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YELLOW BOOK

Fire protection for structural steel


in buildings
4th Edition
(Volume 1 of 2)

Association for Specialist Fire Protection

Kingsley House, Ganders Business Park, Kingsley, Bordon, Hampshire GU35 9LU, United Kingdom
t: 01420 471 612 www.asfp.org.uk

ASFP YELLOW BOOK


Amendments to Vol 1: Section 1-9
(Amendments to Vol 2: Section 10 included in the front of each product section)
DATE

SECTION

AMENDMENT SUMMARY

SOURCE

13/07/07

ALL

Book divided into two volumes. Vol 1: Sections 1-8 & 10 and Vol 2:
Section 9 Product Data Sheets

BP

06/08/07

Table 3:
610x305x149 area of section changed to 190.04

BP

06/08/07

Table 6:
Parallel flange channels, 3-sided profile drawing corrected

BP

06/08/07

Table 9:
3-sided profile and box drawings exchanged

BP

06/08/07

Table 10:
Structural tees, 3-sided profile drawing corrected
305 x 152 x 58.9, 4-sided profile section factor changed to 125

BP

06/08/07

Table 13:
60 x 60 x 4mm 4-sided section factor changed to 275

BP

06/08/07

Table 14:
120 x 80 x 4mm 3-sided (2nd col) section factor changed to 185

BP

01/11/07

Repagination of pages

BP

17/12/07

6.3.4(c) change 150mm to 160mm

BP

17/12/08

Include amended tables 25, 26 and 27

BP

14/01/09

5&7

Correct equation 3-7 within publication

BP

09/04/09

Changes to wording of Section 5.3.3 item 8

BP

09/06/09

Intro

Fire and Legal Liability & updated disclaimer added

BP

30/07/09

Amendments to section 4.3.2 item 7

BP

30/07/09

New section 1.6.11

BP

30/07/09

New section 6.4

BP

05/08/09

Intro

Typographical amendment: para 4 line 1

BP

07/10/09

Front

Addition of CPD logo

JF

19/01/10

Front

Replacement of Preface and Scope

BP

19/01/10

Addition of explanatory footnotes to Table 19

BP

30/03/10

Addition of third party logos

NR

11/06/10

10

Addition of a new product

NR

Removal of 3M Scotchkote products

NR

24/08/10

Note 1:
Amendments may only be inserted by ASFP Secretariat with approval of the ASFP Technical Officer.

Volume 2: Parts 1 to 4 contain data for products divided by type

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


www.asfp.org.uk

2
Vol 1: INTRODUCTION

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

The Association was formed in 1976, and currently represents UK contractors and manufacturers of
specialist passive fire protection products, with associate members representing regulatory, certification,
testing and consulting bodies. It seeks to increase awareness and understanding of the nature of fire and
the various forms, functions and benefits provided by passive fire protection. It is willing to make its
specialist knowledge on all aspects of fire protection and can assist specifiers and main contractors in
identifying products suitable for specific requirements, both in the UK and related overseas markets. The
Association encourages experimental work related to passive fire protection and promotes consideration and
discussion of all issues affecting the fire protection of structural steel and buildings.
Association for Specialist Fire Protection (ASFP)

Kingsley House, Ganders Business Park, Kingsley, Bordon, Hampshire GU35 9LU, United Kingdom
T: 01420 471 612

www.asfp.org.uk

The Steel Construction Institute (SCI) develops and promotes the effective use of
steel in construction. It is an independent, membership based organisation. SCIs
research and development activities cover multi storey structures, industrial buildings,
bridges, civil engineering and offshore engineering. Activities encompass guidance
on structural design in carbon and stainless steels, dynamic performance, fire
engineering, sustainable construction, architectural design, building physics (acoustic
and thermal performance), value engineering, and information technology.
Membership is open to all organisations and individuals that are concerned with the use of steel in construction.
Members have access to specialist advisory service, free issue of every new SCI publication and free access to
Steelbiz, an online technical information system (www.steelbiz.org).
The Steel Construction Institute, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire, SL5 7QN
t: +44 (0) 1344 636525 www.steel-sci.org

The Fire Test Study Group (UK) (FTSG) is a forum for technical discussions and liaisons
between consulting fire test laboratories involved in producing test and assessment information
for the purposes of building control.
The member laboratories are all UKAS Accredited for testing. The primary objective of the group
is to ensure common technical interpretations of the fire test standards and a common approach
to technical appraisals or assessments of products made by FTSG members within the terms of approved
document B Fire Spread to the Building Regulations 1991 1985.
Members of the FTSG participate on all relevant BSI committees, the equivalent ISO CEN technical committees
and are involved in the EEC European Commission technical discussions on harmonisation.
FTSG members have strongly supported the publication of this edition of the Yellow Book as it provides
specifiers and regulatory bodies with independently validated data. It also provides a comprehensive yet
concise guide to the performance of materials used to provide fire protection to structural steel.
The Fire Test Study Group (FTSG) (UK) Ltd
c/o Bodycote Warringtonfire Testing, Holmesfield Road, Warrington, Cheshire WA1 2DS
t: 01925 655116 www.warringtonfire.net
Acknowledgements
Permission to reproduce extracts of BS 5950-8: 2003 (E) is granted by BSI. British Standards can be obtained from BSI
Customer Services, 389 Chiswick High Road, London W4 4AL T: +44 (0)20 8996 9001 E: cservices@bsi-global.com
The publishers wish to express their appreciation of the work undertaken by the ASFP
Technical Review Panel consisting of Messrs G.Deakin and P Crewe, Bodycote Warringtonfire
and Dr D.Smith and N Mcdonald of BRE FRS. The Panel has undertaken the validating and
appraisal of the proprietary data sheets in this publication to maintain its unbiased technical
content. The ASFP also acknowledges the valuable contributions made by Mr Gerry Newman
and Ian Simms, SCI; Mr Ron Smith, previous Technical Officer ASFP for over 15 years who
edited several revisions of this document; Mr John Dowling, Corus Construction; Bill Parlor,
current Technical Officer ASFP; and Mrs Lisa Hennessey in the preparation and editing of the
text for publication.
2007 Association for Specialist Fire Protection
th
ISBN: 978 1 870409 25 4 (4 edition revised 7 Oct 09

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


www.asfp.org.uk

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Vol 1: INTRODUCTION

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

FIRE AND YOUR LEGAL LIABILITY


2008 produced the highest UK peace time fire losses of all time, rising over the previous year by 16% to a
record 1.3bn. Thats why we must all play our part.

Why is this of relevance to me!


If you are involved in provision of a fire protection package, at any level, then you share liability for its
usefulness and its operation when its needed in fire, and that liability will still be there in the event of a court
case.

I place the order; it is not my responsibility to install the works!


If it is your responsibility to specify the materials and/or appoint the installation contractor, it is also your
responsibility to ensure that they can prove competency for the fire protection materials used, or the works to be
carried out. Its no longer simply a duty of care or voluntary its a legal obligation.
If you knowingly ignore advice that leads to a failure in the fire performance of any element of installed fire
protection within a building, then you are likely to be found to be just as culpable as the deficient installer.
You share liability for the provision of information required under Building Regulation 16B that tells the user of
the building about the fire prevention measures provided in the building. Otherwise, the user cannot make an
effective risk assessment under the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005.

What is expected of me?


In the event of fire, and deaths, a court will want to know how every fire protection system was selected; the
basis for selection of the installer, whether adequate time was provided for its installation, and whether there
was adequate liaison between the different parties to ensure it was installed correctly. No ifs, no buts its all
contained in the Construction, Design and Management Regulations 2007.
The CDM 2007 regulations, enforced by Health and Safety Executive concentrate on managing the risk, and the
health and safety of all those who build, those that use the building, those who maintain it and those that
demolish it cradle to grave.

Be aware the time to consider the above is before the event, not after it!

Although care has been taken to ensure, to the best of our knowledge, that all data and information contained in this document is accurate
to the extent that it relates to either matters of fact or accepted practice or matters of opinion at the time of publication, neither the
Association for Specialist Fire Protection Limited nor the co-publishers will be liable for any technical, editorial, typographical or other errors
or omissions in or misinterpretations of the data and information provided in this document. Since this document may be subject to change
and updating, the data and information which it contains is only correct at the dates of the fire assessment and acceptance into this
publication. The latest version of this publication is freely downloadable from the ASFP web site at www.asfp.org.uk/publications. The latest
date is indicated at the bottom of each page. The ASFP shall not be liable for products delivered to the market, or for any aspect of
withdrawn products. Compliance with this ASFP document does not of itself infer immunity from legal obligation
Since this document may be subject to change and updating, it is an uncontrolled document. The data is only correct at the dates of the fire
assessment and acceptance into this publication. The latest version of this publication is freely downloadable from the ASFP web site at
www.asfp.org.uk/publications. The latest date is indicated at the bottom of each page. The ASFP offers no responsibility for products
delivered to the market, or for any aspect of withdrawn products.

