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Rehab and Educational centre for Blind/Visually impaired people NADIM EL HINDI 20082422 ARP590 | Senior

Rehab and Educational centre for Blind/Visually impaired people

NADIM EL HINDI 20082422

ARP590 | Senior Study | Mrs. Kristine Samra & Dr. Nicolas Gabriel Summer 2015 | FAAD | NOTRE DAME UNIVERSITY

Dedication: I dedicate my dissertation to blind people, especially those living in Lebanon, where they

Dedication:

I dedicate my dissertation to blind people, especially those living in Lebanon, where they struggle in everyday life due to the lack of the governmental support. I also dedicate it to a blind friend that I used to give a ride and listen to his sufferings that he used to face daily.

If I Am Blind

……

It doesn’t Mean You Can’t See Me

Abstract This thesis identifies the obstacles that blind or visually impaired people face in the

Abstract

This thesis identifies the obstacles that blind or visually impaired people face in the Lebanese

society. It goes through their daily struggles in society, either in terms of education and

employment or in lack of health services and transportation facilities. Pointing out the

circular relation, that relates blindness to education and poverty. How a proper education in

early stages could be helpful. Proposing at the end, an educational and rehabilitation center

for blind or visually impaired people, with a detailed program that could help with their

integration in society.

Acknowledgements I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my advisors Mrs Kristine Samra

Acknowledgements

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my advisors Mrs Kristine Samra and Dr. Nicolas Gabriel for the continuous support of my senior study and related research, for their patience, motivation, and immense knowledge. Their guidance helped me in all the time of research and writing of this thesis.

Table of Contents Page Dedications II Abstract III Acknowledgements Table of Contents List of Figures

Table of Contents

Page

Dedications

II

Abstract

III

Acknowledgements Table of Contents List of Figures List of Tables

IV

1. Phase A

: Preliminary Essay

6

2. Phase B

: Annotated review of Related Bibliography

8

3. Phase C

: Identification of the Project

19

4. Phase D

: Site Data + Draft of the Program

23

5. Phase E

: Jury’s Comments

30

6. Phase F

: Personal Approach, Conceptual Sketches

31

Bibliography

41

Phase A Blind people are not really integrated in their communities. They don’t have the

Phase A

Blind people are not really integrated in their communities. They don’t have the same opportunities or access to education, jobs, health services and transportation that other people have.

1

This injustice resulted in forcing these people to stay home, become misanthropists and renounce society. Thus losing their productivity and rely solely on others to serve them instead of creating personal power to be complete morally. Their disability does not inevitably lead to poverty. It is at the point of discrimination that the cycle could be broken. When disabled people are denied educational opportunities, then it is the lack of education, and not their disabilities that limits them. 2 Eighty percent of these people, who are capable of working, are unemployed because of discrimination, according to Imad Al-Hou, chairman of Al-Amal Society for Development and Social Care. In this way, these people are frequently dragged further and further into poverty as a result of exclusion from main stream social, economic and political opportunities throughout their lives.

According to the CRC (Convention on the Rights of the Child), education should help disabled children achieve social integration. Therefore the aim of my project is to understand the needs and requirements of an educational and recreational center for people who are Blind and visually impaired. I intend to design an independent living environment that facilitates the needs of these people by providing them with adequate training programs, living places, medical rehabilitation, job opportunities. Hoping that, such facility would help them achieve effective communication, social competence, employability, and personal independence. “Real possibilities exist for properly trained blind people” 3

The selection of the site should be taking into consideration 3 main point. First, the Facilities that are provided near the center. Second the Accessibility to the center and third, the Environment surrounding the center. The reasons behind choosing Monot as a location of the site are:

- It is an urban setting where different types of facilities exist in (commercial, residential, industrial, public spaces…). This makes it easier for them to integrate with the community.

- Several institutions are located in the region of Beirut which makes it easier for the community and the center to work together.

- The site is near Usj campus which helps with students’ integration.

- Monot is known by its historical arts and crafts. This give the chance to blind and visually impaired

people to revival this part of Monot in the workshops present in the center.

- This region is also near to different hospitals where in our case physical accidents might appear.

- Beirut the capital of Lebanon has always been the interface of the country and having this type of center

in the capital, which cares about the Blind people, will improve this interface and whereby other region will be going to follow.

1 Coleridge, P. (2006). Disability, Liberation, and Development (4th ed., p. 237). Oxfam.

2 Peters, S. (2009). Review of marginalization of people with disabilities in Lebanon, Syria and Jordan

3 Omvig, J. (2005). FREEDOM FOR THE BLIND THE SECRET IS EMPOWERMENT (p. 143). NFB.

Target User: • Person who become Blind or Visually Impaired because of road accident. •

Target User:

• Person who become Blind or Visually Impaired because of road accident.

• Person with physiological trauma and psychological trauma resulting from physical injury.

• Person who become Blind or Visually Impaired because of war.

• Person who born Blind or Visually Impaired.

Proposed Program:

Education:

- Information center

- Braille Library

- Classes

- Workshops

- Multi-sensory artworks

Rehabilitation:

- Physiotherapy Unit

- Therapy Garden

- Rehabilitation Ward

- Sense Training

- Social Skills

Leisure:

- Sports Hall

- Multipurpose room

- Swimming pool

- Park - Gathering area

Administration / Profit:

- Offices

- Retails

- Counseling

- Exhibition Gallery

Intention:

Vision is the most common form of communication in architecture. The other senses are unfortunately neglected. Therefore, the intent of my project is to create an architectural design that will be remembered for its Sensory Experiences and not for its visual aesthetics or appeal. Redefining architecture to fit with different senses and not creating machines to facilitate.

Phase B

REFERENCES ON Blind / Visually impaired People in Lebanon

REFERENCES ON Blind / Visually impaired People in Lebanon Atallah, T. (n.d.). “Are the Blind Community

Atallah, T. (n.d.). “Are the Blind Community and the Global Community Opposed?” [Personal interview].

CATEGORY: Interview: informative, Personal experience KEYWORDS: Blind community, Rehabilitation, Isolation

ABSTRACT:

In the interview Tony Atallah explains how there is no difference between the blind community and the global community. But there is one community and the blind are integral part of it. Tony also explains in detail some of the reasons behind this artificial differentiation between the blind community and the global one.

QUOTATION(S):

“The character of the blind person is the first main factor in allowing the integration of the blind in the society or their unsociability for the aforementioned reasons.”

“Limited jobs are allowed for the blind who work for example in telephone centers, in the radiology department in hospitals, particularly in the darkrooms, as lottery ticket sellers and in the straw and wool crafts”

“They rarely get third-category jobs or work as university professors. In general, they are stuck in the fourth-category jobs and by custom, are forbidden from being employed in the first-category jobs.”

“There are little advanced technologies, especially in Lebanon, for the integration of the blind among the normally sighted people.”

