Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 14

Greetings And Introductions

Buenos Días – Good morning. Buenas Tardes – Good afternoon. Buenas Noches – Good night ¡Hola! ¿Cómo estás? – Hi! (Hello) How are you?

¡Hola! ¿Qué tal?/ ¿Cómo te ha ido?/ ¿Cómo andas? – Hi! (Hello) How are things?

Estoy bien/muy bien/ bastante bien, gracias

– Fine/ Very well/ Pretty well, thanks.

Quiero presentarle (te) a…

– I want to introduce you to (someone)

Mucho gusto conocerle. – Pleased to meet you. Encantado (if the person is male)/Encantada (female) – Delighted to meet you. El gusto es mío. – The pleasure is mine.

Words & Phrases For Special Moments

Felicitaciones – Congratulations Felicidades – Best Wishes Feliz Cumpleaños – Happy Birthday Feliz Navidad – Merry Christmas (Nochebuena – Cristmas Eve) Feliz Año Nuevo – Happy New Year (Nochevieja – New Year’s Eve) Salud – Cheers! (Also used as “Bless You” after someone sneezes) Buen Viaje – Have a good trip Buen Provecho – Enjoy your meal

Tenses

Present Indicative Tense (Present Tense)

Singular

Yo (I) Tú (You) Él, Ella, Usted (He, She,You)

Plural

Nosotros/ Nosotras) (We) Vosotros/ Vosotras (You) Ellos, Ellas, Ustedes (They,You)

Present Indicative Tense (Present Tense) Singular Yo (I) Tú (You) Él, Ella, Usted (He, She,You) Plural

Sentences using subject pronouns with the verb HABLAR (To Speak) in the present indicative tense:

-Yo hablo español bien, which means, I speak Spanish well. -Tú hablas español bien, which means, You speak Spanish well. -Él/Ella/Usted habla español bien, which means, He/She/You speak Spanish well. -Nosotros hablamos español bien, which means, We speak Spanish well. -Vosotros habláis español bien, which means, You speak Spanish well. -Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes hablan español bien, which means, They/You speak Spanish well.

Stem Changing Verbs

Present Indicative Tense (Present Tense) Singular Yo (I) Tú (You) Él, Ella, Usted (He, She,You) Plural

Irregular Verbs

There are other verbs that are only irregular when conjugated in the “first-person singular” in the

There are other verbs that are only irregular when conjugated in the “first-person singular” in the present indicative tense such as:

Dar

=

Yo Doy

Salir

=

Yo Salgo

Traer

=

Yo Traigo

Ver

=

Yo Veo

Poner

=

Yo Pongo

Saber

=

Yo Sé

Hacer

=

Yo Hago

Note: The present indicative tense has several uses in Spanish, it expresses an action or situation presently occurring or that occurs often. It may also be used to express the immediate future or a time-specific future event. Example:

1.Mi hermano mayor toca la guitar – My big brother plays the guitar. /My big brother

does play

the guitar. /My big brother is playing the guitar. 2.La fiesta termina a medianoche – The party ends at midnight. /The party will end at midnight. /The party is ending at midnight. 3.Hablamos mañana – We’ll talk tomorrow.

Preterit Tense (Past Tense)

There are other verbs that are only irregular when conjugated in the “first-person singular” in the

*ER & IR Verbs share the same endings in the preterit tense. *The endings of the “nosotros” forms of “AR” & “IR” verbs are the same in the preterit as in the present tense.

Sentences using subject pronouns with the verb HABLAR (To Speak) in the preterit tense:

-Yo hablé español bien, which means, I spoke Spanish well. -Tú hablaste español bien, which means, You spoke Spanish well. -Él/Ella/Usted habló español bien, which means, He/She/You spoke Spanish well. -Nosotros hablamos español bien, which means, We spoke Spanish well. -Vosotros hablasteis español bien, which means, You spoke Spanish well. -Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes hablaron español bien, which means, They/You spoke Spanish well

Stem Changing Verbs

Stem-changing AR and ER verbs are conjugated as regular verbs in the preterit tense. Some stem- changing IR verbs are conjugated as regular verbs in the preterit tense but others are changed when conjugated in the preterit tense in the third person singular and plural (Él/Ella/Usted & Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes). For example:

Sentences using subject pronouns with the verb HABLAR (To Speak) in the preterit tense: -Yo hablé

person singular (Yo).