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


www.asfp.org.uk

4
Vol 1: INTRODUCTION

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


Published by:
Association for Specialist Fire Protection (ASFP) in conjunction with
Fire Test Study Group (FTSG) and Steel Construction Institute (SCI)
Foreword
I am pleased to be able to introduce you to this updated version of the ASFP Yellow Book the original of which
was introduced some 30 years ago. Throughout that period it has become a definitive reference to the provision
of fire protection to structural steel in buildings, and a source of validated performance data about products for
that purpose provided by ASFP members.
Construction methods continue to change as new innovations are introduced. The ASFP has tried to react to
those changes, and will continue to respond with regular updated electronic versions of this 4th Edition offering
appropriate new text and up-to-date data on products.
This edition incorporates a new section to consolidate an industry agreed protocol for the formulation of
performance claims for intumescent products in the absence of a specific British Standard for their fire testing
and assessment. The protocol reflects requirements for gaining European Technical Approvals and CE Marking
of products, since in the next two or three years all forms of fire protection to steelwork will have to be CE
Marked if they are to be placed on the European market, even if CE Marking is not mandatory in the UK.
As the new European (EN) fire tests are introduced, beginning with the revision of DD ENV 13381-4:2002
Applied protection to steel members which will probably be split into two parts currently drafted as prEN
13381-8 Applied reactive protection to steel members, and prEN 13381-4 Applied passive protection to steel
th
members - new challenges for effective communication will arise. The revised text introduced in this 4 Edition
separates the testing and assessment methods of passive fire protection products from reactive fire protection
products.
th

This 4 Edition of the publication recognises that in recent years the use of cellular beam constructions have
increased, especially where long spans are required. These beams may feature circular, rectangular or lozenge
shaped openings in the web to reduce weight and to accommodate services. It is now well known that the
required thickness of any intumescent coating to provide fire protection to these types of cellular beams is
product specific and that generalised rules for adoption of the data appropriate to solid sections cannot be
made; the narrowness of the web post needs to be considered to establish the appropriate thickness of the
coating. An explanatory section has been added to the text. Note that work on prEN 13381-8 does not yet
encompass testing and assessment of fire protection to cellular beams.
Notwithstanding these changes, the traditional section factor tables have also been updated, since most steel
sizes now available from UK producers have been changed in recent times.
As in previous editions, an ASFP Technical Review Panel of independent experts judges the adequacy of the
test and assessment data supporting every product included in this book, ably managed and supported by the
ASFP Technical Officer. Appropriate acknowledgements are given in the inside cover. Readers can rest
assured that all fire protective products/systems listed are capable of providing the claimed performance as
given by test to appropriate BS or EN standards, as indicated in all tabulated data. However, this does not
confer any reliability of performance or quality of products supplied by manufacturers to the market. This
assurance can be offered by third party certification of the products.
In England and Wales, the introduction of The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 and the introduction
of two separate volumes of Approved Document B Fire Safety (2006 edition) has combined to present new
requirements for the communication of potential hazards and associated risks within the duty for dynamic risk
assessment of most buildings that are not dwellings. Similar changes are ongoing in Scotland, within The
Building (Scotland) Regulations 2004 and the Technical Handbook (Fire) 2005 for Domestic and Non-domestic
buildings. In Northern Ireland the relevant documents are The Building Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2000 and
DFP Technical Booklet E Fire Safety 2005. The latest information can be found at either of
www.planningportal.gov.uk or at www.infoscotland.com/firelaw or at www2.dfpni.gov.uk/buildingregulations
The information used for risk assessments may become scrutinised as never before, as Fire Law adopts the
same prove yourself innocent approach as existing Health and Safety legislation.
I commend the Yellow Book to all, as an authoritative source of guidance, referenced in Approved Document B
2006, on the safe provision of fire resistance for structural steel frames in buildings.
Geoff Deakin MBE
Exova Warringtonfire
Chairman of the ASFP Technical Committee
Association for Specialist Fire Protection
www.asfp.org.uk

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Vol 1: INTRODUCTION

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4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE ................................................................................................................................................................ 7
SCOPE .................................................................................................................................................................... 7
DEFINITIONS .......................................................................................................................................................... 8
1.

ASPECTS OF FIRE PROTECTION .............................................................................................................. 9


1.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................................... 9
1.2 Protection Methods and Fire Testing .................................................................................................. 9
1.3 Fire Resistance Testing .................................................................................................................... 10
1.4 Assessment of fire protection materials ............................................................................................ 13
1.5 Material thickness and steel temperature ......................................................................................... 13
1.6 Thermal Response and Section Factor ............................................................................................ 15
1.7 Performance of steel encased passive protection systems .............................................................. 20
1.8 New steel section designations ......................................................................................................... 20

2.

STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING ......................................................................................................... 44


2.1 Strength of steel at elevated temperature ......................................................................................... 44
2.2 Load ratio .......................................................................................................................................... 44
2.3 Composite beams and voids ............................................................................................................. 45

TEST & ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES GENERAL GUIDANCE ..........................................................49


3.1 General information ........................................................................................................................... 49
3.2 General test procedures .................................................................................................................... 49
3.3 General assessment procedures ...................................................................................................... 50

4.

TEST AND ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS.......................51


4.1 Test programme - passive protection systems ................................................................................. 51
4.2 Test procedure - passive protection systems ................................................................................... 51
4.3 Assessment of performance of passive protection systems ............................................................. 52

5.

TEST AND ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES REACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS ....................55


5.1 Test programme [Reactive systems] ................................................................................................ 55
5.2 Test procedures [Reactive systems] ................................................................................................. 56
5.3 Assessment procedures [Reactive systems] .................................................................................... 57

6.

THE FIRE PROTECTION OF CELLULAR BEAMS & CASTELLATED SECTIONS ..................................64


6.1 Cellular beams, including castellated sections, protected by passive fire protection systems [e.g.
boards and sprays] ............................................................................................................................ 64
6.2 Cellular beams protected by reactive coatings [e.g intumescent coatings] ......................................65
6.3 The ASFP fire testing protocol for cellular beam protection ............................................................. 66
6.4 Cellular beams with rectangular openings protected by reactive coatings. ......................................73

7.

TEST AND ASSESSMENT METHODS TO THE EUROPEAN STANDARD ENV 13381- 4.....................77
7.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................................ 77
7.2 General.............................................................................................................................................. 77
7.3 Testing Protocol ................................................................................................................................ 78
7.4 Test Conditions ................................................................................................................................. 79
7.5 Properties of Test Component Materials .......................................................................................... 79
7.6 Validity of the Temperature Data ...................................................................................................... 79
7.7 Correction of Temperature Data ....................................................................................................... 79
7.8 Assessment Methods ........................................................................................................................ 79
7.9 Criteria for Acceptability .................................................................................................................... 81
7.10 Direct Application of Results ............................................................................................................. 81
7.11 Presentation of the Results ............................................................................................................... 81
7.12 Applicability of the Results of the Assessment to Other Section Shapes .........................................82
7.13 Assessment of Existing BS 476 Test Data to ENV 13381- 4............................................................ 83

8.

FIRE PROTECTION PRODUCT/ SYSTEM DATA SHEETS AND THEIR APPLICATION ........................84
8.1 Structural fire protection using passive products/systems ................................................................ 84
8.2 Structural fire protection using reactive coatings .............................................................................. 88

9.

BIBLIOGRAPHY & REFERENCES............................................................................................................. 90

10.

LIST OF PRODUCT DATA SHEETS .......................................................................................................... 93

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


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6
Vol 1: INTRODUCTION

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

PREFACE
This publication has been prepared by members of the ASFP and presents economical methods for the fire
protection of structural steelwork to provide compliance with building regulations. It provides a comprehensive
guide to proprietary materials and systems all of which are manufactured, marketed or site applied by members
of ASFP.
UK and European design codes give the engineer the opportunity to calculate the steel failure temperature as a
function of the applied load level. For all fire protection materials the required thickness of fire protection will
vary depending on the critical limiting temperature of the loaded steel. This edition therefore contains
information for some products showing the variation of protection thickness with steel temperature. Suppliers
may have more data available than is published here
In the new European fire test standards the section factor is referred to as A/V but, in the UK, the term Hp/A has
been used for many years to denote the section factor. In order to avoid confusion to the user of this publication,
it should be noted that the terms A/V and Hp/A have very similar meaning and the reader may use either. The
term Hp/A will eventually become replaced in the UK by A/V which will become the standard reference
throughout Europe.
This document does not discuss details of the on-site application of reactive coatings or board or non-reactive
sprays. Detailed information on the application methods and quality provisions for these applications is available
in ASFP Technical Guidance Documents TGD 11, 13 and 14 respectively, all of which are available as free
download documents from www.asfp.org.uk/publications.

SCOPE
Section 1
Aspects of fire protection. When do we apply fire protection to structural steel sections? An over view of fire test
methods. The calculation of section factor as used to determine the thickness of fire protection.
Tables of section factors for many current UK produced structural steel sections.
The section factor for beams with web openings is discussed in Section 6.
Section 2
Structural fire engineering & recommendations for composite beams.
Section 3
General guidance on test and assessment procedures.
Section 4
Test and assessment procedures for passive fire protection systems (boards and sprays)
Section 5
Test and assessment procedures for reactive fire protection systems (e.g intumescents coatings)
Section 6
The fire protection cellular beams and castellated sections.
Calculation of section factor of cellular beams.
Section 7
Test and assessment methods to the European Standard ENV 13381- 4.
Note: this section is subject to revision when ENV 13381-4 is replaced by EN 13381-4 and EN 13381-8 for
boards & Sprays and for reactive coatings respectively
Section 8
Fire protection system data sheets and their application.
Section 9
Bibliography and References
Section 10
List of product data sheets for many different fire protection systems.