RELEVANCE TO THE PROBLEMATIC AT HAND:

This source will help me understand the needs of blind people in Lebanon. How they are stuck in a third category jobs while according to the law, nothing prevents a blind from getting such jobs, but this normal right is denied to them by customs. And many others and how these needs prohibit the integration of the blind with their community. …………

Peters, S. (2009). Review of marginalization of people with disabilities in Lebanon, Syria and Jordan

CATEGORY: Report: informative, case study KEYWORDS: Disability, Society, Lebanon

ABSTRACT: Using a social exclusion conceptual framework, this paper identifies several causes of marginalization of

ABSTRACT:

Using a social exclusion conceptual framework, this paper identifies several causes of marginalization of people with disabilities in the context of the MENA region. Focusing on Lebanon, Syria and Jordan, the incidence, prevalence, causes and characteristics of people with disabilities are reported. The educational experiences of children and youth with disabilities from early childhood through secondary school are described. Findings from these experiences are used to recommend strategies to address exclusionary policies and practices in order to promote inclusion. Strategies focus on legislation and policies, as well as addressing cultural and structural barriers through specific interventions

QUOTATION(S):

“Marginalization connotes a vision of being sidelined from participating in an activity, or, in other words, being able to participate, but at the margins.”

“Within the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, educational systems exclude more than 95% of the disabled schoolage population at the primary level.”

“Finally, there is a circular relation between poverty, disability, and education.”

“Among the most serious obstacles are negative attitudes towards the disabled, which affect both the school participations and the selfconfidence of disabled children.

RELEVANCE TO THE PROBLEMATIC AT HAND:

This source provides me with some statistical data concerning the disabled people in Lebanon and more specifically the percentage of blind people. It also backs up my idea by analyzing the relation between disability, poverty and education. And shows us how education and rehabilitation help the disabled people to get more integrated in their society.

…………

Thomas, E., Lakkis, S., & Al-Jadeeda, T. (9). Disability and livelihoods in Lebanon.

CATEGORY: Report: case study KEYWORDS: disability, livelihoods, Lebanon, residential institutions, education

ABSTRACT:

In 2002 the Lebanese Physically Handicapped Union (LPHU) conducted a study of 200 graduates of institutions for disabled people, to find out if institutions help disabled people enjoy their rights in the areas of education and employment, as set out in Lebanon’s laws on disability rights and education law. It looked at the experience of 200 graduates of institutions for disabled people, aged between 14 and 40. Special institutions for disabled children are common in Lebanon, although local and international evidence indicates that these institutions undermine children’s rights. The study showed that disabled people are one of several groups paying the price for Lebanon’s current economic policies. These economic policies, sponsored by the Lebanese government and international donors, often prioritise growth over fairness. Effective solutions for disabled people in Lebanon could lead to improvements in the lives of people from other marginal groups.

QUOTATION(S): “Disabled people have rights to education and to support in getting appropriate employment.” “In

QUOTATION(S):

“Disabled people have rights to education and to support in getting appropriate employment.”

“In Lebanon, disabled children don’t get the education they deserve and disabled adults go on to fail in the labor market.”

“The obstacles to disabled people’s rights are rooted deep in systems of education, social welfare and labor market structures.”

“Disabled people have very low incomes.”

RELEVANCE TO THE PROBLEMATIC AT HAND:

This source backs up my idea that emphasizes on the right of blind and visually impaired people to have a proper education that helps them integrate more in their society by entering the labor market and being economically stable.

…………

Armstrong, M. (2012). Blind students in Lebanon struggle to overcome educational segregation. Daily Star, 4-6.

CATEGORY: Journal: article KEYWORDS: Blind, Students, Education, Lebanon

ABSTRACT:

This article goes into several visits to some institutions for blind visually impaired people and point out on how these people struggle to overcome educational segregation.

QUOTATION(S):

“Nobody can deny the positive role that specialized schools have played in the absence of new government initiatives”

“Implementing integration “requires a total shift in the social concept in the entire education system; facilities need to be improved and staff trained you can’t shift from isolation to integration overnight.”

RELEVANCE TO THE PROBLEMATIC AT HAND:

This source backs up my idea that emphasizes on the right of blind and visually impaired people to have a proper education that helps them integrate more in their society. How the place of the project also plays big role in this segregation and how it helps to develop the interaction with the community.

…………

Coleridge, P. (2006). Disability, Liberation, and Development (4th ed., p. 237). Oxfam.

CATEGORY: Book: informative, case study KEYWORDS: Disability, social action, development, Lebanon

ABSTRACT: This book is an attempt to make a personal examination of some of the

ABSTRACT:

This book is an attempt to make a personal examination of some of the social, political, and developmental aspects of disability, as they are encountered in a few widely differing developing countries.

QUOTATION(S):

“Is this all? Just rehabilitation exercises, and eating and sleep? Isn’t there anything else? ” p 187

“Disability is perceived as a medical problem. Funding for medical rehabilitation, which does not address the long-term or social needs of disabled people, is the easiest to obtain” p 190

“Things get done and jobs secured through personal contacts and favors, rather than through a system based on rights or objective principles.” p 191

“It has been a tradition in Lebanon that blind people can work as telephone operators in banks and government departments. But as Mu’nis Abdel Wahhab, a blind person from Tripoli, points out:

This is done on the basis of pity, not rights. These people have no job security, they are not properly integrated into the employment system.” p 192

“As’ad Daud, a blind from Sidon: You cannot give disabled people their rights by giving them money. I cannot solve the problems of a disabled person by giving him 3 million dollars. That amount of money does not defend him. What defends him is his job, his work. If he has a job, he is living proof that he is a human being like everyone else. One has to depend on oneself to the greatest extent possible. Disabled people have to work hard to get jobs.” p 193

RELEVANCE TO THE PROBLEMATIC AT HAND:

This source will help me understand how hard it is on blind people to find jobs that they think they fit in because they are capable of and not as a result of pity. It shows me the need of blind people to be educated in order to be integrated in the job opportunities. And therefore backing up my idea of an educational and recreational center for blind people to become skillful in order to help them get suitable jobs, for them to be self-supporting, and reach the best social and economical inclusion in their societies.

…………

Tannoury, W. (2003). Enhancing Business Community Relations.

CATEGORY: Report: informative, case study KEYWORDS: Disability, Rights, Society, Lebanon

ABSTRACT:

This case study is one of ten that was chosen as part of the Enhancing Business Community Relations Project. The purpose of this study is to document successful experiences as learning tools in the field of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Lebanon. Mimosa was chosen as a case study due to its efforts in supporting its community and most importantly in their application and support of Law No. 220 which secures basic rights to disabled individuals, among them the right for employment.

QUOTATION(S): “It’s a privilege f or an organization to employ us, because we are used

QUOTATION(S):

“It’s a privilege for an organization to employ us, because we are used to dealing with and overcoming struggles - a skill that can make or break a company.”

