia, Oceania

SGL CARBON GmbH


Werner-von-Siemens-Strae 18
86405 Meitingen/Germany
Phone +49 8271 83-1564
Fax
+49 8271 83-2101
manfredbirle.ptint@sglcarbon.de

SGL CARBON Far East Ltd.


Shanghai
1208, Shanghai Oriental Plaza
31 Wujiang Road/China
Phone +86 21 5211 0333
Fax
+86 21 5211 0085
lancesmith.ptint@sglcarbon.com.cn

South Europe, Middle East,


Africa

India

SGL CARBON Technic S.A.S.


18, Avenue Marcel Cachin
38407 Saint Martin dHeres/France
Phone +33 4 7625 9600
Fax
+33 4 7625 6277
christianriedinger.ptint@fr.sglcarbon.de

SGL CARBON India Pvt. Ltd.


Plot No. E-100, MIDC Ranjangaon
Village: Karegaon, Taluka: Shirur
Dist. Pune - 412 220/India
Phone +91 21 386 122-14
mkbanerjee.ptint@sglcarbon.in

Americas
SGL CARBON Technic, LLC
21945 Drake Road
44149 Strongsville, Ohio/USA
Phone +1 440 572-3600
Fax
+1 440 572-9570
michaelcoscia.ptint@sglcarbon.com

registered trademark of SGL Group companies

04 2012/0 3N Printed in Germany

The data contained herein represent the current state of our product knowledge and are intended to provide general information on our products
and their application spectra. In view of the variety and large number of application possibilities, these data should be regarded merely as general
information that gives no guarantee of any specific properties and/or suitability of those products for any particular application. Consequently,
when ordering a product, please contact us for specific information on the properties required for the application concerned. On request,
our technical service will supply a profile of characteristics for your specific application requirements without delay.

Process Technology
SGL CARBON GmbH
Shnleinstrae 8
65201 Wiesbaden/Germany
www.sgl-processtechnology.com
www.sglgroup.com