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


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7
Vol 1: INTRODUCTION

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

DEFINITIONS
CEN
European Committee for Standardisation. This committee is responsible for the preparation of European
fire related Standards.
Composite Beam
A beam comprising a steel I section connected via shear connectors to a reinforced concrete or
composite floor slab where the steel section and floor slab are designed to act together.
Critical Temperature
The temperature at which failure of the structural steel element is expected to occur against a given load
level.
Design Temperature
The design temperature is the temperature determined by calculation at which failure of the structural
steel element is expected against a given load level at a particular location in a building
Fire Load
The energy per square metre of floor area of the combustible material present within the internal
bounding surfaces of a room, compartment or building.
Fire Resistance Period
The fire resistance period of each tested loaded steel section is the duration of the test until the specimen
is no longer able to support the test load (see Section 1).
The fire resistance of a compartment wall or floor that is penetrated by protected structure also needs to
be considered, so that the required load bearing capacity, the integrity and insulation criteria of the wall
are not diminished by the protected steel and fire-stopping / penetration components
Intumescent Coating / reactive coating
A coating which reacts to heat by swelling in a controlled manner to many times its original thickness to
produce a carbonaceous char, which acts as an insulating layer to protect the steel substrate.
Limiting Steel Temperature
The maximum temperature of the critical element of a steel member prior to failure, under fire conditions.
Orientation
Plane in which the exposed face of the test specimen is located, either vertically or horizontally during testing.
Passive fire protection products (e.g boards and sprays)
Products which do not change their physical form on heating, providing fire protection by virtue of their
physical or thermal properties
Plate Thermometer
A 100 x 100mm insulated thin steel plate to which a thermocouple is attached, used to measure the fire
test furnace temperature(s).
Reactive Fire Protection Products (e.g. intumescent coatings)
Products which are specifically formulated to provide a chemical reaction upon heating such that their
physical form changes and in so doing provide fire protection by thermal insulative and cooling effects.;
eg intumescent products
Section Factor (A/V)
The rate of increase in temperature of a steel cross-section is determined by the ratio of the heated
surface area (A) to the volume (V). This ratio, A/V, (also known as Hp/A), has units of m and is known
as the Section Factor. Members with low section factors will heat up more slowly.
In profiled protection: The ratio of the inner surface area of the fire protection material per unit length, to
the cross sectional volume (area) of the steel member per unit length.
In boxed protection: The ratio of the inner surface area of the smallest possible rectangle or square
encasement that can be measured round the steel member per unit length to the cross sectional volume
(area) of the steel member per unit length.
Note that the section factor for cellular beams is calculated differently see Section 6
Steel UB or UKB
Universal Beam of steel as manufactured to BS 4: Part 1: 2005
Steel UC or UKC
Universal Column of steel as manufactured to BS 4: Part 1: 2005
Stickability
Ability of a fire protection material to remain coherent and in position for a defined range of deformations,
furnace and steel temperatures, such that its ability to provide fire protection is not impaired.
UKAS
United Kingdom Accreditation Service (National Accreditation of Measurement and Sampling)
Association for Specialist Fire Protection
www.asfp.org.uk

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Vol 1: INTRODUCTION

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4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

1.

ASPECTS OF FIRE PROTECTION

1.1

Introduction

Regulations require certain elements of structure to have fire resistance. Whether or not an element requires fire
resistance depends upon such things as size, height, use and occupancy of the building and the function of the
element. When exposed to fire all commonly used structural materials lose some of their strength, for example,
concrete can spall exposing reinforcement, timber sections deplete by charring and steel members eventually lose
strength. Heavily loaded steel will lose its design margin of safety at temperatures around 550C regardless of the
grade of steel. Members carrying appreciably less than their full capacity may remain stable at temperatures up to,
and beyond 700C.
Fire resistance tests on structural steel members, performed in accordance with BS 476-21 or ENV 13381-4 (see
Sections 1.3 and 7) have shown that using the fire protection products/systems described in this publication, the
load-bearing criterion of the standard test can be satisfied over a range of temperatures. Further information on
structural fire engineering is given in Section 2.
Where structural steel members are required to have enhanced fire resistance, they can be protected by applying
insulating materials. The tabulated protection thicknesses in Section 9 include the inherent fire protection of the
steel section for given exposure to fire . Alternatively, in certain cases, limited fire resistance can be achieved by
virtue of the inherent fire performance of the particular steel section itself. Fire resistance tests on heavily loaded
flexural and compression members have demonstrated that in certain cases a fire resistance of 15 minutes or more
can be achieved without applied protection. Examples are given below Table A2 of Approved Document B: 2006
1.2

Protection Methods and Fire Testing

A wide range of materials is available to enhance the fire resistance of structural steel members. They can be
applied in a variety of ways to meet specific site requirements. In considering any fire protection system it is
important to distinguish between profile, box and solid methods of application (Figs 1 and 2). Sprayed materials
would normally be applied to follow the profile of the section. Board materials would normally be used to form a box
around the section and special insulating concretes can be used to form solid protection. Details of individual fire
protection products/systems are given in Section 9.
Specially designed and constructed suspended ceilings utilising lightweight metal support components, insulating
tiles and panels, and sprayed or trowelled compounds on suspended lath, tested in accordance with BS 476-23 or
ENV 13381-1 may also be used for the protection of structural steel but they are beyond the scope of this
publication.
Fire tests on elements of building construction have been carried out in accordance with the methods in the various
Parts of BS 476. The BS 476 series is being replaced by European fire testing standards (See Sections 1.3 and 7).
These already coexist in the guidance within Approved Document B: 2006. The two standards are generally similar
but differ in a number of details. The adoption of the European standard is intended to remove technical barriers to
trade within Europe. The international fire testing standard, ISO 834, is similar to the other standards and is in the
process of being revised to bring it more in line with the European standard. It is hoped that eventually there will be
a basis for international test data exchange.
Figure 1: Protection technique for three-sided protection

Profile

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


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Box
(with or without
gap over flanges)
9
VOL 1: SECTION 1

Solid

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

Figure 2: Protection technique for four-sided protection

Profile

Box
(with or without
gap over flanges)

Solid

The size and construction of a test specimen would ideally be identical with the element in its intended position in a
building. In a BS 476 test, loaded beams are tested horizontally with protection applied to three sides and with the
top flange directly in contact with a floor slab. Columns are tested vertically with the protection applied to all sides.
It is therefore common to meet the terms three sided and four sided exposure when dealing with fire protection to
steelwork. When assessing a material to ENV 13381 Part 4 or to the draft prEN 13381 Part 8 the required tests are
slightly different. Beams are tested with a layer of insulation between the top flange and the floor slab and a loaded
test on a column is generally not required.
It is common when referring to the testing and use of fire protection to use the term orientation to mean
horizontally, as a beam, or vertically, as a column. The term orientation is used throughout this publication.
The data sheets in this publication have largely been derived from tests carried out at the BRE/FRS fire laboratory
at Garston, Watford, UK, or at Bodycote Warringtonfire, together with support data from other laboratories. The UK
test facilities are approved for this test work under the UKAS scheme.
The results of a standard fire resistance test relate to the steel section size and loading, together with the thickness
and performance of the protection system. To repeat the procedure to explore those important and numerous
variables for all steel sections and protection parameters would be prohibitive. Assessment procedures have
therefore been developed which allow the performance of a range of steel sections to be estimated from the
information gained from a limited number of tests.
1.3

Fire Resistance Testing

Fire test standards


The general procedures used for determining the fire resistance of load-bearing elements of structure are specified
in BS476 series. In assessing the performance of fire protection materials the relevant parts are:
Part 20

Method of determination of the fire resistance of elements of construction (general principles)

Part 21

Method of determination of the fire resistance of load-bearing elements of construction

Whilst BS 476 Part 20 is concerned with general principles and covers requirements which are common to the other
Parts of BS 476, the BS 476 Part 21 fire resistance testing covers load-bearing elements of construction, such as
steel beams, columns or walls, whilst BS 476 Part 22 fire resistance tests are intended for non load-bearing
elements of construction
European fire testing standards have been published. In assessing the performance of fire protection materials the
relevant part is presently ENV 13381-4 Test methods for determining the contribution to the fire resistance of
structural members Part 4: Applied protection to steel members. This standard makes reference to the EN 1363
Series of standards which contain general information about conducting fire resistance tests. However, as all the
procedures for assessing fire protection are currently specified in ENV13381-4, it is this standard which is generally
referred to in this publication. The European standards will gradually replace the British Standards.
ENV 13381-4 has no parallel British Standard. In the UK, it is generally accepted that the procedures for
determining the contribution of applied protection to the fire resistance of steel members are covered by this ASFP
publication.
In both BS476 and the new European Standards the fire resistance performance of an element is judged against
the three criteria of load-bearing capacity, integrity and insulation. The European Classification System will use the
abbreviations of R, E and I respectively for these three criteria;Association for Specialist Fire Protection
www.asfp.org.uk