“We need financial donations from companies, but what we need more is for companies to take steps and realize their responsibility toward their community and most importantly, to employ people with disabilities just like they would employ others. We have wonderful skills and abilities that we are ready to put to wonderful use if only we are given the chance. I guarantee any company t they won't be disappointed with the results

RELEVANCE TO THE PROBLEMATIC AT HAND:

This source helped me understand the benefits of employing disabled individuals in companies. How it plays a role in integrating them in the community and helping them to be productive and economically stable. Therefore, this backs up the idea of training blind people to be ready to enter the work field which is a way to integrate in the community.

…………

Kassak, K., Chaya, M., & Hourani, T. (1997). National survey of blindness and low vision in Lebanon. British Journal of Ophthalmology, (81), 905-906. doi:10.1136

CATEGORY: Journal: Survey KEYWORDS: Blindness, Low Vision, Lebanon

ABSTRACT:

Aim is to survey level of blindness and low vision in Lebanon. Methods a population survey was undertaken in 10 148 individuals to measure the prevalence and identify the causes of blindness in Lebanon. In the results, the prevalence of blindness was 0.6% and that of low vision 3.9%. The major causes of blindness were cataract (41.3%) and uncorrected large refractive error (12.6%). As a conclusion the most causes of blindness in Lebanon can be controlled by various educational and medical programs.

QUOTATION(S):

“20 years of civil war; a large number of motor vehicle accidents (Speed limits are not enforced, and most motorcycle riders do not wear helmets); and poor safety conditions at work lead to an increase in our average of blind and low vision people”

“For Lebanon in 1995 the rate of low vision would be around 2%”

RELEVANCE TO THE PROBLEMATIC AT HAND:

This source helped me to know the number of blind and low vision people and how they are distributed in Lebanon according to regions. This backs up my choice concerning the location of the site.

…………

Lakkis, S. (2015). Lebanon: Disability and Access to Information. Free Word Centre. CATEGORY: Report: informative,

Lakkis, S. (2015). Lebanon: Disability and Access to Information. Free Word Centre.

CATEGORY: Report: informative, case study KEYWORDS: Disability, Rights, Society, Lebanon

ABSTRACT:

Persons with disabilities face complex barriers to achieving their rights, and the CRPD represents an important attempt to overcome those barriers. The CRPD has extended and reformulated many human rights, incorporating concrete measures from existing human rights that ensure that the convention’s principles accessibility, non-discrimination, inclusion, and respect for dignity and evolving capacity are put into practice.

QUOTATION(S):

“In 2014, the ministry said there were 95,618 persons with disabilities in Lebanon. Over half – 55.1 percent had motor (kinaesthetic) disabilities; 28.4 percent had mental disabilities; 8.7 percent had hearing or speech disabilities; and 7.8 percent had visual disabilities.”

“A disproportionately large number of children with disabilities and many adults with disabilities in Lebanon live in residential institutions that separate them from families, and isolate them from participation in everyday life.”

RELEVANCE OF THIS PAPER TO THE PROBLEMATIC AT HAND:

This source helped me conclude the need for educational center for blind people, due to the comparison between the number of institutions and the number of blind people in Lebanon. It also helped in showing the negative impact of residential institutions on the disabled people which gave me an idea about the program that I should implement in order to maintain on the relation between the blind people and their community.

…………

REFERENCES ON Blind / Visually impaired People internationally

Newberry, F. (1993). THE BLIND CHILD: BECOMING AN INDEPENDENT ADULT. Future Reflections, 12(2), 2-8.

CATEGORY: Magazine: article KEYWORDS: Acceptance, Attitude, Development

ABSTRACT:

We tend to think of public education campaigns in terms of news stories and catchy television and radio spots “and we have our share of those” the heart of the Federation campaign has been, and still is, carried out quietly in the homes and communities of thousands of Federation members. Striving to live normal lives, even when opportunities have been scarce and expectations low, blind Federationists throughout the decades have been educating those around them about a new way of thinking about blindness. Slowly, we have built a foundation of ordinary sighted members of the

public who have, because of their personal contact with the Federation and ordinary blind persons,

public who have, because of their personal contact with the Federation and ordinary blind persons, embraced the notion that blindness can be reduced to a physical nuisance. This, in turn, has led to greater acceptance of the blind on the job and in the community.

QUOTATION(S):

“Rid the public of the notion that blindness necessarily means a life of unrelieved tragedy, dependency, helplessness, and inferiority; and replace it with an understanding that with proper training and opportunity, blind people can live equal, productive, and fulfilling lives right alongside their sighted neighbors and friends.”

“A child who is blind can become a completely independent adult.”

“While the degree of a child's blindness will dictate the amount of different approaches needed to solve his needs.”

“Blind children who are given the opportunity to develop good motor ability, orientation, and independence will become adults who can get about independently and adapt and orient themselves in new situations.”

RELEVANCE TO THE PROBLEMATIC AT HAND:

This article shows the importance of recreational centers on blind and visually impaired people. It shows how education plays a role in integrating these people in their society and helping them to be more independent.

…………

J. Carroll, T. (2008). Blindness: What it is, what it does, and how to live with it (p. 382). Little, Brown.

CATEGORY: Book: Health and Fitness KEYWORDS: Blind, Feelings, Braille, Segregation

ABSTRACT:

This book, written in two parts, identifies the many losses associated with the loss of vision, followed by discussing solutions to addressing these losses. It is the premise upon which Fr. Carroll based the St Paul's Rehabilitation Training Program, a nationally recognized model program, where newly blinded adults would make their personal adjustment to living with blindness.

QUOTATION(S):

“If a blinded person is to continue to appreciate objects visually, they must be brought to him through description or through his other senses or through a combination of description and sense intake. Thus he could, for example, come to appreciate a piece of sculpture visually.” p 181

“Learning braille simply means mastering a fairly simple skill” p 154

“I believe that the newly blinded person can maintain his visual memories. On the other

“I believe that the newly blinded person can maintain his visual memories. On the other hand, unless he does make use of his powers of visualization, he may well lose his sense of visual form, shape and perspective, just as we know he can allow himself to lose his memory of color.” p 181

“The work to be done in rehabilitation center is to return the blinded person to his or her society.” p 97

“If he does not have the necessary qualifications, he will have to llok elsewhere and perhaps completely reorient his vocational goal.” p 205

RELEVANCE TO THE PROBLEMATIC AT HAND:

This source will help me understand the different stages and types of blind people and how to deal with each case. Also how blind people should work on themselves to reach the needed qualifications for them to start integrating in their societies, by finding jobs.

…………

Holbrook, C., & Koenig, A. (Eds.). (2003). History and Theory of teaching children and youths with visual impairments (2nd ed., p. 397). AFB Press.