Spelling-Changing Verbs

Some Verbs change in spelling to preserve the sound of the infinitive.

1. Verbs ending in GAR, CAR & ZAR change only in the first-

Sentences using subject pronouns with the verb HABLAR (To Speak) in the preterit tense: -Yo hablé

2. There are two types of changes that occur in verbs with stems ending in vowels in the third person singular and plural (Él/Ella/Usted & Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes).

  • (a) Some of these verbs have a “y” inserted between two vowels.

(a) Some of these verbs have a “y” inserted between two vowels. Note : The Preterit

Note : The Preterit Tense is used to express anything (actions, states, series of events etc) finished in the past.

Example:

1.El año pasado mi hermano cumplió doce años. – Last year my brother was 12 years old. / Last year my brother turned 12. 2.Fuimos ayer mis amigos y yo a la playa. – Yesterday my friends and I went to the beach. 3.Ya leí ese libro. – I already read that book.

Irregular Verbs

Irregular verbs are not all modified the same way in the preterit tense and there isn’t really any set

rule, knowing the right modifications for irregular verbs will come by memorizing, reading articles in the preterit tense and using irregular verbs in composition writing.

Below are lists of some irregular verbs and their modifications:

(a) Some of these verbs have a “y” inserted between two vowels. Note : The Preterit

These verbs are modified differently in the “Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes” form:

These verbs are modified differently in the “Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes” form: These irregular verbs are completely modified: Imperfect

These irregular verbs are completely modified:

These verbs are modified differently in the “Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes” form: These irregular verbs are completely modified: Imperfect

Imperfect Tense

These verbs are modified differently in the “Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes” form: These irregular verbs are completely modified: Imperfect

Irregular Verbs

These verbs are modified differently in the “Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes” form: These irregular verbs are completely modified: Imperfect

Using the Imperfect Tense

1.To describe circumstances that existed for a period of time in the past and consistent past actions as well as events and actions that used to occur in the past. (a)Durante la guerra la gente no tenía comida. – During the war the people had nothing to eat. (b)Mi mama siempre iba a las clases en el gimnasio. – My mom would (used to) always go to the gym.

2.To describe emotions or mental states as well as plans and intentions. (a)Andrea estaba triste porque su tío estuvo enfermo. – Andrea was sad because her uncle was sick. (b)Lana quería llamar a su novio pero él llamó antes. – Lana wanted to call her boyfriend but he called first. 3.To describe what was happening when another action occurred (note that the finished action is in the preterit). (a)Hablábamos de Marcus cuando él llegó. – We were talking about Marcus when he showed up. (b)Estaban en la calle frente al edificio cuando él explotó. – They were on the street opposite the building when it exploded. 4.To tell time or someone’s age in the past. (a)Eran las siete de la noche cuando oí la noticia. – It was 7pm when I eard the news. (b)Megan tenía doce años cuando conoció a Cameron. – Megan was 12 when she first met Cameron.

Preterit Tense Versus Imperfect Tense

In addition to memorizing the rules of each tense it is important to understand that the Preterit Tense

is most equivalent to the Past Tense in English. That said we have to appreciate that every language will not be completely equivalent to English as each language is unique. In Spanish there are two ways to speak of past events: the Preterit and Imperfect Tenses. The Preterit Tense is used with PAST COMPLETE ACTIONS/EVENTS, which may be used to speak of the beginning or the end of these complete actions/events in the past. On the other hand, the Imperfect Tense is used to emphasize the DURATION OF PAST ACTIONS/EVENTS. As a result of the nature of these tenses, in story telling the Preterit Tense is used to NARRATE and the Imperfect Tense is used to DESCRIBE.

Future Tense

The Future Tense expresses actions that will, shall or are going to occur.

1.To describe circumstances that existed for a period of time in the past and consistent past

Sentences using subject pronouns with the verb HABLAR (To Speak) in the future tense:

-Yo hablaré español bien, which means, I will speak Spanish well. -Tú hablarás español bien, which means, You will speak Spanish well. -Él/Ella/Usted hablará español bien, which means, He/She/You will speak Spanish well. -Nosotros hablaremos español bien, which means, We will speak Spanish well. -Vosotros hablaréis español bien, which means, You will speak Spanish well. -Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes hablarán español bien, which means, They/You will speak Spanish well.