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VOL 1: SECTION 1

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

Resistance to collapse [load-bearing capacity (R)]


is the ability of the element to remain in place and support the required load without excessive deformation.
Resistance to fire penetration [integrity (E)]
is the ability of the element to resist the passage of flame and hot gases and also, not to exhibit flame on the
unexposed side.
Resistance to the transfer of excessive heat [insulation (I)]
is the ability of the element to resist the passage of heat by conduction. , and may be of particular importance where
steel structure passes through compartments, or fire resisting walls or floors
The use of REI terminology has already become more common. Note the requirement to maintain REI for
compartment walls and floors penetrated by protected steel. Simple linear elements such as beams or columns are
only judged against loadbearing capacity for the fire resistance period under consideration. Separating elements,
such as floors or walls, are judged against all three criteria.
1.3.1

Description of Fire tests to BS476

Beams are tested horizontally in conjunction with a floor slab (Figure 3) and columns are tested vertically (Figure 4).
Currently in the UK, loaded beam tests are carried out on a nominal span of 4.25 metres using a 305x127x42
Universal Beam for passive insulating materials and a 406x178x60 Universal Beam for intumescent coatings.
Loaded column tests are normally carried out on a 203 x 203 x 52 kg/m Universal Column with an exposed length
of at least 3 metres (Figure 4). The specimen is initially held vertically and, although it has freedom to expand
longitudinally, its ends are rotationally fixed so that, structurally, an effective length factor of 0.7 can be assumed. It
is then axially loaded to develop the required stress which is normally the maximum permitted by design.
The level of the applied load traditionally used in the UK is slightly lower than that specified in the new European EN
standard. The higher EN load could make the test more onerous in that the ability of the fire protection to maintain
its stickability could be affected. However, any difference in the final assessed thickness of protection required to
keep a steel member below a specified temperature is likely to be insignificant.
It is usual to include information on the fire insulating properties of fire protection materials obtained from tests
performed on unloaded exploratory specimens (about 1m in length). This information is used in both the UK and
European methods of assessing fire protection materials, and is often combined with loaded tests to form a
complete test package.
The procedures used in most UK fire testing laboratories have been agreed and standardised through the Fire Test
Study Group, which embraces members from UKAS approved fire testing laboratories, representatives from the
UKAS executive and BRE Fire Research Station, to ensure that consistent techniques are adopted in the
generation of data for appraisal purposes. It is recognised that varying results can be obtained on identical
specimens tested in different furnaces. To reduce the effect of such variations, the UK laboratories use common
preparation, testing and measuring techniques.
Figure 3: General arrangement for BS 476 fire tests on beams

LOAD
Furnace cover slab

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Concrete cover
Slab to steel
beam

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1.3.2

Description of fire tests to ENV 13381-4

The testing programme for the assessment of a fire protection material to ENV 13381-4 differs in a number of
respects from the BS 476 programme. The main difference is that a loaded column test is not required in the
European Standard, except for products which are only used for protecting columns. The other main difference is
that, for the loaded beam test, a layer of insulation is placed between the top flange of the beam and an ultra
lightweight concrete floor slab. This serves to reduce the heat sink effect of the slab and to minimise the effects of
composite action. UK beam tests use a segmented dense concrete slab in intimate contact with the top flange of
the beam.
The European procedures do not always require a loaded column to be tested. However, when assessing
intumescent coatings, an unloaded column 2000mm high must be tested to assess stickability.
Another major difference between European and UK testing is in the type of furnace thermocouple used. The
European test uses a plate thermometer. This a special type of thermocouple used for measuring the temperature
within the furnace. It consists of a small plate, insulated on one side, with a thermocouple welded to its centre. The
plate thermometer is intended to reduce the differences between fire tests carried out in different furnaces and thus
to promote European harmonisation.
Figure 4: General arrangement for BS 476 fire tests on loaded columns

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1.4

Assessment of fire protection materials

Methods of assessing the performance of fire protection materials have been developed which enable the thickness
of protection for a wide range of situations to be predicted. The procedure is in two parts. Firstly, a carefully
designed programme of fire tests is carried out on both loaded and unloaded specimens and, secondly, a
mathematical procedure is applied to the results of the tests which enables predictions of required thickness to be
made. These programmes of tests are designed to determine both the insulation characteristics of a fire protection
material and its physical performance under fire conditions for a range of steel sizes (in terms of Section Factor,
protection thicknesses and fire resistance periods). They generate the maximum amount of data from a minimum
number of tests.
A method of assessing fire protection materials has been developed and used in the UK for a number of years. It
was used to generate the data in the earlier editions of this publication and is one of the methods used in this
edition. More recently, European methods of assessing fire protection materials have been developed. These
methods have been formally codified in ENV 13381-4. In a similar programme of tests to those already used in the
UK, both loaded and unloaded specimens are tested and an appraisal of the fire protection material is derived. The
method has a number of technical differences from the UK procedure which make an exact comparison difficult.
Further information on fire resistance testing, programming and the assessment procedures are given in Sections 3,
4 and 5 - for general conditions, for passive [e.g. boards and sprays] and for reactive fire protection systems [e.g
intumescent coatings] respectively.
1.5

Material thickness and steel temperature

In this publication, the thickness of fire protection materials to maintain steel sections below specified temperatures
is given in product data tables. It is important that the basis for these temperatures is understood.
st

nd

In the 1 and 2 editions of this publication, the thickness of fire protection was specified such that the maximum
temperatures of 550C for columns, and 620C for beams (supporting concrete floors), were not exceeded for a
given period of fire resistance. This assumed that the structural section was fairly heavily loaded at the time of the
fire, together with a simplistic representation of the behaviour of steel at elevated temperatures. Since the
introduction of these temperatures, we have improved understanding of how steel columns and beams behave in
fire, resulting in the development of fire design codes. It is now known that the original approach was almost
invariably conservative, but, in some limited cases can be shown to be unconservative.
Using fire design codes such as BS 5950-8:2003 or the Structural Eurocodes, EC 3-1.2 and EC 4-1.2, designated
ENV 1993-1.2 and ENV 1994-1.2, the load on the structure at the time of the fire can be calculated by treating it as
an accidental limit state. If used, this will allow structural fire designers to specify a limiting or failure temperature for
a given structural section, to the fire protection contractor. The protection contractor will then be able to use the
required thickness of material to ensure that the steel section does not exceed this temperature, within the fire
resistance period. This process could be simplified by the designer specifying a maximum steel temperature, based
on the worst case, for all beams or columns on one floor level.
If the structural fire design codes are not used to calculate the maximum allowable temperature in the steel
sections, then the temperatures of 550C and 620C, used earlier, may not always be appropriate and some
reference to the composite or non-composite steel members and the usage of the proposed building should be
made, see Table 1.
Buildings such as offices, residences, schools, hospitals, etc, which are not used for storage, have a high
percentage of non-permanent loads. For this type of building, the structural codes, BS 5950-1 and ENV1991-1-1
(the loading code) assume that a proportion of the design load will not be present at the time of the fire. Other types
of buildings such as warehouses, libraries, etc are primarily used for storage, so a high percentage of load is
permanent, and the codes allow no reduction in design load for the fire condition.
Note that in BS 5950 Part 8:2003 the load factor for offices has been reduced from a generalised value of 0.6, as
used in previous Editions, to a lower value of 0.5. This means that the failure temperature will increase marginally.
In fire, it is permissible to consider only the strength of an element. The fire testing standards, such as BS 476,
effectively base the failure criteria for load-bearing elements on strength. However, beams are often designed for
serviceability (deflection) requirements which mean that their strength is not fully utilised in the cold state and
they would therefore have an additional reserve of strength at the fire limit state. Columns are frequently
constructed so that a single length will be two or three storeys high. The lowest storey will be the highest loaded
but the upper storey will be very lightly loaded. Another factor affecting the failure temperature in fire is that there
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are only a finite number of serial sizes. The designer is almost invariably forced to use the next size up. Steel
members which, in terms of strength, are not fully utilised in the normal, cold, state will have reduced load ratios in
the fire limit state.
1.5.1

Performance criteria

In case of a fire, the mechanical resistance of the entire structure or individual structural members should be
designed and constructed in such a way that their load bearing function is maintained under the factored loads for
permanent or non-permanent loads during the relevant fire exposure. The load factors for the fire limit state are
provided in Table 5 of BS 5950 Part 8:2003.
Any specified design or regulatory requirements for the insulation and integrity of compartment walls and floors,
including any incorporated members, should also be satisfied
1.5.2

Limiting temperatures

The limiting temperatures shown in Table 1, are provided for various categories as listed, for a range of load ratios
based on BS 5950-8: 2003. They may be used to determine the behaviour in fire of columns, tension members and
beams with low shear load, designed in accordance with BS 5950-1:2000.
Table 1 Limiting temperatures for the design of protected and unprotected hot finished members
Limiting temperature [degrees C] at a load ratio of

Description of steel member

0.7

0.6(2)

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

70

510

540

580

615

655

710

800

> 70 but 180

460

510

545

590

635

635

635

Unprotected members or protected members complying


with 6.31 of BS 5950-8

590

620

650

680

725

780

880

Other protected members

540

585

625

655

700

745

800

550
575

580(2)
600(2)

610(2)
635(2)

