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9/7/2015

PIDTuningTutorial

WhatIsPIDTutorialOverview
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PIDstandsforProportional,Integral,Derivative.Controllersaredesignedtoeliminatetheneedforcontinuousoperatorattention.Cruise
controlinacarandahousethermostatarecommonexamplesofhowcontrollersareusedtoautomaticallyadjustsomevariabletohold
themeasurement(orprocessvariable)atthesetpoint.Thesetpointiswhereyouwouldlikethemeasurementtobe.Errorisdefinedas
thedifferencebetweensetpointandmeasurement.
(error)=(setpoint)(measurement)Thevariablebeingadjustediscalledthemanipulatedvariablewhichusuallyisequaltotheoutput
ofthecontroller.TheoutputofPIDcontrollerswillchangeinresponsetoachangeinmeasurementorsetpoint.ManufacturersofPID
controllersusedifferentnamestoidentifythethreemodes.Theseequationsshowtherelationships:
PProportionalBand=100/gain
IIntegral=1/reset(unitsoftime)
DDerivative=rate=preact(unitsoftime)
Dependingonthemanufacturer,integralorresetactionissetineithertime/repeatorrepeat/time.Oneisjustthereciprocaloftheother.
Notethatmanufacturersarenotconsistentandoftenuseresetinunitsoftime/repeatorintegralinunitsofrepeats/time.Derivativeand
ratearethesame.
ChoosingthepropervaluesforP,I,andDiscalled"PIDTuning".FindoutaboutPIDTuningSoftware

ProportionalBand
Withproportionalband,thecontrolleroutputisproportionaltotheerrororachangeinmeasurement(dependingonthecontroller).
(controlleroutput)=(error)*100/(proportionalband)
Withaproportionalcontrolleroffset(deviationfromsetpoint)ispresent.Increasingthecontrollergainwillmaketheloopgounstable.
Integralactionwasincludedincontrollerstoeliminatethisoffset.

Integral
Withintegralaction,thecontrolleroutputisproportionaltotheamountoftimetheerrorispresent.Integralactioneliminatesoffset.
CONTROLLEROUTPUT=(1/INTEGRAL)(Integralof)e(t)d(t)

Noticethattheoffset(deviationfromsetpoint)inthetimeresponseplotsisnowgone.Integralactionhaseliminatedtheoffset.The
responseissomewhatoscillatoryandcanbestabilizedsomebyaddingderivativeaction.(GraphiccourtesyofExperTuneLoop
Simulator.)
Integralactiongivesthecontrolleralargegainatlowfrequenciesthatresultsineliminatingoffsetand"beatingdown"loaddisturbances.
Thecontrollerphasestartsoutat90degreesandincreasestonear0degreesatthebreakfrequency.Thisadditionalphaselagiswhat
yougiveupbyaddingintegralaction.Derivativeactionaddsphaseleadandisusedtocompensateforthelagintroducedbyintegral
action.

Derivative
Withderivativeaction,thecontrolleroutputisproportionaltotherateofchangeofthemeasurementorerror.Thecontrolleroutputis
calculatedbytherateofchangeofthemeasurementwithtime.
dm
CONTROLLEROUTPUT=DERIVATIVE
dt
Wheremisthemeasurementattimet.
Somemanufacturersusethetermrateorpreactinsteadofderivative.Derivative,rate,andpreactarethesamething.
DERIVATIVE=RATE=PREACT
Derivativeactioncancompensateforachangingmeasurement.Thusderivativetakesactiontoinhibitmorerapidchangesofthe
measurementthanproportionalaction.Whenaloadorsetpointchangeoccurs,thederivativeactioncausesthecontrollergaintomove
the"wrong"waywhenthemeasurementgetsnearthesetpoint.Derivativeisoftenusedtoavoidovershoot.
Derivativeactioncanstabilizeloopssinceitaddsphaselead.Generally,ifyouusederivativeaction,morecontrollergainandresetcanbe
used.

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PIDTuningTutorial

WithaPIDcontrollertheamplituderationowhasadipnearthecenterofthefrequencyresponse.Integralactiongivesthecontroller
highgainatlowfrequencies,andderivativeactioncausesthegaintostartrisingafterthe"dip".Athigherfrequenciesthefilteron
derivativeactionlimitsthederivativeaction.Atveryhighfrequencies(above314radians/timetheNyquistfrequency)thecontroller
phaseandamplituderatioincreaseanddecreasequiteabitbecauseofdiscretesampling.Ifthecontrollerhadnofilterthecontroller
amplituderatiowouldsteadilyincreaseathighfrequenciesuptotheNyquistfrequency(1/2thesamplingfrequency).Thecontroller
phasenowhasahumpduetothederivativeleadactionandfiltering.(GraphiccourtesyofExperTuneLoopSimulator.)

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ThetimeresponseislessoscillatorythanwiththePIcontroller.Derivativeactionhashelpedstabilizetheloop.

ControlLoopTuning
Itisimportanttokeepinmindthatunderstandingtheprocessisfundamentaltogettingawelldesignedcontrolloop.Sensorsmustbein
appropriatelocationsandvalvesmustbesizedcorrectlywithappropriatetrim.

Ingeneral,forthetightestloopcontrol,thedynamiccontrollergainshouldbeashighaspossiblewithoutcausingthelooptobe
unstable.ChoosingacontrollergainisaccomplishedeasilywithPIDTuningSoftware
PIDOptimizationArticles

Training

FineTuning"Rules"
Thispicture(fromtheLoopSimulator)showstheeffectsofaPIcontrollerwithtoomuchortoolittlePorIaction.Theprocessistypical
withadeadtimeof4andlagtimeof10.Optimalisred.

Youcanusethepicturetorecognizetheshapeofanoptimallytunedloop.AlsoseetheresponseshapeofloopswithIorPtoohighor
low.Togetyourprocessresponsetocompare,putthecontrollerinmanualchangetheoutput5or10%,thenputthecontrollerbackin
auto.
Pisinunitsofproportionalband.Iisinunitsoftime/repeat.SoincreasingPorI,decreasestheiractioninthepicture.

ExperTune'sFullLibrary

StartingPIDSettingsForCommonControlLoops

LoopType

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PB
%

Integral
min/rep

Integral
rep/min

Derivative
min

ValveType

Flow

50to500

0.005to0.05

20to200

none

LinearorModifiedPercentage

LiquidPressure

50to500

0.005to0.05

20to200

none

LinearorModifiedPercentage

GasPressure

1to50

0.1to50

0.02to10

0.02to0.1

Linear

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9/7/2015

PIDTuningTutorial
LiquidLevel

1to50

1to100

0.1to1

0.01to0.05

LinearorModifiedPercentage

Temperature

2to100

0.2to50

0.02to5

0.1to20

EqualPercentage

Chromatograph

100to2000

10to120

0.008to0.1

0.1to20

Linear

Thesesettingsarerough,assumepropercontrolloopdesign,idealorseriesalgorithmanddonotapplytoallcontrollers.Use
ExperTune'sPIDLoopOptimizertofindtheproperPIDsettingsforyourprocessandcontroller.(FromProcessControlSystems(Shinskey)
p.99andTuningandControlLoopPerformance(McMillan)p39)

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