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Lead acid

(Sealed, flooded)

Nickel-based
(NiCd and NiMH)

Lithium-ion
(Li-ion, polymer)

How should I
prepare a new
battery?

Battery comes
fully charged.
Apply topping
charge

Charge 1416h.
Priming may be
needed to format

Apply a topping
before use. No
priming needed

Can I damage
a battery with
incorrect use?

Keep some charge.


Yes, do not store
Battery is robust and
Low charge can
partially charged, the performance will
turn off protection
keep fully charged improve with use
circuit

Do I need to
apply a full
charge?

Yes, partial charge


Partial charge better
Partial charge is fine
causes sulfation,
than a full charge

Frequently
asked question

Can I disrupt the Yes, partial charge Repeat charges can


charge cycle?
causes no harm
cause heat buildup

Partial charge
causes no harm

No, deep
Should I use up
Apply scheduled
discharge wears
all battery energy
discharges only to
battery down.
before charging?
prevent memory
Charge more often

Deep discharge
wears the battery
down

Do I have to
worry about
memory?

No memory

How do I
calibrate a

No, there is no
memory

Discharge NiCd
every 13 months

Not applicable

Apply discharge/charge when the fuel


gauge gets inaccurate. Repeat every 13

smart battery?

months

Can I charge
with the device
on?

Avoid load if
possible

Parasitic load can alter full-charge


detection and overcharge battery or cause
mini-cycles

Do I remove the
battery when
full?

Charger switches
to float charge

Remove after a few


days in charger

Not necessary;
charger turns off

How do I store
my battery?

Keep cells above


2.10V, charge
every 6 months

Store in cool place;


can be stored fully
discharged

Store in cool place


partially charged

Warm but must cool


down when ready

Must stay cool or


slightly warm

Lukewarm
Does battery heat
towards end of
during charge?
charge

How do I charge
when cold?

Slow charge (0.1): 045C (32113F)


Fast charge (0.51C): 545C (41
113F)

Can I charge at
hot
temperatures?

Lower threshold
by 3mV/C above
25C

Do not charge
Battery will not fully
above 50C
charge when hot
(122F)

What should I
know about
chargers?

Charger should
float at 2.25
2.30V/cell when
ready

Battery should not


get too hot; should
include temp sensor

Do not charge
below freezing

Battery must stay


cool; no trickle
charge when ready

Table 1: Best charging methods. Strenuous demands cannot always be prevented.

http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/do_and_dont_battery_table

BU-706: Summary of Dos and Donts


Discover ways to extend battery life by following simple guidelines.
Table 1 provides suggestions on how to extend battery life by following simple guidelines. Because of
similarities within systems, the chemistries are limited to lead, nickel and lithium.

Battery care

Best way
to charge

Charge methods

Discharge

How to prolong
battery

Storage

Lead acid: Flooded,


sealed, gel, AGM

Nickel-based:
NiCd, NiMH

Lithium-ion:
Cobalt,
manganese, NMC
Table 1:
Dos and
donts
Partial and
random charge is summary
fine; does not need how to use,
full charge; lower maintain
and
voltage limit
dispose of
preferred; keep
batteries.
battery cool.

Apply saturated
charge to prevent
sulfation; can remain
on charge with the
correct float voltage.

Avoid getting
battery too hot on
charge. Do not
leave battery in
charger for more
than a few days
(memory!).

Constant voltage to
2.402.45/cell, float
at 2.252.30V/cell.
Battery should stay
cool; no fast charge.
Charge time 1416h

Constant current,
trickle charge at
0.05C, fast charge
preferred.
Slow charge =
14h
Rapid charge = 3h
Fast charge = 1h

Constant voltage
to 4.20V/cell; no
trickle charge;
battery can
stay in charger
Rapid charge = 3h
Fast charge = 1h

Can endure high peak


currents. Avoid full
discharges. Charge
after each use.

Do not overdischarge under


heavy load; cell
reversal causes
short. Avoid full
discharges.

Prevent full
cycles, apply some
charge after a full
discharge to keep
the protection
circuit alive.

Limit deep cycling;


Apply full saturation
charge. Avoid heat.

Discharge busy
battery to 1V/cell
every 13 months
to prevent
memory (mainly
NiCd)

Keep cool.
Operate in mid
SoC of 2080%.
Prevent ultra-fast
charging and high
loads (most Liion)

Keep cells at >2.05V.


Apply topping charge
every 6 months to
prevent sulfation.

Store at 40%
charge in cool
Store in cool
place (40% SoC
place; NiCd stores
reads 3.75
for 5 years; prime
3.80V/cell). Do
before use
not go below
2.0V/cell.

NiCd: Do not