645
665

685
700

740
760

840
865

495
530

530
560

570
595

610
630

650
675

705
725

785
795

Unprotected members, or protected members complying


with 6.31 of BS 5950-8

520

555

585

620

660

715

810

Other protected members

460

510

545

590

635

690

770

Members in tension: all cases

460

510

545

590

635

690

770

Members in compression, for a slenderness

Non-composite members in bending supporting concrete


slabs or composite slabs:

Composite members in bending supporting concrete slabs


or composite slabs:
Unprotected members, or protected members complying
with 6.31 of BS 5950-8
[i] 100% degree of shear connection
[ii] 40% degree of shear connection
Other protected members [i] 100% degree of shear connection
[ii] 40% degree of shear connection
Members in bending not supporting concrete slabs:

NOTE For beams supporting a composite slab, the limiting temperatures only apply when the voids between the top of the beam and
underside of the steel deck are filled with non-combustible void fillers. Also see 2.3 of this ASFP publication
SCI 4 November 1997 The existing temperatures of 550C and 620C are acceptable for most circumstances, but they are not always
conservative. A suitable statement must be provided in all contracts and quotations

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NOTE 1 - The ratio of the load or moment carried by a steel member at the time of a fire compared to the strength
of the member at normal temperatures is called the load ratio. For practical designs the load ratio will vary between
approximately 0.4 to 0.65. The higher the load ratio, the lower the failure temperature.
th

NOTE 2 It is important to recognise that changes have been introduced to the text in this 4 Edition when
compared to the data in earlier Editions. These changes arise from the revision of load factors in BS 5950 - 8:
2003.
[a]

For example, the load factor for Offices has been reduced from 0.6 for general buildings, to a lower value
of 0.5 in BS 5950 Part 8:2003. This means that the failure temperature will increase marginally. The load
ratio is higher in storage buildings but not usually above 0.65. This has an effect on the limiting
temperature as shown in Table 1.

[b]

It is also important to differentiate between the effect on limiting temperature from non-composite decks
and composite decks with different levels of shear connection as shown in Table 1, as extracted from
BS5950-8:2003

[c]

Roof loading is non-permanent in nature regardless of the use of a building. Therefore, in assessing the
appropriate steel temperature of columns and beams supporting roofs in storage buildings, the higher
steel temperatures appropriate for offices etc should be used.

NOTE 3 - Users of the tabulated data should be aware of the lower recommended temperatures for storage
buildings. As the limiting temperatures assumed may affect the thickness and cost of fire protection, users of the
data are reminded that the basis on which the thicknesses are specified in contracts should be clear to all parties.
NOTE 4 - In Section 9, fire protection system thicknesses are given for typical steel temperatures. It is the
responsibility of the design engineer, using design codes such as BS 5950-8 or ENV 1993-1-2, to specify the
appropriate limiting steel temperatures.
1.6

Thermal Response and Section Factor

The rate of increase in temperature of a steel cross-section is determined by the ratio of the heated surface area (A)
to the volume (V). This ratio, A/V, has units of m-1 and is known as the Section Factor. Members with low Section
Factors will heat up more slowly, and this is shown diagrammatically in Figure 5.
Figure 5: Concept of the section factor
Section Factor = A/V
where
A = surface area of steel exposed to fire per unit of length
V = Volume of the section per unit length

High A

Low A

Low V

High V

Fast Heating

Slow Heating

In earlier editions of this publication the Section Factor was written as Hp/A. In the new European testing and
design standards (ENV13381-4, ENV1993-1-2 and ENV1994-1-2) the Section Factor is presented as A/V, which
generally has the same numerical value as Hp/A. It is likely that the designation Hp/A will gradually fall into disuse.
Throughout this publication the term A/V will be used.
A steel section with a large surface area (A) will receive more heat than one with a smaller surface area. Also, the
greater the volume (V) of the section, the greater is the heat sink. It follows therefore, that a small thick section will
be slower to increase in temperature than a large thin one. The Section Factor (A/V) is thus a measure of the rate
at which a section will heat up in a fire. The higher the value of the Section Factor the greater will be the protection
thickness required. Values of Section Factor, rounded to the nearest 5 units, for the range of sections for fire
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exposure on both three and four sides are given in Tables 3 to 15. Figure 6 illustrates the appropriate perimeter
dimension to be used when calculating the Section Factor for a variety of steel sections in different situations.
In calculating the Section Factor values the full volume, V, is used whether the section is exposed on three or four
sides as the whole of the steel section will be receiving heat. The value of A is the exposed surface area and that
depends on the configuration of the fire protection. In the case of a box protection, the surface area is taken as
the sum of the inside dimensions of the smallest possible rectangular or square encasement (except for circular
hollow sections - see Figure 6) whilst for a profile protection, it is taken as the external surface area of the steel
section itself. Where a section supports a floor or is against a wall which themselves provide fire protection, the
surface in contact is ignored in calculating A. For solid protection the Section Factor value should be taken as that
for box protection.
Where a spray or trowelled system has been tested as a profile protection, the use of the same material as a box
protection is permissible, provided there is adequate evidence of physical performance (commonly referred to as
stickability). In the absence of a full programme of tests on the system as a boxed protection, the thickness
should be derived on the basis of the Section Factor for the profiled application
In some cases the appropriate Section Factor may not be based on simple geometric considerations. Guidance on
some common cases is given below.
1.6.1

Section Factor (1400/t) for cellular beams including castellated sections

Cellular beams
To satisfy building design requirements, steel beams are now available with a variety of apertures created in the
basic section size, during a secondary manufacturing process, to form deeper cellular beams than the parent beam.
Alternatively, cellular beams can be created from three flat steel plates welded together.
Whilst rectangular and/or elliptical elongated aperture shapes are available, most apertures are circular in shape. A
large range of circular aperture sizes and spacing/pitch is available. The dimensions of the residual web post can
significantly affect the performance of the cellular beam in fire.
The method of calculating section factor AND fire protection thickness for cellular beams is considered to be
different than for other solid steel sections. Different approaches have been introduced for the use of passive fire
protection products (boards and sprays) and reactive coatings (intumescent products). The issue is discussed
further in Section 6.
Castellated sections
This publication considers that castellated beams are one form of cellular beams. Fire test experience has shown
that the temperature of castellated members may increase at a slightly faster rate than the conventional parent
sections and that an increase in the fire protection thickness is prudent. Although minimal steel is effectively
removed from the parent steel section volume, the steel depth is increased.
N.B. In previous editions of this publication, it has been recommended that to obtain the thickness of passive fire
protection [boards and sprays] for a castellated section, the thickness of fire protection should first be obtained
based on the section factor as determined for the original parent steel section and then increased by 20%, for the
installed fire protection product. This guidance is now withdrawn and replaced by new guidance for cellular beams
in Section 6.
Furthermore, the 20% rule does not apply when using reactive coatings [e.g intumescent paint] for the fire
protection of castellated sections and cellular beams. New recommendations are also provided in Section 6.
1.6.2

Section Factor (A/V) for structural hollow sections

Other than where stated in Section 2, the fire test data relates specifically to universal beams and columns, as the
bulk of test work over the years has concentrated on these sections. However, test data exists on structural hollow
sections (SHS) as compression and flexural members, and the comparability between SHS sections and I sections
in terms of protection thickness related to Section Factor, for rectangular, square and circular sections, has been
established.
The same critical temperatures can be adopted for analysis purposes for SHS and I sections. The modifications
listed below would not apply to intumescent coatings. Guidance on fire protection with intumescent coatings is
presented in Section 5.

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For fire protection materials, whether boards or spray (on lath), whose thicknesses have been assessed from
test data on boxed I sections (see Figure 1), no change in thickness is required, i.e. the thickness for an
SHS of a given Section Factor, is equal to that for the I section of the same box Section Factor.

For fire protection materials, whether board or spray whose thickness has been assessed from test data on
profiled I sections (see Figure 2), some modification in thickness is required. The extent of the modification
is related to the Section Factor of the section and is derived as follows:
(a)

Establish the Section Factor of the SHS section.

(b)

Establish the required thickness of profiled protection material based upon the tables relating to
Section Factor and fire resistance period and protection thickness, derived for I sections. This is
the thickness d p (mm).