Irregular Verbs

Sentences using subject pronouns with the verb HABLAR (To Speak) in the future tense: -Yo hablaré

Other examples of the use of the Future Tense:

1.¿Vendrás a mi casa con Camila mañana? – Will you come to my house tomorrow with Camila? 2.¿Los fines de semanas saldrá con sus amigos? – Does he go out with his friends on weekends? 3.Será Buena mama, mi hija. – My daughter, you will be a great mom.

Conditional Mood

Sentences using subject pronouns with the verb HABLAR (To Speak) in the future tense: -Yo hablaré

Sentences using subject pronouns with the verb HABLAR (To Speak) in the conditional mood:

El profesor prometió que yo hablaría español bien, which means, The teacher promised I would speak Spanish well. El profesor prometió que tú hablarías español bien, which means, The teacher promised you would speak Spanish well. El profesor prometió que él/ella/usted hablaría español bien, which means, The teacher promised he/she/you would speak Spanish well. El profesor prometió que nosotros hablaríamos español bien, which means, The teacher promised we would speak Spanish well. El profesor prometió que vosotros hablaríais español bien, which means, The teacher promised you would speak Spanish well. El profesor prometió que ellos/ellas/ustedes hablarían español bien, which means, The teacher promised they/you would speak Spanish well.

Irregular Verbs

Sentences using subject pronouns with the verb HABLAR (To Speak) in the conditional mood: El profesor

Using the Conditional Mood 1.The conditional mood is used to express “would” (possibility) in English:

(a)¿Le gustaría sentarse? – Would you like to sit? (b)Yo habría hecho lo mismo. – I would have done the same. 2.The conditional mood is also used to refer to anticipated future actions proposed from a time in the past:

(a)Manuel prometió que cantaría conmigo en la competencia. – Manuel promised he would sing with me in the competition. (b)Ella dijo que iría directamente a casa para estudiar. – She said she would go straight home to study.

3.The conditional mood can be used to express likelihood or probability in the past:

(a)¿Qué hora sería cuando comenzó el evento? Serían por lo menos las ocho de la noche. – What time was it (could it have been) when the event started? It was (must have been) at least 8 in the night. (b)¿Sería muy bueno, no? – It must have been really good, wasn’t it?

4.The conditional is used for courtesy:

(a)¿Nos podría traer dos botellas de agua? – Could you bring us two bottles of water? (b)Señor, ¿sabría usted dónde está el restaurante italiano? – Sir, do you know where the Italian restaurant is?

Present Perfect And Past/PluPerfect Tenses

To form the Present Perfect and the Pluperfect/ Past Perfect tenses in Spanish the verb “HABER” is used in the present and the imperfect tenses respectively in addition to a past participle. Before addressing the conjugations of the verb “HABER” we will look at forming the past participle. The Past Participle To form the Past Participle generally takes the following stem changes: –AR verbs end with “-ADO”, -ER and –IR verbs end with “-IDO”. For example:

1.Hablar = Hablado 2.Comer = Comido 3.Vivir = Vivido

NOTE: If an –ER or –IR verb ends with a, e or o before the –ER or –IR stem ending the “-ido”

ending takes an accent above the “i” and becomes “ído”. For example:

1.Traer = Tra-er = Traído 2.Leer = Le-er = Leído 3.Oír = O-ír = Oído

Conjugating the Verb “Haber” For the purposes of forming the present and past perfect/pluperfect tenses the verb “HABER” is conjugated in the present and imperfect tenses respectively.

3.The conditional mood can be used to express likelihood or probability in the past: (a)¿Qué hora

Forming the Perfect Tenses The Perfect Tenses are formed with conjugations of the verb “HABER”, which means “To have” and a past participle. The Present Perfect Tense:

Forming the Perfect Tenses The Perfect Tenses are formed with conjugations of the verb “HABER”, which

The Past Perfect/PluPerfect Tense:

Forming the Perfect Tenses The Perfect Tenses are formed with conjugations of the verb “HABER”, which

Note: With the Perfect Tenses the Past Participle will always end in “–o” despite the gender or the amount/number of the subject(s). For example:

1.La niña ha llegado tarde. – The girl has arrived late. 2.El hombre ha roto el escritorio. – The man has broken the desk. 3.Habíamos comprado todo. – We had bought everything. 4.Ya habían vendido la casa. – They had already sold the house. Using the Present Perfect and PluPerfect /Past Perfect Tenses 1.The Present Perfect Tense is used to state that an activity has recently taken place or has some impact on the present. For example:

a.Me he graduado. – I have graduated. b.Ya han discutido y son amigos de nuevo. – They have already argued and are friends again. c.¿Quién te ha dado esta autoridad? – Who has given you this authority? 2.The Pluperfect/Past Perfect Tense is used to state that a past activity had taken place. For example:

a.Ya él había dicho a ella. – He had already told her. b.Habíamos visto esta misma película ayer. – We had watched this same movie yesterday. c.Habían escogido el ganador. – They had already chosen the winner.

