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Math 310 Fall 2015 (Prof.

Bayly) EXAM 1: Friday 18 September 2015

There are 4 problems on this exam. You should read through the entire exam before deciding which
problems you will work on earlier or later. It is extremely important to show your work!
No calculators are allowed on this exam. If your calculations become numerically awkward and
time-consuming, you should describe the steps you would take if you had a calculator.
(1)(25 points) Consider the linear system A~x = ~b where

A= 2
3 7 7

~b = b .

(a)(10 points) Write down the augmented matrix for this system and row reduce to echelon form
(treat the symbols a, b, c algebraically).
(b)(5 points) Let U be the coefficient matrix part of the echelon form you found in (a). Find a
lower-triangular matrix L for which LU will give the original A. (You dont have to actually check
LU = A, just write down what L is.)
(c)(5 points) Under what conditions on a, b, c will this system have a solution? Express this solvability condition as m
~ T ~b = 0, saying what the solvability vector m
~ actually is.
(d)(5 points) Check whether m
~ is orthogonal to the column vectors of A.

(2)(25 points) Parts (a,b) are about A =




~x =

(a)(5 points) p
The matrix norm kAk is defined as the maximum possible value of r(~x) = kA~xk/k~xk
where k~xk = x2 + y 2 is the usual Pythagoras length formula. Write r as an explicit function (but
you dont have to simplify) of the components x, y.
(b)(5 points) Divide top and bottom of your formula for r(x, y) by x, and re-express the result as
a function f (u) of the new variable u = y/x. Well stop now!
Parts (c, d, e) are about optical systems. Recall
system matrix trans from
 that an

a c
forms an incoming ray to an outgoing ray by
where a, b, c, d represent
b d
combinations of the lenses and distances between them. We saw in class that to create a point
image (a single yout with many sout s) starting with a point source (a single yin with many sin s)
we have to make the upper right element of the matrix = 0.
(c)(5 points) A Galilean telescope produces parallel output rays (a single sout with many yout s)
from parallel input rays (a single sin with many yin s). What element must equal zero to make this
happen (as you saw on our homework)?
(d)(5 points) A laser cutter takes parallel input rays (a single sin with many yin s) and focuses
them to a point (a single yout with many sout s). What element must equal zero here?

g k
m p
(e)(5 points) Suppose we have TWO systems with matrices K =
and M =
h l
n q
that each focus point sources to point images, so that k = 0 and p = 0.
If we physically connect these systems so that the output rays from system 1 become the input
rays for system 2, the matrix describing the combination is M K. Show that the combined system
also focuses points to points, i.e. that the upper right element of M K is 0.

Problem (2) continued: Extra credit (1 point) In the combined system of part (e), what is the
magnification (in terms of g, h, )?
(3)(25 points)When you row-reduce a system of equations, you are turning the system A~x = ~b into
a system U~x = ~c where the matrix U is in echelon form. Depending on U and ~c the system will
have either 0, 1, or solutions.
If you are given U but not ~c, you might or might not be able to determine exactly which situation
youre in. The possibilities are as follows:
(i) No solutions for any ~c

(ii) Unique solution for any ~c

(iii) Infinity solutions for any ~c

(iv) No solutions or unique solution, depending on ~c

(v) No solutions or infinity solutions,
depending on ~c
(vi) Unique solution or infinity solutions, depending on ~c
For each of the following U matrices (5 points each), say with reasons which situation you are in.
If you are in one of the or situations described above, give two ~c vectors that illustrate the two

(a)U = 0

(c)U =







(b)U =


(d)U = 0



1 4
1 2
0 5

3 1
2 3


(e)U = 0


Extra credit (2 points): Two of these situations never occur. Which are they?
(4) The teams in the Fish League are the Pikes, Quillbacks, Remoras, and Sharks.
(a)(5 points) The first week is busy for the Quillbacks. On Tuesday they visit the Pikes win by 4,
then on Thursday they host the Sharks and lose by 2. Draw the network representing the whole
system (dont forget the Remoras) and write down the system of equations representing the games
played so far.
(b)(5 points) Write down the matrix and target vector of the system from (a), then find its general
solution in vector form. Identify the particular and complementary parts of the solution, free
variables, null vectors, solvability vectors. Or say why there arent any. Can we rank the teams?
(c)(5 points) The Remoras make up for lost time in the second week. They visit the Pikes on
Tuesday and lose by 3, then host the Quillbacks on Thursday and lose by 4. Draw the network and
write down the system of equations representing the games played so far (including first week)
(d)(5 points) Write down the matrix and target vector of the system from (c). Identify the solvability
vector(s) and use it to show that there is no solution to the system.
(e)(5 points) Change the score of one of the Remoras games so that the system does have a solution.
You dont have to find the solution, but do write down the null vector(s) if any. Can we rank the
teams now? .