(c)

Increase thickness d p as follows


-1

For Section Factor up to 250m

Modified thickness = d p 1 +

For Section Factor between 250 to 310m-1

Modified thickness = 1.25 d p

A/V
1000

NOTE 1 - The maximum thickness that can be applied to SHS sections should not exceed that given for I sections
listed under item 11 of the data sheet (see 7.1.2 in Section 7).
NOTE 2 - It should be noted that any changes resulting from the transposition from I sections to SHS sections
may affect the retention of the material. Where modifications are considered significant, appropriate loaded
fire resistance tests should be carried out.
NOTE 3 - Where the fire protection thickness of I sections has been established by a test conducted on members
which were solid protected, then a separate appraisal for the hollow section is necessary.
1.6.3
Section Factor for partially exposed members
When a section is partially exposed to fire, for instance when a column is built into a wall or a beam is embedded in
a floor slab, and robust construction materials such as brick, block or concrete have been used, the Section Factor
may be traditionally calculated as shown in Figure 6. In such situations the same principle is used as for other
configurations where A is the surface area of the part of the section exposed to the fire and V is the volume of the
section. The Section Factor will change depending upon the degree of exposure and the equations given in
Figure 6 can be used.
It should be noted that the calculation method in Table 4.2 of Eurocode EN 1993-1-2:2005, for unprotected steel
members uses a more conservative value for the Section Factor[A/V] as calculated by division of the exposed steel
perimeter [AEXP] by the exposed steel cross section area [VEXP] rather than the entire volume of the steel section,
despite the fact that heat is conducted into the entire volume of the steel section and also into the mass in contact
with the embedded steel surface.
That is, for partially exposed unprotected steel, the Eurocode Section Factor (A/V) = (AEXP / VEXP)
Notwithstanding the above, for partially exposed steelwork, separate consideration should be given to the stability of
the encompassing wall or partition in fire, since this will play a part in the conduction of heat away from the steel, as
will the thermal conductance at the contact points. Being mindful of modern trends towards greater use of
lightweight wall and sandwich panel or partition constructions, the method generally used in Figure 6 may no longer
be as generally applicable when steel is not embedded in robust walls such as brick, block or concrete. In the case
of lightweight walls/partitions it would be prudent to assume that the entire perimeter of the steel may become
exposed to fire, and the Section Factor should then be calculated in the traditional manner.
Note that where the steel section penetrates through both sides of a fire resisting construction, the thickness of
protection may be determined by other requirements, such as compliance with the appropriate integrity and/or
insulation requirements of BS 476 for elements performing a fire separation function. As an example, consider a
steel section partially exposed on both sides of a wall or floor as shown in Figure 6.
Different approaches should be followed according to the degree of fire resistance required of the wall or floor,
whether it be similar to or less than that of the steel member, or zero.
In the case of walls, for example, the following have to be considered:
(a)

Solid masonry or concrete wall having comparable fire resistance.

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Since the insulation criterion must be satisfied for both steel member and wall, the thickness of protection to
the exposed steel should be sufficient to ensure that the rise in mean surface temperature of the protection
on the side remote from the fire does not exceed 140C, and the rise in maximum surface temperature does
not exceed 180C.
In assessing fire protection requirements to maintain the structural performance of the column, the exposed
steel on each side of the wall will have its own heated surface area, A, and therefore its own A/V,
consequently different protection thicknesses may be required on each side depending upon the degree of
exposure.
(b)

Walls having lower fire resistance or formed from material which will degrade when exposed to fire, e.g.
timber stud with combustible facings.
The effective surface area will relate to all steel which has the potential of becoming exposed and the fire
protection should be applied in such a manner that its performance is independent of the wall.

In some load bearing walls, simultaneous attack from fire on both sides may occur on columns partially exposed
within the wall. Where this occurs, the Section Factor must be based on the sum of the fire exposed areas, either
side of the wall, and the total volume of the section.
1.6.4
Section Factor (A/V) for wind and stability bracing [extracted from BS 5950-8:2003]
The apparent cost of fire protecting bracing members is often expected to be high because the members are
comparatively light and therefore have high Section Factors and correspondingly require high thicknesses of fire
protection. However, for the reasons now discussed BS 5950-8:2003 recommends that the fire protection thickness
-1
should be based on the section factor of the steel member, or a value of 200 , whichever is the smaller value. In
some cases, it might not be necessary to apply fire protection to bracing members and consideration should be
given to:
a)

Shielding bracing from fire by installing it in shafts or within walls.

b)

The use of infill masonry walls, which can provide the sufficient shear capacity during a fire instead of relying
on the steel bracing systems

c)

The possibility that only bracing systems within a fire compartment might be subjected to elevated
temperatures and the other unaffected bracing systems might be sufficient to provide the required stability at
the fire limit state.

d)

The possibility that the steel beam to column connections might have sufficient stiffness to ensure stability at
the fire limit state

The recommendations in previous Editions for fire protection to bracing members are retained in Table 2.

Table 2: Assessment of fire protection requirements for bracing


Building

Degree of fire protection to bracing system

Single storey
Not more than 8m to eaves

None

Single storey
More than 8m to eaves

Generally none

Two storey

Generally none
Walls and frame stiffness will contribute considerably to stability.

Other multi-storey

Protected to achieve required fire resistance. However the selection of thickness may be
based on allowable reductions in applied loads in fire given in BS 5950-8

1.6.5
Section Factor (A/V) for tees, angles, channels
Where these sections are used structurally, it is necessary to determine the A/V values using the surface area, A,
values illustrated in Figure 6. Where such members are considered as wind bracing, a modified approach is
recommended and is discussed in the following section.
1.6.6

Tapered sections

Use the maximum section factor for the tapered steel section
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1.6.7
Section Factor (A/V) for lattice members
Ideally, wherever possible, a lattice beam should be judged by a full test as a loaded member. However, with
existing fire testing equipment this is not always practicable and recourse to appraisal using A/V can be made.
When the elements of a lattice beam are to be individually protected, the thickness of protection required for each
element should be based on the Section Factor of the individual element. Where a lattice beam is to be protected
by encasing the entire beam by either boards, or sprays applied to an expanded metal lathing, no recommendation
can be given and each case must be considered on its own merits, according to any test information available.
The use of the limiting temperature method of BS 5950-8: 2003 or the similar EC3-1.2 method is not recommended
for the diagonal bracing members because these members might be subject to significant thermal stresses from
restrained thermal expansion. In the absence of a detailed analysis a general steel temperature of 550C is
recommended. In any case it is important that the final appraisal be based on a broad consideration of the lattice
design.
1.6.8
Light gauge cold rolled sections
This type of section would normally necessitate separate appraisal because of the high values of A/V and the
manner in which the sections are formed which can influence their failure criteria. Research is continuing to
formulate recommendations for the applications of data given in this publication. Some information on the
protection of cold formed members is given in the SCI publication 129 - Building design using cold formed
members.
There are a variety of sections formed from cold rolled sections and normally each would require separate
appraisal.
1.6.9
Unprotected steel
According to BS 5950-8:2003, fire resistance tests have demonstrated that 30 minutes fire resistance can be
achieved with fully stressed unprotected steel sections as follows:
Rolled steel section columns filled with aerated concrete blockwork between the flanges A/V up to 69m

-1

Columns, in simple construction, four sided exposure - A/V up to 50m-1


Beams, in bending, directly supporting concrete or composite slabs - A/V up to 90m-1
Where these specific conditions arise on site, protection may not be necessary subject to agreement with the
approving authority.
1.6.10 Novel steel beam designs
Steel manufacturers may have different approaches to novel steel beam designs in buildings. For example, in the
UK, Slimflor and Slimdek are the trade names for a form of shallow floor construction developed by Corus. There
are three forms available as briefly described below. Other variations of a similar or different approach may be
available from suppliers located in other countries
Slimflor with precast planks
In this form, the beam is manufactured by welding a plate to a column section. The floor is then created by laying a
pre-cast concrete floor slab on the outstand of the plate.
In situations where fire protection is required, the bottom plate only should be protected. As with standard downstand beams, the protection material thickness is based on the section factor and for calculation
purposes, the heated perimeter is the width of the plate plus 2 x plate thickness, in metres, divided by the cross
sectional area of the column section and plate combined. This will usually result in low section factors.
Slimflor with deep decking
In this form, the beam is also manufactured by welding a plate to a column section. However the floor is then
created by laying a deep metal deck on the outstand of the plate. The deck is then filled with in-situ concrete.
When fire protection is required, the bottom plate only should be protected. As with standard down-stand beams,
the protection material thickness is based on the section factor and this calculation is identical to that for Slimflor
with pre-cast planks. This will also usually result in low section factors.

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Slimdek flooring systems


In this form, the beam is a rolled asymmetric section with the lower flange wider than the upper. The floor is created
by laying a deep metal deck on the outstand of the bottom plate. The deck is then filled with in-situ concrete.
The beams are normally rolled with a thick web and, in the fire condition, this web takes much of the load shed by
the hot bottom flange. Where the thick web is not sufficient to compensate for the loss in strength of the flange, it is
usually more economic for the designer to use a beam without a thick web. Asymmetric Slimdek Beams with a fire
engineered (thick) web are designated ASB(FE); those without the thick web are designated ASB.
As previously stated, when fire protection is required, the bottom flange only should be protected. For calculation
purposes the heated perimeter is also taken as the width of the bottom flange plus 2 x bottom flange thickness, in
metres, divided by the cross sectional area of the ASB. This will also usually result in low section factors.
Contact should be made with Corus Steel for further information relating to the above systems
1.6.11 Galvanised surfaces
The application of intumescent (reactive) coatings to galvanised surfaces may occur either off-site in a factory
controlled environment or on-site during the construction of the building.
OFF SITE: Steel Construction Institute publication P160 Structural fire design: Offsite applied thin film intumescent
nd
coatings (2 edition) makes reference to substrate preparation in Section 4.1 of that document.
ONSITE: ASFP technical guidance documents provide advice for the application of different types of fire protection
systems in relevant documents.
[a] TGD11 Code of practice for the specification and on-site installation of intumescent coatings for the fire
protection of structural steelwork contains Section 3.4 with specific advice for the preparation of galvanised
steelwork before coatings are applied.
[b] TGD 15 Code of practice for the installation and inspection of sprayed non-reactive coatings for the fire
protection of structural steelwork contains Section 4 and 4.4 in relation to preparation of substrates and galvanised
steelwork.
1.7

Performance of steel encased passive protection systems

To assess the performance of a steel encased protection system, a fire resistance test should be performed for the
maximum fire resistance period on a fully loaded specimen in the orientation in which the system is to be assessed.
The fire resistance test shall be performed on the steel encased protection system incorporating the board to be
used in practice.
The performance of the structural member fitted with the steel encased protection system in the test shall be
compared with the value(s) taken from the appropriate data sheet(s) at the required critical steel temperature(s)
derived from tests of the structural member protected with the same material but without the steel encasement.
(i)

If the fire performance achieved by the steel encased specimen is greater than, or equal to the fire
performance of the specimen without the steel encasement, the data sheets for the protection material
without the encasement can be used for the steel encased protection system without correction. The same
test data may be used to show the suitability of other protection materials of similar type.