Present And Past Continuous/Progressive Tenses

To form the Present & Past Continuous Tenses the verb ESTAR is conjugated in the Present and Imperfect Tenses respectively and used with a Present Participle. We will first address forming the Present Participle.

The Present Participle -To form the Present Participle usually adds –ANDO to the stem of –AR verbs and –IENDO to the stems of – ER and –IR verbs. 1.Hablar = Hablando 2.Comer = Comiendo 3.Vivir = Viviendo

-When the –ER and –IR verb stems end in vowels, -YENDO instead of –IENDO is added.

1.Traer = Tra-er = Trayendo 2.Leer = Le-er = Leyendo 3.Oír = O-ír = Oyendo

-Stem changing –ER and –IR verbs are adjusted for sound purposes, the stem changes from “E” to “I” or “O” to “U”.

1.Decir = Diciendo 2.Pedir = Pidiendo 3.Preferir = Prefiriendo 4.Dormir = Durmiendo 5.Morir = Muriendo

6. Poder = Pudiendo 7. Seguir = Siguiendo 8. Sentir = Sintiendo 9. Venir = Viniendo

The Present Continuous The Present Continuous/Progressive Tense is formed by conjugating the verb “ESTAR” which means “To be” in the Present Tense and adding the Present Participle.

The Present Participle -To form the Present Participle usually adds – ANDO to the stem of

The Past Continuous The Past Continuous/Progressive Tense is formed by conjugating the verb “ESTAR” which means “To be” in the Imperfect Tense and adding the Present Participle.

The Past Continuous The Past Continuous/Progressive Tense is formed by conjugating the verb “ESTAR” which means

Using the Present and Past Continuous The Continuous/Progressive Tenses is used to state that an action is taking place or is in progress at a particular time. For example:

Present Continuous

1.Estoy hablando. – I am speaking. 2.Están almorzando. – They are having lunch 3.Estamos jugando futbol. – We are playing football. 4.¿Qué estás haciendo ahora? – What are you doing now? 5.¿Estás yendo para comer algo ya? – Are you going to eat something right now?

Past Continuous

1.Estábamos cocinando las papas. – We were cooking the potatoes. 2.Estabas leyendo cuando yo salí de la casa. – You were reading when I left the house. 3.Él estaba cantando para su novia. – He was singing for his girlfriend. 4.Estaban caminando alrededor de la casa anoche a las nueve. – They were walking around the house at 9 o’clock last night. 5.Yo estaba viendo la televisión esta mañana cuando llamaste. – I was watching the television this morning when you called.

Time Expressions Using The Verb “Hacer”

In Spanish there are specific formats to follow for various expressions in the past:

1. For actions that began in the past and continues to the present:

Hace + time period + que + phrase in present tense E.g. Hace tres meses que no veo a Angela. – I haven’t seen Angela in 3 months. 2.For actions that began and continued for some time in the past:

Hacía + time period+ que + phrase in imperfect tense E.g. Hacía tres meses que no veía a Angela cuando la vi ayer. – I hadn’t seen Angela in 3 months when I saw her yesterday.

3.To ask how long an action, situation or an event has been going on:

¿Cuánto tiempo hace que …? Examples:

¿Cuánto tiempo hace que ella está enferma? – How long has she been sick? ¿Cuánto tiempo hace que no escuchas al radio? – How long have you not listened to the radio?

Or in the imperfect tense:

¿Cuánto tiempo hacía que …? Examples:

¿Cuánto tiempo hacía que pasaba usted en Panamá antes de salir? – How much time had you spent in Panama before you left. ¿Cuánto tiempo hacía que …? no veía a Ana hasta ayer? – For how long had you not seen Ana until yesterday?

4.To say “ago” when using the past tense E.g. Salieron de la isla hace dos anos. They left the island 2 years ago.