CATEGORY: Book: Literature, Theories KEYWORDS: Student, Vision, Braille, Blind

ABSTRACT:

This book sets out information based on history as well as theory and principles, based on history as well as theory and principles, reflecting a belief that if we do not fully understand and learn from where we have been, we will be at a great disadvantage determining where we need to go. This book provides a comprehensive compilation including both fundamental theory and specific methodology on teaching visually impaired students in all areas.

QUOTATION(S):

“Unfortunately, many society still hold negative and devaluating attitudes toward blindness and visual impairments. A visual impairment may, at times, affect a person’s ability to initiate and participate in social relationships.” p 171

“Children with visual impairments can and do develop positive and wholesome attitudes toward themselves and others, despite the prevailing negative and devaluing attitudes often encountered in society” p 161

“Some would prefer to separate, protect, and educate children who are visually impaired without acknowledging the fundamental right of every person to be a fully participating member of society.” p 163

RELEVANCE TO THE PROBLEMATIC AT HAND:

This source will help me understand the philosophical way of thinking regarding who to teach children who are visually impaired and the theories applied in such case. How to help these people overcome the discrimination of their societies and bounce back with a goal in mind which is getting along with the society and try to integrate with the community.

…………

Castellano, C. (2004, September 16). A Brief Look At The Education Of Blind Children. Future

Castellano, C. (2004, September 16). A Brief Look At The Education Of Blind Children. Future Reflections, 5-7.

CATEGORY: Magazine: article KEYWORDS: Education, Blind, Sense, Student

ABSTRACT:

The following article is exactly what the title says it is a brief, simplistic look at how blind children are educated in the United States today. We know that parents and teachers often have to explain over and over to friends, family members, and even school administrators and other school personnel, about the unique aspects of education for blind/ visually impaired children. We hope this article will make that task a little easier.

QUOTATION(S):

“Blind/visually impaired students have the same academic and developmental goals as sighted students of equal cognitive ability.”

“Making friends and having normal social interaction with peers is not always easy for the blind child.”

“Encourage the child to use tactual techniques.”

“Sighted people often hold dismal ideas about blindness and the abilities of blind people. They may not know any competent, successful blind adults and cannot imagine how anyone can achieve good results without eyesight!”

RELEVANCE TO THE PROBLEMATIC AT HAND:

This article shows how easier it is for educated blind and visually impaired to integrate in their societies. It gives also ideas of how to train these people in order to communicate with their community and feel themselves as part of it. It also explains how such programs can affect the people in society to accept blind and visually impaired people between them.

…………

Omvig, J. (2005). FREEDOM FOR THE BLIND THE SECRET IS EMPOWERMENT (p. 143). NFB.

CATEGORY: Book: Philosophy KEYWORDS: Blind, Empowerment, Experience

ABSTRACT:

In this book Mr. Omvig brings together the best of rehabilitation practice with the wisdom and experience of countless blind people who, through their own lives, faced and overcame the social and economic barriers arising from myths and misunderstanding about blindness. His book speaks eloquently to the point that the renaissance in the rehabilitation of the blind is not the product of our technology nor of our science, but rather has emerged out of the collective will of tens of thousands of blind people to live full, normal, productive lives.

QUOTATION(S): “Rehabilitation is not somethi ng that is done "to" a blind person or "for"

QUOTATION(S):

“Rehabilitation is not something that is done "to" a blind person or "for" a blind person, but "with" the blind person.” p 6

“People "CAN" change what they think about blindness and about the kind of life they can expect to live as blind people.” p 26

“Real possibilities exist for properly trained blind people.” p 59

“Blind are perceived generally in our society as inferiors--as a minority” p 61

RELEVANCE TO THE PROBLEMATIC AT HAND:

This source provides me with a philosophy of how blind people think and backed up with testimonies of blind people and their experiences in life. This book talks about the reasons behind this discrimination of blind people in their societies and gives us several instructions that might work in integrating the visually impaired people with their community. This is why I see that it has a direct link to my thesis where the purpose is to try to reach this integration.

…………

Taylor, J. (2012). Educating Students With Visual Impairments for Inclusion in Society.

CATEGORY: Website: article KEYWORDS: Education, Blind, Society

ABSTRACT:

Students with visual impairments need an educational system that meets the individual needs of ALL students, fosters independence, and is measured by the success of each individual in the school and community. Vision is fundamental to the learning process and is the primary basis upon which most traditional education strategies are based. Students who are visually impaired are most likely to succeed in educational systems where appropriate instruction and services provided in a full array of program options by qualified staff to address each student's unique educational needs, as required by Public Law 101-476, The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).

QUOTATION(S):

“A child with a severe visual loss can directly experience only what is within arm's reach and can be safely touched, and in most cases, what can be heard.”

“It is important to remember that education goals for students with visual impairments are essentially the same as those for all students. The goals are: effective communication, social competence, employability, and personal independence.”

“Students with visual impairments have the right to an appropriate education.”

“Students with visual impairments can and do succeed, but at different rates and often in different sequences. There must be significant intervention, coordinated by an educational team to ensure that appropriate development does occur.”

RELEVANCE TO THE PROBLEMATIC AT HAND:

This article shows how important are the recreational centers on visually impaired people. How it plays a role in pointing out the skills of these people and developing these skills. Doing so, blind and visually impaired people will have the tools to succeed and play a specific role in their society. …………

and play a specific role in their society. ………… Hartmann, C. (2012, October 13). What Is

Hartmann, C. (2012, October 13). What Is It Like to Be Blind? [Online interview].

CATEGORY: Online Interview KEYWORDS: Blind, Sight, Experience

ABSTRACT:

Cristina Hartman responds in her interview to several questions like: What the Blind See, how the blind read, how people treat you, the Emotional Side of Losing One's Vision

QUOTATION(S):

“The truth is that there are infinite ways to be legally blind.”

“People describing things in terms of color gives you an idea, but it is still based on your thoughts and not what color really is.”

“The younger you are when you go blind, the easier and more normal it feels.”

“People can describe things to you, and it helps because you do have a solid reference to it.”

RELEVANCE OF THIS PAPER TO THE PROBLEMATIC AT HAND:

This personal experience helps me understand how blind or visually impaired people think and react to their surroundings. How the surrounding designs can affect their daily life. This gave me an idea on how small details can make these people feel more comfortable and which is not yet present in our society.

…………

Phase C Sight is the most developed sense in the human brain and is our

Phase C

Sight is the most developed sense in the human brain and is our main tool for the perception of the world around us. 4 We all have experienced the feeling of a power blackout when a couple of minutes seem so long and mobility becomes nearly impossible. Some people have either not been blessed with the sense of vision upon birth, or have lost that gift due to an accident. For them, the total blackout that we only experience for a minute is a daily struggle especially in a country that is very poorly equipped with the necessities that they need to lead a normal life.