(ii)

If the fire performance achieved at the required critical steel temperature is less than the value expected from
test data for the protection system without the steel encasement the data sheet for the encased system shall
be modified by the use of a correction factor to bring the two sets of information into agreement.

1.8

New steel section designations

As part of the process of compliance with European Construction Products Directive [CPD 89/106/EEC], steel
sections may be encountered with amended prefixes for relevant applications, as follows
Universal beams - UB becomes UKB;

Universal columns - UC becomes UKC

Parallel flange channels - PFC becomes UKPFC

Asymmetric Slimflor Beams - ASB

Slimflor beams - SFB

Angles UKA

Tees - UKT
Association for Specialist Fire Protection
www.asfp.org.uk

20
VOL 1: SECTION 1

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

NOTE 1- The figures for section factors in the following Tables 3-15 have been provided by Corus and include
corner radii. They may therefore vary from simpler calculation of similar steel sizes from other sources.
NOTE 2 - That in Figure 6, that follows, calculations for 1 sided exposure should reflect the text in 1.6.3
NOTE 3 The dimensions of historically available steel sections and steel sections from other sources will be made
available in the Technical Section of the ASFP web site

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


www.asfp.org.uk

21
VOL 1: SECTION 1

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

Figure
of section
section factor
factor Hp/A
Hp/A (A/V)
(A/V)
Figure6:
6:Protection
Protectionconfigurations
configurations with
with values
values of
of perimeter Hp for use in the calculation of
Note:the
thevalues
valuesare
areapproximate
approximateininthat
thatradii
radii
corners
roots
of all
sections
are
Note:
at at
corners
andand
roots
of all
sections
may
beignored
ignored.
In this figure Hp/A
A/V
Hp/A =
= A/V
Profile protection

Steel section

Universal beams, universal


columns and joists
(plain and castellated)

4 sides

3 sides

3 sides

2 sides

1 side

Partially exposed

Hp

2B + 2D + 2(B - t)
= 4B + 2D - 2t
4 sides

Structural and rolled tees

Partially exposed

B + 2d + (B - t)
= 2B + 2d - t

B + 2D + 2(B - t)
= 3B + 2D - 2t
3 sides

3 sides

Flange to soffit

Toe of web to soffit

B + D + 2(B - t)/2
= 2B + D - t

B
t

Hp

2B + 2D
4 sides

Angles

B + 2D + (B - t)
= 2B + 2D - t

B + 2D
3 sides

3 sides

B
t
Flange to soffit

D
t

Hp

Channels

2B + 2D

B + 2D

4 sides

3 sides

Toe of flange to soffit


B + 2D + (B - t)
= 2B + 2D - t
3 sides

B
t

Web to soffit
2B + 2D + 2(B - t) 2B + D + 2(B - t)
= 4B + 2D - 2t
= 4B + D - 2t

Hp
Hollow sections,
square or rectangular

4 sides

3 sides

2B + 2D

B + 2D

Flange to soffit
B + 2D + 2(B - t)
= 3B + 2D - 2t

B
D

Hp

Hollow sections,
circular
D

Hp
Example
using 203 x 203 x 52 kg/m
universal beam

B
= 206.2mm
B == 204.3mm
203.9mm; D D
= 206.2mm
t = 8.0 mm.
A = 66.4 cm
t = 7.9mm A = 66.282cm2

a) Profile protection - 4 sided exposure


Hp = 4B + 2D - 2t
Hp
= 4B+2D-2t=[4x204.3]+[2x206.2]-[2x7.9]
Hp = 4 x 203.9 + 2 x 206.2 - 2 x 8.0
= 817.2+412.2-15.8=1213.8mm=1.214m
= 1212 mm = 1.212 m
Hp/A = 1.214/0.006282 183.2m-1
Hp/A = 1.212/0.00664 = 182.5 m -1

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


www.asfp.org.uk

22
VOL 1: SECTION 1

b) Profile protection - 3 sided exposure


+ 2D - 2t
Hp Hp == 3B
3B+2D-2t=612.9+412.4-15.8
Hp = 611.7 + 412.4 - 16
= 1009.5mm=1.01m
= 1008 mm = 1.008 m
Hp/A = 1.01/0.0066282 = 152.4m-1
Hp/A = 1.008/0.00664 = 151.8 m -1

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

Figure 6 (continued)
In this figure Hp/A = A/V
Box and solid protection

Steel section

Universal beams, universal


columns and joists
(plain and castellated)

4 sides

3 sides

2 sides

3 sides

1 side

Partially exposed

Partially exposed

Hp

Structural and rolled tees

Hp

2B + 2D

B + 2D

B + 2d

4 sides

3 sides

3 sides

Flange to soffit

Toe of web to soffit

2B + 2D
4 sides

Angles

Hp

Channels

Hp
Hollow sections,
square or rectangular

Hp

3 sides

Example continued

Toe of flange to soffit

B + 2D

B + 2D

4 sides

3 sides

3 sides

Web to soffit

Flange to soffit

2B + 2D

2B + D

B + 2D

4 sides

3 sides

2B + 2D

B + 2D

Hp

3 sides

2B + 2D

Hollow sections,
circular

Note. The air space created in boxing a section improves the insulation and a
value of Hp/A, and therefore Hp, higher than for profile protection
would be anomalous. Hence Hp is taken as the circumference of the
tube and not 4D.

- 4 sided
exposure
c)c) BoxBox
protection
4 sided exposure

Hp

Hp = 2B + 2D = 407.8 + 412.4

= 3B + 2D 2t = 612.9 + 412.4 15.8


= 820.2=mm
= 0.820 m
= 1009.5mm
1.01m
-1
Hp/A =Hp0.821
0.0066282 =
123.9m
/A = /0.82/0.00664
= 123.5
m -1

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


www.asfp.org.uk

B + 2D

B + 2D

Flange to soffit

B+D

23
VOL 1: SECTION 1

d) Box
d) - 3 sided
Box exposure
protection 3 sided exposure

Hp

Hp = B + 2D = 203.9 + 412.4

= B +2D = 204.3 + 412.4


616.3 mm==0.617m
0.616 m
==616.7mm
-1
Hp/A
= 93.04m
Hp/A==0.617/0.0066282
0.616/0.00664 = 92.8
m -1
Fire protection for structural steel in buildings
4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

Table 3: October 2006

Section factor A/V(Hp/A)


Profile
3 sides 4 sides

UK Beams (UKB)
Dimensions to BS4 Part 1:2005
Designation
Mass per
Serial size
metre
mm
kg
487
438
393
349
1016 x 305
314
272
249
222
388
914 x 419
343
289
253
914 x 305
224
201
226
838 x 292
194
176
197
173
762 x 267
147
134
170
152
686 x 254
140
125
238
610 x 305
179
149
140
125
610 x 229
113
101
100
610 x 178
92
82
273
219
533 x 312
182
151
138
122
109
533 x 210
101
92
82
continued overleaf

Depth of
section D

Width of
section B

mm
1036.1
1025.9
1016.0
1008.1
1000.0
990.1
980.2
970.3
921.0
911.8
926.6
918.4
910.4
903.0
850.9
840.7
834.9
769.8
762.2
754.0
750.0
692.9
687.5
683.5
677.9
635.8
620.2
612.4
617.2
612.2
607.6
602.6
607.4
603.0
598.6
577.1
560.3
550.7
542.5
549.1
544.5
539.5
536.7
533.1
528.3

mm
308.5
305.4
303.0
302.0
300.0
300.0
300.0
300.0
420.5
418.5
307.7
305.5
304.1
303.3
293.8
292.4
291.7
268.0
266.7
265.2
264.4
255.8
254.5
253.7
253.0
311.4
307.1
304.8
230.2
229.0
228.2
227.6
179.2
178.8
177.9
320.2
317.4
314.5
312.0
213.9
211.9
210.8
210.0
209.3
208.8

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


www.asfp.org.uk

Thickness
Flange
Web t
T
mm
mm
30.0
54.1
26.9
49.0
24.4
43.9
21.1
40.0
19.1
35.9
16.5
31.0
16.5
26.0
16.0
21.1
21.4
36.6
19.4
32.0
19.5
32.0
17.3
27.9
15.9
23.9
15.1
20.2
16.1
26.8
14.7
21.7
14.0
18.8
15.6
25.4
14.3
21.6
12.8
17.5
12.0
15.5
14.5
23.7
13.2
21.0
12.4
19.0
11.7
16.2
18.4
31.4
14.1
23.6
11.8
19.7
13.1
22.1
11.9
19.6
11.1
17.3
10.5
14.8
11.3
17.2
10.9
15.0
10.0
12.8
21.1
37.6
18.3
29.2
15.2
24.4
12.7
20.3
14.7
23.6
12.7
21.3
11.6
18.8
10.8
17.4
10.1
15.6
9.6
13.2

