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7/16/2015

CastingDefectsSandMold,MetalCasting

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CastingDefectsSandMold,MetalCasting
Introducing various metal casting defects with many pictures by Dandong Foundry in China. These are
thecommonsandcastingdefectsonthesurfaceandinsideofcastironandcaststeelparts.

MainCastingProducts
StoveBurner
CastIronPlate
ManholeCoverCasting

1. Blowhole is a kind of cavities defect, which is also divided into pinhole and subsurface blowhole.
Pinholeisverytinyhole.Subsurfaceblowholeonlycanbeseenaftermachining.

BrakeDrum
WarpingHeadCasting
DuctileIronBeltPulley
CastIronFlywheel
BoilerAshDoor
CastIronStoveGrate
TractorGearbox
PumpBody
CastIronBrackets
CastIronWeight
GearCasting

BlowholeDefect
2. Burningon defect is also called as sand burning, which includes chemical burnon, and metal
penetration.

LargeCastSteelBracket
CastIronDrainagePipe
FlangeCastings
CastIronPipeFittings
BurnerGratesforGasStove
GreyIronCounterWeight
CastIronAxleSupport
CastIronBlocks
GasBurner
CastIronTruckCastings
CastIronTractorParts
CastIronStoveParts

SandBurningDefect

PumpShellandValveBody
CastIronUmbrellaBase

3.Sandinclusionandslaginclusionarealsocalledasscaborblackingscab.Theyareinclusiondefects.
Lookslikethereareslaginsideofmetalcastings.

CastIronPan,Cookware
BoilerSootCollector

SandInclusionDefect
4.Sandholeisakindofshrinkagecavitydefect.Theyareemptyholesaftersandblasting.

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CastingDefectsSandMold,MetalCasting
sandholedefect

5.Coldlaporalsocalledascoldshut.Itisacrackwithroundedges.Coldlapisbecauseoflowmelting
temperatureorpoorgatingsystem.

ColdLapDefect
6. Joint flash is also called as casting fin, which is a thin projection out of surface of metal castings.
Jointflashshouldberemovedduringcleaningandgrindingprocess.

JointFlashDefect
7.Misrundefectisakindofincompletecastingdefect,whichcausesthecastinguncompleted.Theedge
ofdefectisroundandsmooth.

MisrunDefect
8.Shrinkagedefectsincludedispersedshrinkage,microshrinkageandporosity.

PorosityShrinkageDefect
9.Shrinkagecavitiesarealsocalledasshrinkageholes,whichisatypeofseriousshrinkagedefect.

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CastingDefectsSandMold,MetalCasting
ShrinkageCavityDefect

10. Shrinkage depression is also a type of shrinkage defect, which looks like depressed region on the
surfaceofmetalcastings.

ShrinkageDepressionDefect
11.Elephantskinisatypeofsurfacedefect,whichcauseirregularorwrinkleshapessurfaces.

ElephantSkinDefect
12.Veinsdefectisalsocalledasrattail,whichlookslikemanysmallwaterflowtracesonthesurface
ofmetalcastings.

VeinsDefect
13. Rough surface, coarse surface is also a kind of surface defect. Normal rough surfaces can not be
judgedasdefects,buttooroughanduneveninsurfacewillbeadefect.

RoughSurfaceDefect
14. Mismatch in mold defect is because of the shifting molding flashes. It will cause the dislocation at
thepartingline.

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MismatchMoldDefect
15.Mechanicaldamageisbecausethedamageduringmachiningordeliveryprocesses.

MechanicalDamageDefect
16.Slaginclusionisalsocalledasexogenousinclusion,entrappedslag.

SlagInclusionDefect
17. Raised mold defect. Because of the flotage of liquid metal, the mould flasks are raised, which
causedthetoppartofcastingbecomehigherorthickerthanlowerpart.

RaisedMoldDefect
18. Crack defects normally happen inside of metal castings. This defect will reduce the physical
propertiesofmetalcastings.

CrackDefect
19. Abnormal nodulizing or undernodulizing defects. Because of many reasons, the spheroidization of
graphiteforductileironwillbeaffected,therefore,causedthebadspheroidizationrate.

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CastingDefectsSandMold,MetalCasting

AbnormalNodulizingDefect
20. Uneven hardness defect means the uneven hardness on the same surfaces. When machining to
harderpositions,themachiningwillbecomemoredifficult.

UnevenHardnessDefect
21.Sanddropisalsocalledassandcrush.Thesandmolddropspartofsandblocks,sotheywillcause
thesimilarshapedsandholesorincomplete.

SandDropDefect
22. Deformation will cause the oversized tolerance for flatness and straightness. This is very common
defect for long castings, and flat castings with thin wall thickness. The reasons are the natural
deformation during cooling process in sand molds, or in air, sometimes, the overly sand blasting also
couldcausethisproblem.

DeformationProblem
23.Afterweldingrepair,evenaftermachiningorgrinding,theweldingmarkswillstillbevisual.Asfor
unimportantcastingsurfaces,iftheclientallowweldingrepair,thenthesemarksshouldbeacceptable.
But for high pressurebearing positions, or the client has clearly forbidden any welding repair, then
thesemarkswillbetakenasdefects.

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WeldingRepairMarks
24. Chill iron could effectively reduce the shrinkage for the key positions, so using chill iron is very
commoninironfoundries.However,theedgesofchillironscouldbeclearlyfoundbyvisualinspection.
Someclientswillnotrequiretogrindthemifthesemarksdonotaffecttheappearance.However,the
clients could require the casting manufacturer to grind them just for better surface looking. Please
clearlynoticethatthesemarksshouldnotbejudgedasthecastingdefects.Refertoironfoundry.com.

ChillIronMarks
25.Chilldefectsarealsocalledas"castingchillingdefects".Thesurfaceofthecastingswiththisdefect
willbeextremelywhite,shinyandsmooth.Theleftoneofthepartsonthe following photo is showing
thisdefect.Thedefectivecastingswillbefragileandcrispy,soduringmachining,someedgesandtips
willbebroken.Thisdefectwascausedbythelowtemperatureofsand molds, and prematurely out of
sandmolds,sothehotironbecomechilledquickly.Theproperannealingheattreatmenttothemcould
solvethisdefect.

CastingChillingDefects
26. Massive free carbide. This is a defect of material, normally happen on ductile iron. Because of
inverse chilling defects and poor inoculation, there will be mass free carbide, which will cause fragile,
poor welding property to ductile iron castings. High temperature annealing heat treatment could
improveit.

Massivefreecarbide
27. Internal sweating, or called as cold short, short iron. There are iron beans in the castings. This is
because of unreasonable gating design, which caused some liquid iron became beans suddenly, then
thesebeanswerewrappedbyotherliquidirons.Thisisasurfacedefect,butwillcauseserousproblem
iftheylocatedinkeypositions.

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Internalsweating,coldshort,shortiron
28.Strippingdefect.Thereisverythinironskinonthesurfaceofcastings.Twolayers.Thisisbecause
of unreasonable gating system, which caused very thin air layers existed. This defect is a surface
defect,sonormallyitcanbegrindedoff.However,itshouldbediscardedifitisnotjustonthesurface.

Strippingdefect

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