And as if that is not enough, in our Lebanese society, blind people are not well integrated in their communities mostly due to the lack of governmental support, and in some cases, due to social discrimination. They don’t have the same opportunities or access to education, jobs, health services and transportation that other people have (Hourani, 1997). This injustice resulted in forcing these people to stay home, become misanthropists and renounce society. Thus losing their productivity and rely solely on others to serve them instead of developing their self-reliance. “The obstacles to blind people’s rights are rooted deep in systems of education, social welfare and labor market structures” 5

This problem starts in early stages, where attending proper education will surely help getting appropriate employment later on, which in turn leads to their social integration and their financial and physical independence. But unfortunately in Lebanon, blind people don’t get the level of education they deserve, and thus fail to succeed in the labor field, knowing that blind and visually impaired people share the same right of education and have the same academic and developments goals as sighted students of equal cognitive ability. This discrimination against their right of education is leading to very limited jobs that are granted to them either by pity or through connections. (Castellano, 2004). “They are stuck in the fourth-category jobs and by custom, are forbidden from being employed in the first-category job.” 6 As if it has been a tradition in Lebanon that blind/visually impaired people can work as telephone operators in banks and government departments. But as Mu’nis Abdel Wahhab, a blind person from Tripoli, points out: “This is done on the basis of pity, not rights. These people have no job security;

4 Zamora, Antonio. "Anatomy and Structure of Human Sense Organs." Scientific Psychic. Scientific Psychic, 12 Jan. 2015. Web. 24 July 2015. 5 Thomas, E., Lakkis, S., & Al-Jadeeda, T. (2005). Disability and livelihoods in Lebanon.

6 Atallah, T. (n.d.). “Are the Blind Community and the Global Community Opposed?” [Personal interview].

they are not properly integrated into the employment system” 7 . Asaad Daud, a resident

they are not properly integrated into the employment system” 7 . Asaad Daud, a resident of Sidon who was born blind, added that you cannot give disabled people their rights by giving them money; “I cannot solve the problems of a disabled person by giving him 3 million dollars, that amount of money does not defend him, what defends him is his job, his work. If he has a job, he is living proof that he is a human being like everyone else. One has to depend on oneself to the greatest extent possible”. (Coleridge, 2006, p 193). But in my opinion, it should be a privilege for an organization to employ blind/visually impaired people neither as a result of pity nor connections, because they are used to deal with and overcome struggles, a skill that can make or break a company. This indicates the importance of employment for blind and visually impaired people and how their jobs insure a good independent living, social integration, and a promising future…And all of that could be achieved from the beginning, by a proper education and rehabilitation program that will facilitate and open up to better job opportunities and easier social integration.(Tannoury,

2003)

We should also be aware of a circular relation between poverty, blindness and education.8 Their disability does not inevitably lead to poverty. It is at the point of discrimination that the cycle could be broken. When blind/visually impaired people are denied educational opportunities, then it is the lack of education, and not their disabilities that limits them. Eighty percent of these people, who are capable of working, are unemployed because of discrimination or lack of education, according to Imad Al-Hou, chairman of Al-Amal Society for Development and Social Care. In this way, these people are frequently dragged further and further into poverty as a result of exclusion from main stream social, economic and political opportunities throughout their lives.

Therefore the aim of my project is to understand the needs and requirements of an educational and rehabilitation center for people who are blind or visually impaired. To design an independent living environment that facilitates the needs of these people by providing them with adequate training programs, living spaces, physical rehabilitation, job opportunities… As Taylor .J mentions in his article, talking about the importance of education for visually impaired people: “It is important to remember that education goals for students with visual impairments are essentially the same as those for all students. The goals are: effective communication, social competence,

7 Coleridge, P. (2006). Disability, Liberation, and Development (4th ed., p. 237). Oxfam

8 Peters, S. (2009). Review of marginalization of people with disabilities in Lebanon, Syria and Jordan

employability, and personal independence.” 9 Hoping that my project would guide these people to achieve

employability, and personal independence.” 9 Hoping that my project would guide these people to achieve these points and integrate them into the community and live safely at home with or without assistance. Newberry also stresses in his article in “Future Reflections” magazine, on the importance of educating blind or visually impaired people by saying that: “Blind/visually impaired children who are given the opportunity of education, to develop good motor ability, orientation, and independence will become adults who can get about independently and adapt and orient themselves in society10 .

The role of the rehabilitation part in my project is also to train blind/visually impaired people to be able to interact with their society. Caroll .J in her book talking about blindness and the important role of rehabilitation says: “The work to be done in rehabilitation center is to return the blind or visually impaired person to his or her society. It is not something that is done “to” a blind person or “for” a blind person, but “with” a blind person, together to achieve success”. 11 Also Omvig in his book “Freedom for the blind: The secret is empowerment”, states that real possibilities exist for properly trained blind people. Emphasizing on the role of education and rehabilitation that will open up to more effective possibilities.(Omvig, 2005, p 59) 12 .

Going through architecture, it is fundamentally about crafting the human experience and the human experience is not just visual, it is also multi-sensory. Sensory design has been an under- utilized element of architectural design. Traditionally, the approach to the senses has been static and passive, regarding each sense modality as independent, but treating auditory, tactile, haptic, gustatory and olfactory senses as secondary to the visual and more often neglected.(Smith, 2014). Therefore, I intent to create an architectural design that will be remembered for its sensory experiences more than its visual aesthetics or appeal. Redefining architecture to fit with different senses and not creating machines only as shelters. According to Caroll J , in her book “Blindness:

What it is, what It does, and how to live with it” mentions how important is for a blind person to use other senses than vision, to help him perceive objects visually by a different matter. She says:

If a blinded person is to continue to appreciate objects visually, they must be brought to him

9 Taylor, J. (2012). Educating Students With Visual Impairments for Inclusion in Society. 10 Newberry, F. (1993). THE BLIND CHILD: BECOMING AN INDEPENDENT ADULT. Future Reflections, 12(2), 2-8.

11 J. Carroll, T. (2008). Blindness: What it is, what it does, and how to live with it (p. 382). Little, Brown.

12 Omvig, J. (2005). FREEDOM FOR THE BLIND THE SECRET IS EMPOWERMENT (p. 143). NFB.

through description or through his other senses or through a combination of description and sense

through description or through his other senses or through a combination of description and sense intake. 13

.

The selection of the site took into consideration 3 main points. First, the Facilities that are provided near the center. Second the Accessibility to the center and third, the Environment surrounding the center. On the macro level, Beirut encounters around 2500 blind or visually impaired people with no official educational or rehabilitation center in the region that can fulfill their needs (Lakkis, 2015). But several institutions dedicated to blind and visually impaired individuals are present in the region of Beirut which makes the community present there, more prepared than others in other regions.

