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Design Loads & Combinations

Prepared by Prof. Marcia C. Belcher, PE

Design Loads

Structural members must be designed so they are strong


enough to carry the service loads imposed on it.

We also want an economical structural:

Member that are not excessively large or oversized.

Design process looks like:

Determine design loads felt by each member


Model (FBD)
Determine internal forces (V, M)
Select member material/size
Check deflection limits

Types of Building Loads

Dead Loads:

Called gravity loads because they are vertical forces due to stationary
objects.

Weight of building itself


Utilities, piping, lighting, HVAC, etc.
Non-moveable objects such as carpeting, flooring, stationary service
equipment (chillers, bank vaults, etc.)

Live Loads:

Vertical loads due to human occupancy, snow, rain ponding, furniture,


partition walls and moveable equipment.
Horizontal (lateral) loads due to wind, earthquake, water pressure,
blast/explosion, collision, etc.

Load Combinations

ASCE Publication 7 prescribes likely scenarios of load


combinations that a structure may feel.

ie. A structure may feel maximum human occupancy, wind and


snow at the same time.

It is not likely to feel maximum occupancy, snow, wind and


earthquake at the same time.

Load Combinations:
Strength Design Method (LRFD)

Load Combinations:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Ldesign = 1.4D
Ldesign = 1.2D +1.6 L + 0.5 (Lroof or S)
Ldesign = 1.2D +1.6 (Lroof or S) + (.5L or .8 W)
Ldesign = 1.2D + 1.6 W + 0.5 L + .5(Lroof or S)
Ldesign = 1.2D + Ev + Eh + 0.5 L + .2 S
Ldesign = 0.9D +1.6 W
Ldesign = .9D - Ev + Eh

Where:

D = dead load
L = live load
Lr = live roof load
S = snow
W = wind
Eh = horizontal earthquake
Ev = vertical earthquake

Unit Load Calculations: Sloped Roofs

Most load computations are done in terms of plan view unit


areas.

Loads for roof areas that are sloped are commonly expressed
in terms of weight per unit area of horizontal projection.

Loads on Inclined Roofs


LL, W, S

Simplified Approach:
Live Loads, Wind Loads, and Snow
Loads are considered to act on a
horizontal projection of an inclined
member.

SO LOAD DIAGRAM LOOKS LIKE


THIS AND CORRECTION FOR SLOPE IS
IGNORED:

LL, W, S
Length

Loads on Inclined Roof


EXCEPTION:

cos=DL
h

Full weight of dead load and vertical earthquake


load are computed to act over the entire length
and applied to the horizontal projection.

Projected Load: DL x 1/cos


Ev x 1/cos
SO LOAD DIAGRAM LOOKS LIKE
THIS AND LOAD OVER FULL LENGTH IS
CALCULATED.

Example: Determining Load Diagrams

Given: A simply supported roof beam inclined at a 10


slope receives loads as follows:
DL =1.2k/ft
Lr = .24 k/ft
S = 1 k/ft
Wh = 15 k
Eh = 25 k
Ev = .2 k/ft

Find: Loading diagram for the beam using strength design


method combinations.

Example: Determining Load Diagrams

Know:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Load Combinations
Ldesign = 1.4D
Ldesign = 1.2D +1.6 L + 0.5 (Lroof or S)
Ldesign = 1.2D +1.6 (Lroof or S) + (.5L or .8 W)
Ldesign = 1.2D + 1.6 W + 0.5 L + .5(Lroof or S)
Ldesign = 1.2D + Ev + Eh + 0.5 L + .2 S
Ldesign = 0.9D +1.6 W
Ldesign = .9D - Ev + Eh

Given Loads:
DL =1.22k/ft
Lr = .24 k/ft
S = 1 k/ft
Wh = 15 k
Eh = 25 k
Ev = .2 k/ft

Solution:
a. DL adjusted for slope = 1.2 k/ft x 1/cos10 = 1.22 k/ft
b. Vertical earthquake adjusted for slope = .2 x 1/cos10 = .20 k/ft
Equations:
1.

1.4D = 1.4 (1.22 k/ft) = 1.71 k/ft

1.71 k/ft

(this equation has vertical loads only)

Example: Determining Load Diagrams


2.

1.2D +1.6 L + 0.5 (Lroof or S) = 1.2 (1.22k/ft) + .5(1k/ft) = 1.964 k/ft


(this equation has vertical loads only)

1.964 k/ft

DL =1.22 k/ft
Lr = .24 k/ft
S = 1 k/ft
Wh = 15 k
Eh = 25 k
Ev = .2 k/ft

L
3. This equation has vertical loads (wind) and horizontal loads
1.2D +1.6 (Lroof or S) + (.5L or .8 W) =

DL

Lr

(k/ft)

k/ft)

(k/ft)

kips

Load

1.22

-----

15

Factor

1.2

-----

1.6

.8

Factored
vertical load

1.464

Factored
horizontal load

1.6

Sum

3.06
(k/ft)

12

12
kips

12k

3.06 k/ft

Example: Determining Load Diagrams


4.

DL =1.22 k/ft
Lr = .24 k/ft
S = 1 k/ft
Wh = 15 k
Eh = 25 k
Ev = .2 k/ft

1.2D + 1.6 W + 0.5 L + .5(Lr or S)

DL

Lr

(k/ft)

Kips

(k/ft)

(k/ft)

Load

1.22

15

---

Factor

1.2

1.6

---

.5

Factored
vertical load

1.464

---

.5

Sum

1.964
(k/ft)

Factored
horizontal load

24

24k

1.964 k/ft

24 kips

5. 1.2D + Ev + Eh +0 .5L + .2 S

DL

Ev

Eh

(k/ft)

(k/ft)

Kips

(k/ft)

Load

1.22

.2

25

Factor

1.2

.2

Factored
vertical load

1.464

.2

---

.2

Factored
horizontal load

Sum

25k

1.864
(k/ft)

25

25 kips

1.864 k/ft

Example: Determining Load Diagrams


6.

0.9D +1.6 W

DL

(k/ft)

kips

Load

1.22

15

Factor

.9

1.6

Factored
vertical load

1.1

Sum

24k

1.1 k/ft

1.1

(k/ft)

Factored
horizontal load

7.

DL =1.22 k/ft
Lr = .24 k/ft
S = 1 k/ft
Wh = 15 k
Eh = 25 k
Ev = .2 k/ft

24

24
kips

0.9D - Ev + Eh

DL

Ev

Eh

(k/ft)

(k/ft)

kips

Load

1.22

-.2

25

Factor

.9

1.1

-.2

Factored
vertical load

Factored
horizontal load

Sum
25k

.9
(k/ft)

25

25
kips

.9 k/ft

Example: Determining Load Diagrams

Which combination controls?

Equation 3
Equation 4
Equation 5

12k

3.06 k/ft

L
24k

1.964 k/ft

25k

1.864 k/ft

The maximum effect (stress & deflection) cannot be determined by


inspection of the loads alone.
Calculation of maximum stress and deflection for each case is required to
determine the controlling or worse case scenario.