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CFD LECTURE

AE 4012 NUMERICAL AERODYNAMICS


Lecture 11 : Computational Grids

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Computational Modelling
Real Words

Physics

Flow Models

Steadiness
approximation

Numerical Simulation

Mathematical
Model

Dynamic
approximation
Spatial
approximation

Discretization
Techniques

Resolution of
discrete system
of Equations.

Space
discretization
Mesh definition

Equation
discretization
Definition of
Numerical schemes

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Road Map
Computational Grids

Geometry
definition

Topology
definition

Point
Surface

H-Grid
O-Grid
C-Grid

Grid
Generation
Structured
Algebraic
PDE

Grid Quality
and Adaptation
Measurement
of Grid Quality
Adaption Grid

Single Block
Multi-Blocks

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Unstructured
Delaunay
Triangulation
Advancing Front
Quadtree
Hybrid
Chimera

Dynamic /
Moving Grid

Computational grids

Grid Quality and Adaptation

4
Topology definition

Grids Generation

Geometry definition

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Grid Topology

H-Grid

O-Grid

C-Grid

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Physical and Computational Domains


Physical Domain : x, y, z
Computational Domain : , ,

O-Grid Topology

Physical Domain

Computational Domain
y
x

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Topology for Complex Geometry


O-C-Multiblock Grid Topology

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Grid Types

Structured grid

Unstructured grid

Chimera grids
Hybrid grid
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Techniques for Structured Grid Generation


Algebraic Methods
Define boundaries
Distribute points along boundaries
Use Interpolation

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Techniques for Structured Grid Generation

Transfinite Interpolation
TFI :

Grids can conform to specified boundaries.


Grid Spacing is under control
Easily programmed
Very computationally efficient.

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Techniques for Structured Grid Generation


Algebraic Methods Interpolation techniques
Uni-directional interpolation

R(0)

1-
U()

R(1)

U ( ) R( ) (1 ) R(0) R(1)
0 1

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Techniques for Structured Grid Generation


Algebraic Methods Interpolation techniques
Uni-directional interpolation

1-

R(0)

U()

R(1)

U ( ) R( ) (1 ) R(0) R(1)

1-

0 1
R(0)

V()

R(0)
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R(1)

0 1

1-
W()

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V ( ) R( ) (1 ) R(0) R(1)

R(1)

W ( ) R( ) (1 ) R(0) R(1)

0 1

Techniques for Structured Grid Generation


Algebraic Methods Interpolation techniques
Uni-directional interpolation

R(0)

1-
V()

R(1)

V ( ) R( ) (1 ) R(0) R(1)

0 1

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Techniques for Structured Grid Generation


Algebraic Methods Interpolation techniques
Bi-directional interpolation
R(,1)

1-

1-

R(0,)

R(,)

R(1,)

R( , ) U ( , ) V ( , )
(1 ) R(0, ) R(1, ) (1 ) R( ,0) R( ,1)
R(,0)

0 1 0 1
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Techniques for Structured Grid Generation


Algebraic Methods Interpolation techniques
Corner effect of Bi-directional interpolation
R(,1)

0, 1
R(0,1) R(0,1) R(0,1)

1-

1-

R(0,)

R(,)

R(1,)

R( , ) U ( , ) V ( , ) UV ( , )
R(,0)
(1 ) R(0, ) R(1, ) (1 ) R( ,0) R( ,1)
[(1 ) (1 ) R(0,0) (1 ) R(1,0) (1 ) R(0,1) R(1,1)]

0 1 0 1
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Techniques for Structured Grid Generation


Algebraic Methods Interpolation techniques

0 1 0 1 0 1

R( , ) U ( , , ) V ( , , ) W ( , , )
UV ( , , ) UW ( , , ) VW ( , , )
Multi-directional interpolation
UVW ( , , )
R(,1,)

U ( , , ) (1 ) R(0, , ) R(1, , )

R(,,1)
1-

1-

UV ( , , ) (1 )(1 ) R(0,0, ) R(1,1, )


(1 ) R(0,1, ) (1 ) R(1,0, )

R(0,,)
R(,,)

R(,,0)

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R(,0,)

V ( , , ) (1 ) R( ,0, ) R( ,1, )
W ( , , ) (1 ) R( , ,0) R( , ,1)

R(1,,)

UW ( , , ) (1 )(1 ) R(0, ,0) R(1, ,1)


(1 ) R(0, ,1) (1 ) R(1, ,0)
VW ( , , ) (1 )(1 ) R( ,0,0) R( ,1,1)
(1 ) R( ,0,1) (1 ) R( ,1,0)

UVW ( , , ) (1 )(1 )(1 ) R(0,0,0) (1 )(1 ) R(1,0,0)


(1 ) (1 ) R(0,1,0) (1 )(1 ) R(0,0,1) R(1,1,1)
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(1 ) R(1,1,0) (1 ) R(1,0,1) (1 ) R(0,1,1)

Techniques for Structured Grid Generation


Algebraic Methods Interpolation techniques
Determination of the blending functions , ,

0 1

0 1

i , j

1
gi ,0 h0, j ( gi , j max gi ,0 )
Pi , j

i , j

1
gi ,0 h0, j ( gi , j max gi ,0 )
Pi , j

Pi , j 1 ( gi , j max gi ,0 ) * (hi max, j h0, j )

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0 1