On the micro level, the Monot district in the Ashrafieh area, is considered an urban setting where different types of facilities exist (commercial, residential, industrial, public spaces…), which makes it easier for them to participate in everyday life and have the opportunity to interact with different types of facilities in the community (Bishop, 2006, p260). Furthermore, Monot was once known for its historical arts and crafts production, which gives blind and visually impaired people the chance to revive this part of Monot in the workshops present in the center.”Arts and crafts experiences can help to refine hand or finger skill, as well as satisfy the urge to “make something” (Bishop, 2006, p144). Adding to that, the site is near an educational campus, where students of the center can benefit from that fact and build connections with other sighted students, which could serve as a start for a merge between these two educational systems. According to Hyam Fakhoury’s view, a spokeswoman for the Ministry of Social Affairs: “no one ever wanted to marginalize [the blind], but [marginalization] is a consequence of there being no alternative.” For her, implementing integration “requires a total shift in the social concept in the entire education system; facilities need to be improved and staff trained – you can’t shift from isolation to integration overnight.” (Daily star, 2012).

13 J. Carroll, T. (2008). Blindness: What it is, what it does, and how to live with it (p. 382). Little, Brown.

Phase D 23

Phase D

Phase D 23
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  Phase E    Program is vague  Site justification Dr. Christine Mady 
 

Phase E

 

Program is vague

Site justification

Dr. Christine Mady

“Imagine”

Please contact Mr. Massoud Habib

 

Site choice is not justified

Accessibility etc

Dr. Jeanpierre Al Asmar

Sensory Elements vs Context

Space perception vs Visually imp

 

Spatial approach ?

Dr. Hani Zgheib

Not only texture and materials

Ms. Dina Baroud

 

X

Phase F Multi-Sensorial Architecture Seeking Perception Beyond the Visual Modern design’s focus on visual perception

Phase F

Multi-Sensorial Architecture Seeking Perception Beyond the Visual

Modern design’s focus on visual perception of space has created a disconnection between the body and the

sensory experience. This issue is emphasized by the contemporary lifestyle where physical engagement is

secondary the vast amounts of information received through retinal imagery. Multi-sensorial design allows

for an interpretation and an engagement with an environment rather than taking it for what it appears to be.

The visually impaired were chosen as a frame to view the design opportunities that are possible with non-

ocular sensory perception and discover ways to allow this experience to lead to an inclusive creation of

architectural space.

Since the nineteenth century, multi-sensory design has been advocated for as a counter to ocular centrism in

the perception of architectural spaces. Ocularcentrism, or dominance of the eye, has led to the design of

spaces that do not fully utilize the other senses. Finnish architect and Professor Juhani Pallasmaa states,

Modernist design has housed the intellect and the eye, but it has left the body and the other senses, as well

as memories and dreams, homeless.” 14 By designing for haptic and auditory perception, architects can create

a spatial awareness, clarity, and engagement that allows for a building to move past its purely functional

program and towards an active experiential quality. This study has been framed by concentrating on the

visually impaired, who have an intimate connection to architectural space and the non-visual senses, as

compared to the sighted. 15

14 Juhani Pallasmaa, The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses, 3 ed. (New York: Wiley, 2012), 35

15 Jasmien Herssens “Haptic Design Research: A Blind Sense of Place,” Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Press (2011),

http://www.aia.org/aiaucmp/groups/aia/documents/pdf/aiab087187.pdf

Perception Comprehension of a place relies not only on the sensation (the flow of data

Perception

Comprehension of a place relies not only on the sensation (the flow of data received through the sensory

organs), but also through perception (the data after it has been processed and interpreted). 16 A full spatial

understanding cannot be achieved using visual cues alone, but must draw upon the understanding of

“sensation and perception” together. People should “build up the shape of the world rather than recognizing

it as the source, which stares into the face.” 17 Ultimately, people become more knowledgeable about

architectural spaces through individual experience and engagement. Haptic perception is the result of the

information our skin receives from the surroundings environment resulting in the understanding of tactile,

thermal, kinetic and pressure properties. For instance, Herseens states that haptic exploration allows

individuals to focus on particular points of specific information throughout a space, whereas vision gives a

simplistic overall understanding just by turning the head. 18 According to Pallasmaa, an individual’s sense of

reality becomes strengthened and articulated through the constant interaction of the senses. 19 Humans

experience three different kinds of sensory response: involuntary immediate physical response, a response

conditioned through prior knowledge of its source, and a remembered sensation, which can reconstruct a

past response. 20 A much deeper subconscious understanding of spatial interaction should be considered

when designing spaces. Blindness or visual impairment serves as a means to critique the visual dominance

that exists in architectural design and works in the direction of a multi-sensorial experience.

Engaging Touch

Haptic qualities of material can create a spatial sensory construct through physical qualities such as tactility,

density, elasticity (resistance to pressure applied) and weight as well as sensory qualities such as color,

texture, pattern, and temperature. 21 Hapticity plays a major role in non-visual perception of space, and can

also enhance the spatial experience for the sighted. Unlike the other senses, haptic body movement enables

16 Malnar and Vodvarka, Sensory Design, 21

17 Malnar and Vodvarka, Sensory Design, 25

18 Herssens “Haptic Design Research” 2

19 Pallasmaa, The Eyes of the Skin, 44

20 Malnar and Vodvarka, Sensory Design, 21

21 Malnar and Vodvarka, Sensory Design, 201

people to modify and manipulate their environment, creating a more direct engagement with the building

people to modify and manipulate their environment, creating a more direct engagement with the building

and occupier. 22 The physical act of touch creates a mental map for objects in space. French writer Jacques

Lusseyran describes his haptic abilities after going blind:

“You can go very quickly, with your eyes. You can glide. Excuse me; I don’t want to scold or insult you,

but I am obliged to say: you glide too quickly. This ends up becoming a frightening temptation for you.

Fingers don’t glide. With my fingers I can know this table. I am obliged to feel my way around it. That is to

say, I make my fingers explore all its parts, one after another, until at last I know it all, completely. 23

Touch breaks down individual components to cognitively recast the whole. In Image of the City, Kevin

Lynch, describes an image of a place through elements such as landmarks, paths, nodes, edges and

boundaries. 24 These principals can be applied to a haptic context by taking into consideration material

characteristics and form. For example, a tower can be a visual landmark in the same way the texture of a city

square can become a haptic landmark. 25 The Bauhaus encouraged exploration of textural sensitivity and

educated design students by having them engage with a material repetitively to create a mental pallet for an

understanding of material choice. 26 Tactile sensitivity has diminished with the availability of computer-

generated simulations of materiality in modern design software, which allow for materials to be placed as a

skin over a building quickly and interchangeably. Touch can serve as an important teaching tool for the

visually impaired as well as those who have full ocular ability. Those not fully capable of ocular perception

should become comfortable with tactile exploration at a young age. Without being taught these techniques

they can feel detached and uncomfortable with the world that surrounds them, causing social isolation. The

way in which the sighted are educated does not include this kind of haptic involvement since vision and

auditory information are able to be used. This process is not as personal as the one those with a visual

impairment undergo. In order to way find and comprehend their environment, the visually-impaired have to

