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# Design Loads & Combinations

## Structural members must be designed so they are strong

enough to carry the service loads imposed on it.

## Determine design loads felt by each member

Model (FBD)
Determine internal forces (V, M)
Select member material/size
Check deflection limits

## Types of Building Loads

Called gravity loads because they are vertical forces due to stationary
objects.

## Weight of building itself

Utilities, piping, lighting, HVAC, etc.
Non-moveable objects such as carpeting, flooring, stationary service
equipment (chillers, bank vaults, etc.)

## Vertical loads due to human occupancy, snow, rain ponding, furniture,

partition walls and moveable equipment.
Horizontal (lateral) loads due to wind, earthquake, water pressure,
blast/explosion, collision, etc.

## ASCE Publication 7 prescribes likely scenarios of load

combinations that a structure may feel.

## ie. A structure may feel maximum human occupancy, wind and

snow at the same time.

## It is not likely to feel maximum occupancy, snow, wind and

earthquake at the same time.

Strength Design Method (LRFD)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Ldesign = 1.4D
Ldesign = 1.2D +1.6 L + 0.5 (Lroof or S)
Ldesign = 1.2D +1.6 (Lroof or S) + (.5L or .8 W)
Ldesign = 1.2D + 1.6 W + 0.5 L + .5(Lroof or S)
Ldesign = 1.2D + Ev + Eh + 0.5 L + .2 S
Ldesign = 0.9D +1.6 W
Ldesign = .9D - Ev + Eh

Where:

L = live load
Lr = live roof load
S = snow
W = wind
Eh = horizontal earthquake
Ev = vertical earthquake

## Most load computations are done in terms of plan view unit

areas.

Loads for roof areas that are sloped are commonly expressed
in terms of weight per unit area of horizontal projection.

## Loads on Inclined Roofs

LL, W, S

Simplified Approach:
Loads are considered to act on a
horizontal projection of an inclined
member.

## SO LOAD DIAGRAM LOOKS LIKE

THIS AND CORRECTION FOR SLOPE IS
IGNORED:

LL, W, S
Length

EXCEPTION:

cos=DL
h

## Full weight of dead load and vertical earthquake

load are computed to act over the entire length
and applied to the horizontal projection.

## Projected Load: DL x 1/cos

Ev x 1/cos
SO LOAD DIAGRAM LOOKS LIKE
THIS AND LOAD OVER FULL LENGTH IS
CALCULATED.

DL =1.2k/ft
Lr = .24 k/ft
S = 1 k/ft
Wh = 15 k
Eh = 25 k
Ev = .2 k/ft

## Find: Loading diagram for the beam using strength design

method combinations.

## Example: Determining Load Diagrams

Know:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Ldesign = 1.4D
Ldesign = 1.2D +1.6 L + 0.5 (Lroof or S)
Ldesign = 1.2D +1.6 (Lroof or S) + (.5L or .8 W)
Ldesign = 1.2D + 1.6 W + 0.5 L + .5(Lroof or S)
Ldesign = 1.2D + Ev + Eh + 0.5 L + .2 S
Ldesign = 0.9D +1.6 W
Ldesign = .9D - Ev + Eh

DL =1.22k/ft
Lr = .24 k/ft
S = 1 k/ft
Wh = 15 k
Eh = 25 k
Ev = .2 k/ft

Solution:
a. DL adjusted for slope = 1.2 k/ft x 1/cos10 = 1.22 k/ft
b. Vertical earthquake adjusted for slope = .2 x 1/cos10 = .20 k/ft
Equations:
1.

1.71 k/ft

2.

## 1.2D +1.6 L + 0.5 (Lroof or S) = 1.2 (1.22k/ft) + .5(1k/ft) = 1.964 k/ft

(this equation has vertical loads only)

1.964 k/ft

DL =1.22 k/ft
Lr = .24 k/ft
S = 1 k/ft
Wh = 15 k
Eh = 25 k
Ev = .2 k/ft

L
3. This equation has vertical loads (wind) and horizontal loads
1.2D +1.6 (Lroof or S) + (.5L or .8 W) =

DL

Lr

(k/ft)

k/ft)

(k/ft)

kips

1.22

-----

15

Factor

1.2

-----

1.6

.8

Factored

1.464

Factored

1.6

Sum

3.06
(k/ft)

12

12
kips

12k

3.06 k/ft

4.

DL =1.22 k/ft
Lr = .24 k/ft
S = 1 k/ft
Wh = 15 k
Eh = 25 k
Ev = .2 k/ft

## 1.2D + 1.6 W + 0.5 L + .5(Lr or S)

DL

Lr

(k/ft)

Kips

(k/ft)

(k/ft)

1.22

15

---

Factor

1.2

1.6

---

.5

Factored

1.464

---

.5

Sum

1.964
(k/ft)

Factored

24

24k

1.964 k/ft

24 kips

5. 1.2D + Ev + Eh +0 .5L + .2 S

DL

Ev

Eh

(k/ft)

(k/ft)

Kips

(k/ft)

1.22

.2

25

Factor

1.2

.2

Factored

1.464

.2

---

.2

Factored

Sum

25k

1.864
(k/ft)

25

25 kips

1.864 k/ft

6.

0.9D +1.6 W

DL

(k/ft)

kips

1.22

15

Factor

.9

1.6

Factored

1.1

Sum

24k

1.1 k/ft

1.1

(k/ft)

Factored

7.

DL =1.22 k/ft
Lr = .24 k/ft
S = 1 k/ft
Wh = 15 k
Eh = 25 k
Ev = .2 k/ft

24

24
kips

0.9D - Ev + Eh

DL

Ev

Eh

(k/ft)

(k/ft)

kips

1.22

-.2

25

Factor

.9

1.1

-.2

Factored

Factored

Sum
25k

.9
(k/ft)

25

25
kips

.9 k/ft

Equation 3
Equation 4
Equation 5

12k

3.06 k/ft

L
24k

1.964 k/ft

25k

1.864 k/ft

## The maximum effect (stress & deflection) cannot be determined by

inspection of the loads alone.
Calculation of maximum stress and deflection for each case is required to
determine the controlling or worse case scenario.