22 Herssens “Haptic Design Research,” 2

23 Devlieger, Patrick. Blindness and the Multi-Sensorial City. (Antwerp: Garant, 2006), 33

24 Herssens “Haptic Design Research,” 2

25 Herssens “Haptic Design Research,” 3

26 Malnar and Vodvarka, Sensory Design, 145

gain information through haptics. In this respect the blind can teach the sighted to rediscover

gain information through haptics. In this respect the blind can teach the sighted to rediscover the volumes,

outlines, and surface treatments of a space in a more direct and sensitive way. 27

Aural Perception

The blind can grasp the size and character of a room based on the sound, echoes, vibration and breeze of the

air, however the sighted often ignore these perceptual clues. 28 “Architects of the past knew a great deal

about the effects of sound and worked with it in a positive way. Currently modern designers often know

little about sound and try to reduce the amount they have to contend with it.” 29 With this, a transfer from

developing hi-fi soundscapes (defined and informative sound that produces clarity and understanding of an

environment) to lo-fi soundscapes (auditory distinctions between spaces that cannot be defined) has

occurred. Currently, the uses of standardized sound walls, ACT, and even introducing unnatural

environmental sounds, like Muzak, have “blinded our ears.” Interaction with sound in space engages

occupants and develops a sense of spatial volume, scale, and physical orientation. Pallasmaa states that

“buildings do not react to our gaze but they do return our movements and sounds.” He continues with an

example of the sound of water dripping in an ancient ruin supporting his belief that “the ear has the capacity

to carve a volume into the void of complete darkness.” 30 This reactive nature of sound creates an auditory

dialogue between man and space. By listening, an occupant can perceive an environment through sensitivity

to temporal changes in reflection, refraction, absorption and dispersion. This argument shows a way in

which a volume’s size and scale can be understood in a non-visual manner. Unlike the static presence of a

physical structure, aural perception can become dynamic and adaptive through changes in sonic behaviors

and sound sources.Jacques Lusseyran describes his new-found perception of the ocean after going blind:

I remember well when I first arrived at the beach two months after the accident. It was evening, and

there was nothing there but the sea and its voice. It formed a mass which was so heavy and limpid that I

could have leaned against it like a wall. It spoke to me in several layers all at once. The waves were

27 Fondation de France/ICOM, Museums Without Barriers, 133

28 Fondation de France/ICOM, Museums Without Barriers, 87

29 Malnar and Vodvarka, Sensory Design, 140

30 Pallasmaa, The Eyes of the Skin, 54

arranged in steps, and together they made one music, though what they said was different

arranged in steps, and together they made one music, though what they said was different in each voice.

There was rasping in the bass and bubbling in the top register. I didn’t need to be told about the things that

eyes can see.31

Lusseyran feels that he does not live in a world of darkness, but instead one of light, illuminated by the

objects and people around him that are activated by his movements and his non-visual senses. To sculpt a

space with sound successfully, an architect must create continuous informative auditory information, proper

reverberation for conversation, and create distinguishable acoustic character and zones.

Conclusion

Although the dominance of the eye has helped shape modern design, the incorporation of the other senses

can increase the experiential value and connectivity of architectural spaces. Haptic and auditory sensory

perception allow for an engaging dialogue to occur between the building and the occupant. For the visually

impaired, these senses provide crucial information that can be understood through an active cognitive

process. Since those with low vision or blindness are more attentive to the non-visual senses, their

experience can be useful in designing cognitively engaging and human-centric multi-sensorial environments.

The knowledge and experience they can provide from their alternative perception of architectural space can

influence a movement to design beyond what our eyes acknowledge. As a frame of reference, the visually

impaired provide architectural researchers and designers with a useful perspective on the process of

developing experiential qualities in built form.

31 Devlieger, Patrick. Blindness and the Multi-Sensorial City, 31

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Bibliography - Atallah, T. (n .d.). “Are the Blind Community and the Global Community Opposed?”

Bibliography

- Atallah, T. (n.d.). “Are the Blind Community and the Global Community Opposed?” [Personal interview].

- Blesser, Barry, and Linda-Ruth Salter. Spaces Speak, Are You Listening: Experiencing

Aural Architecture. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2009.

- Carroll, T. (2008). Blindness: What it is, what it does, and how to live with it (p. 382). Little, Brown.

- Castellano, C. (2004, September 16). A Brief Look At The Education Of Blind Children. Future Reflections, 5-7.

- Coleridge, P. (2006). Disability, Liberation, and Development (4th ed., p. 237). Oxfam

- Joffee, Elga. A Practice Guide to the ADA and Visual Impairement. New York: AFB Press,

1999.

- Herssens, Jasmien. "Haptic Design Research: A Blind Sense of Place." AIA.

10, 2012).

- International Council of Museums, and Fondation de France. Museums Without Barriers: A New

Deal for the Disabled. London: Routledge, 1991.

- Kassak, K., Chaya, M., & Hourani, T. (1997). National survey of blindness and low vision in Lebanon. British Journal of Ophthalmology, (81), 905-906.

- Lakkis, S. (2015). Lebanon: Disability and Access to Information. Free Word Centre

- Malnar, Joy Monice, and Frank Vodvarka. Sensory Design. Minneapolis: University

of Minnesota, 2004

- Newberry, F. (1993). THE BLIND CHILD: BECOMING AN INDEPENDENT ADULT. Future Reflections, 12(2), 2-8.

- Omvig, J. (2005). FREEDOM FOR THE BLIND THE SECRET IS EMPOWERMENT (p. 143). NFB.

- Pallasmaa, Juhani. The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses . New York

- Pallasmaa, Juhani. The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses. New York :

John Wiley & Sons, 1996.

- Peters, S. (2009). Review of marginalization of people with disabilities in Lebanon, Syria and Jordan

- Tannoury, W. (2003). Enhancing Business Community Relations.

- Taylor, J. (2012). Educating Students With Visual Impairments for Inclusion in Society.

- Thomas, E., Lakkis, S., & Al-Jadeeda, T. (2005). Disability and livelihoods in Lebanon.

- Ungar. "Cognative Mapping: Past Present and Future." Cognative Mapping Without

Visual Experience, Edited by R. Kitchin and S. Fredundschuh, 13. London: Routledge,

2000.

- Zamora, Antonio. "Anatomy and Structure of Human Sense Organs." Scientific Psychic. Scientific Psychic, 12 Jan. 2015. Web. 24 July 2015.

FEEL YOUR VISION

FEEL YOUR VISION

SENIOR STUDY

ARP 590

PRESENTED BY

NADIM EL HINDI

INSTRUCTORS:

Mrs. Kristine Samra & Dr. Nicolas Gabriel

FEEL YOUR VISION

FEEL YOUR VISION Lack of governmental support Social Discrimination
FEEL YOUR VISION Lack of governmental support Social Discrimination

Lack of governmental support

FEEL YOUR VISION Lack of governmental support Social Discrimination

Social Discrimination

FEEL YOUR VISION

FEEL YOUR VISION Access to Education
Access to Education
Access to Education
FEEL YOUR VISION Access to Education
FEEL YOUR VISION Access to Education

FEEL YOUR VISION

FEEL YOUR VISION Jobs Opportunities
Jobs Opportunities

Jobs Opportunities

FEEL YOUR VISION Jobs Opportunities
FEEL YOUR VISION Jobs Opportunities

FEEL YOUR VISION

FEEL YOUR VISION Health Services

Health Services

FEEL YOUR VISION Health Services
FEEL YOUR VISION Health Services
FEEL YOUR VISION Health Services

FEEL YOUR VISION

FEEL YOUR VISION Transportation
Transportation
Transportation
FEEL YOUR VISION Transportation
FEEL YOUR VISION Transportation

FEEL YOUR VISION

FEEL YOUR VISION This Injustice forced Stay Home
FEEL YOUR VISION This Injustice forced Stay Home

This Injustice

forced

FEEL YOUR VISION This Injustice forced Stay Home
FEEL YOUR VISION This Injustice forced Stay Home

Stay Home

FEEL YOUR VISION

FEEL YOUR VISION Renounce Society Thus Loose Productivity & Rely on Others
FEEL YOUR VISION Renounce Society Thus Loose Productivity & Rely on Others

Renounce Society

Thus
Thus
FEEL YOUR VISION Renounce Society Thus Loose Productivity & Rely on Others

Loose Productivity & Rely on Others

FEEL YOUR VISION

FEEL YOUR VISION Circular Relation Proper Education
FEEL YOUR VISION Circular Relation Proper Education

Circular Relation

FEEL YOUR VISION Circular Relation Proper Education
FEEL YOUR VISION Circular Relation Proper Education

Proper Education

FEEL YOUR VISION

FEEL YOUR VISION Appropriate Employment Social Integration Financial & Physical Independence
FEEL YOUR VISION Appropriate Employment Social Integration Financial & Physical Independence

Appropriate Employment

FEEL YOUR VISION Appropriate Employment Social Integration Financial & Physical Independence
FEEL YOUR VISION Appropriate Employment Social Integration Financial & Physical Independence

Social Integration

FEEL YOUR VISION Appropriate Employment Social Integration Financial & Physical Independence
FEEL YOUR VISION Appropriate Employment Social Integration Financial & Physical Independence

Financial & Physical Independence

FEEL YOUR VISION

FEEL YOUR VISION DESIGN Edu & Rehab Center Help PWD For Training lead - Effective Communication,

DESIGN

FEEL YOUR VISION DESIGN Edu & Rehab Center Help PWD For Training lead - Effective Communication,

Edu & Rehab Center

Help PWD
Help
PWD

For

FEEL YOUR VISION DESIGN Edu & Rehab Center Help PWD For Training lead - Effective Communication,
FEEL YOUR VISION DESIGN Edu & Rehab Center Help PWD For Training lead - Effective Communication,

Training

lead
lead

- Effective Communication,

- Social Competence

- Employability

- Personal independence

- Which is integration

FEEL YOUR VISION

FEEL YOUR VISION Program

Program

FEEL YOUR VISION Program
FEEL YOUR VISION Program
FEEL YOUR VISION Program

FEEL YOUR VISION

FEEL YOUR VISION Beirut - Monot

Beirut - Monot

FEEL YOUR VISION Beirut - Monot

FEEL YOUR VISION

FEEL YOUR VISION 2000 blind or visually impaired in Beirut Rich in institutions dedicated to blind/visually

2000 blind or visually impaired in Beirut

FEEL YOUR VISION 2000 blind or visually impaired in Beirut Rich in institutions dedicated to blind/visually

Rich in institutions dedicated to blind/visually impaired people

YOUR VISION 2000 blind or visually impaired in Beirut Rich in institutions dedicated to blind/visually impaired
YOUR VISION 2000 blind or visually impaired in Beirut Rich in institutions dedicated to blind/visually impaired

FEEL YOUR VISION

FEEL YOUR VISION Monot - Site

Monot - Site

FEEL YOUR VISION Monot - Site

FEEL YOUR VISION

FEEL YOUR VISION
FEEL YOUR VISION
FEEL YOUR VISION
FEEL YOUR VISION
FEEL YOUR VISION
FEEL YOUR VISION

FEEL YOUR VISION

FEEL YOUR VISION Strategy

Strategy

FEEL YOUR VISION Strategy
FEEL YOUR VISION Strategy
FEEL YOUR VISION Strategy
FEEL YOUR VISION Strategy
FEEL YOUR VISION Strategy
FEEL YOUR VISION Strategy
FEEL YOUR VISION Strategy

If I am BLIND…………………It doesn’t mean YOU can’t SEE me

If I am BLIND ………………… It doesn’t mean YOU can’t SEE me

FEEL YOUR VISION

FEEL YOUR VISION References -Atallah, T. (n.d. ). “Are the Blind Community and the Global Community

References

FEEL YOUR VISION References -Atallah, T. (n.d. ). “Are the Blind Community and the Global Community

-Atallah, T. (n.d.). “Are the Blind Community and the Global Community Opposed?” [Personal interview].

-Omvig, J. (2005). FREEDOM FOR THE BLIND THE SECRET IS EMPOWERMENT (p. 143). NFB.

-Carroll, T. (2008). Blindness: What it is, what it does, and how to live with it (p. 382). Little, Brown.

-Peters, S. (2009). Review of marginalization of people with disabilities in Lebanon, Syria and Jordan

-Castellano, C. (2004, September 16). A Brief Look At The Education Of Blind Children. Future Reflections, 5-7.

-Coleridge, P. (2006). Disability, Liberation, and Development (4th ed., p. 237). Oxfam

-Kassak, K., Chaya, M., & Hourani, T. (1997). National survey of blindness and low vision in Lebanon. British Journal of Ophthalmology, (81), 905-906.

-Lakkis, S. (2015). Lebanon: Disability and Access to Information. Free Word Centre

-Newberry, F. (1993). THE BLIND CHILD:

BECOMING AN INDEPENDENT ADULT. Future Reflections, 12(2), 2-8.

-Tannoury, W. (2003). Enhancing Business Community Relations.

-Taylor, J. (2012). Educating Students With Visual Impairments for Inclusion in Society.

-Thomas, E., Lakkis, S., & Al-Jadeeda, T. (2005). Disability and livelihoods in

Lebanon.

-Zamora, Antonio. "Anatomy and Structure of Human Sense Organs." Scientific Psychic. Scientific Psychic, 12 Jan. 2015. Web. 24 July 2015.

THANK YOU