24
VOL 1: SECTION 1

Box
3 sides 4sides

Area of
section
cm2
619.89
556.62
500.24
445.15
400.41
346.86
316.88
282.82
494.22
437.30
368.27
322.83
285.64
255.92
288.56
246.82
224.02
250.64
220.37
187.19
170.58
216.83
194.08
178.43
159.48
303.33
228.08
190.04
178.19
159.34
143.94
128.92
128.00
117.00
104.00
348.00
279.00
231.00
192.00
176.00
155.39
138.86
128.67
117.38
104.69

m-1
45
50
55
65
70
80
90
95
60
70
75
85
95
105
85
100
110
90
105
120
130
95
105
115
130
70
90
110
105
115
130
145
135
145
160
60
70
85
105
95
110
120
130
140
155

m-1
50
55
65
70
80
90
95
110
70
80
80
95
105
115
100
115
125
100
115
135
145
110
120
130
145
80
105
125
120
130
145
160
150
160
180
70
85
100
120
110
120
135
145
160
175

m-1
40
40
45
50
55
65
70
80
45
50
60
65
75
80
70
80
90
70
80
95
105
75
85
90
100
50
70
80
80
90
100
110
110
120
130
40
50
60
75
75
85
95
100
110
120

m-1
45
50
55
60
65
75
80
90
55
60
65
75
85
95
80
90
100
85
95
110
120
90
95
105
115
60
80
95
95
105
115
130
125
135
150
50
65
75
90
85
95
110
115
125
140

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

Table 3: October 2006

Section factor A/V(Hp/A)


Profile
3 sides 4 sides

UK Beams (UKB)
Dimensions to BS4 Part 1:2005
Designation
Mass per
Serial size
metre
mm
kg
85
533 x 165
75
66
161
133
106
98
457 x 191
89
82
74
67
82
74
457 x 152
67
60
52
85
74
406 x 178
67
60
54
53
406 x 140
46
39
67
57
356 x 171
51
45
39
356 x 127
33
54
305 x 165
46
40
48
305 x 127
42
37
33
305 x 102
28
25
43
254 x 146
37
31
28
254 x 102
25
22
continued overleaf

Depth of
section D

Width of
section B

mm
534.9
529.1
524.7
492.0
480.6
469.2
467.2
463.4
460.0
457.0
453.4
465.8
462.0
458.0
454.6
449.8
417.2
412.8
409.4
406.4
402.6
406.6
403.2
398.0
363.4
358.0
355.0
351.4
353.4
349.0
310.4
306.6
303.4
311.0
307.2
304.4
312.7
308.7
305.1
259.6
256.0
251.4
260.4
257.2
254.0

mm
166.5
165.9
165.1
199.4
196.7
194.0
192.8
191.9
191.3
190.4
189.9
155.3
154.4
153.8
152.9
152.4
181.9
179.5
178.8
177.9
177.7
143.3
142.2
141.8
178.1
172.2
171.5
171.1
126.0
125.4
166.9
165.7
165.0
125.3
124.3
123.4
102.4
101.8
101.6
147.3
146.4
146.1
102.2
101.9
101.6

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


www.asfp.org.uk

Thickness
Flange
Web t
T
mm
mm
10.3
16.5
9.7
13.6
8.9
11.4
18.0
32.0
15.3
26.3
12.6
20.6
11.4
19.6
10.5
17.7
9.9
16.0
9.0
14.5
8.5
12.7
10.5
18.9
9.6
17.0
9.0
15.0
8.1
13.3
7.6
10.9
10.9
18.2
9.5
16.0
8.8
14.3
7.9
12.8
7.7
10.9
7.9
12.9
6.8
11.2
6.4
8.6
9.1
15.7
8.1
13.0
7.4
11.5
7.0
9.7
6.6
10.7
6.0
8.5
7.9
13.7
6.7
11.8
6.0
10.2
9.0
14.0
8.0
12.1
7.1
10.7
6.6
10.8
6.0
8.8
5.8
7.0
7.2
12.7
6.3
10.9
6.0
8.6
6.3
10.0
6.0
8.4
5.7
6.8

25
VOL 1: SECTION 1

Box
3 sides 4sides

Area of
section
cm2
108.00
95.20
83.70
206.00
170.00
135.00
125.26
113.76
104.48
94.63
85.51
104.53
94.48
85.55
76.23
66.64
109.00
94.51
85.54
76.52
68.95
67.90
58.64
49.65
85.49
72.55
64.91
57.33
49.77
42.13
68.77
58.75
51.32
61.23
53.40
47.18
41.83
35.88
31.60
54.77
47.16
39.68
36.08
32.04
28.02

m-1
140
160
180
75
90
110
120
130
140
155
170
130
145
155
175
200
125
140
155
170
190
180
205
240
140
165
185
205
210
250
160
185
210
160
180
200
215
250
280
170
195
230
220
250
280

m-1
155
175
200
85
100
125
135
145
160
175
190
145
160
175
195
220
140
160
175
195
215
200
230
270
160
190
210
235
235
280
185
210
240
180
200
225
240
280
315
195
225
270
250
280
320

m-1
115
130
145
60
70
85
90
100
105
115
130
105
115
125
140
160
95
105
115
130
145
140
160
190
105
120
135
150
165
195
115
135
150
120
140
155
175
200
225
120
140
165
175
190
220

m-1
130
145
165
65
80
100
105
115
125
135
150
120
130
145
160
180
110
125
140
155
170
160
185
215
125
145
160
180
195
225
140
160
185
145
160
180
200
230
255
150
170
200
200
225
255

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

Table 3: October 2006

Section factor A/V(Hp/A)


Profile
3 sides 4 sides

UK Beams (UKB)
Dimensions to BS4 Part 1:2005
Designation
Mass per
Serial size
metre
mm
kg
30
203 x 133
25
203 x 102
23
178 x 102
19
152 x 89
16
127 x 76
13

Depth of
section D

Width of
section B

mm
206.8
203.2
203.2
177.8
152.4
127.0

mm
133.9
133.2
101.8
101.2
88.7
76.0

Thickness
Flange
Web t
T
mm
mm
6.4
9.6
5.7
7.8
5.4
9.3
4.8
7.9
4.5
7.7
4.0
7.6

Box
3 sides 4sides

Area of
section
cm2
38.21
31.97
29.40
24.26
20.32
16.52

m-1
205
245
235
260
270
280

m-1
240
285
270
305
315
325

m-1
145
170
175
190
195
200

m-1
180
210
205
230
235
245

NB - Data on older and other steel sizes can be found on ASFP website/technical section

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


www.asfp.org.uk

26
VOL 1: SECTION 1

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

Section factorA/V(Hp/A)

Table 4: October 2006

Profile
3 sides 4 sides

Columns (UKC)
Dimensions to BS4 Part 1:2005
Designation
Mass per
Serial size
metre
mm
kg
634
551
467
356 x 406
393
340
287
235
202
177
356 x 368
153
129
283
240
198
305 x 305
158
137
118
97
167
132
254 x 254
107
89
73
127
113
100
86
203 x 203
71
60
52
46
51
44
152 x 152
37
30
23

Depth of
section D
mm
474.6
455.6
436.6
419.0
406.4
393.6
381.0
374.6
368.2
362.0
355.6
365.3
352.5
339.9
327.1
320.5
314.5
307.9
289.1
276.3
266.7
260.3
254.1
241.4
235.0
228.6
222.2
215.8
209.6
206.2
203.2
170.2
166.0
161.8
157.6
152.4

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


www.asfp.org.uk

Width of
section B
mm
424.0
418.5
412.2
407.0
403.0
399.0
394.8
374.7
372.6
370.5
368.6
322.2
318.4
314.5
311.2
309.2
307.4
305.3
265.2
261.3
258.8
256.3
254.6
213.9
212.1
210.3
209.1
206.4
205.8
204.3
203.6
157.4
155.9
154.4
152.9
152.2

Thickness
Web
Flange
t
T
mm
mm
47.6
77.0
42.1
67.5
35.8
58.0
30.6
49.2
26.6
42.9
22.6
36.5
18.4
30.2
16.5
27.0
14.4
23.8
12.3
20.7
10.4
17.5
26.8
44.1
23.0
37.7
19.1
31.4
15.8
25.0
13.8
21.7
12.0
18.7
9.9
15.4
19.2
31.7
15.3
25.3
12.8
20.5
10.3
17.3
8.6
14.2
18.1
30.1
16.3
26.9
14.5
23.7
12.7
20.5
10.0
17.3
9.4
14.2
7.9
12.5
7.2
11.0
11.0
15.7
9.5
13.6
8.0
11.5
6.5
9.4
5.8
6.8

27
VOL 1: SECTION 1

Box
3 sides 4sides

Area of
section
cm2
807.548
701.930
594.909
500.574
433.036
365.708
299.432
257.219
225.506
194.803
164.335
360.426
305.789
252.414
201.364
174.415
150.202
123.448
212.855
168.134
136.381
113.311
93.100
162.00
145.00
127.00
109.636
90.427
76.373
66.282
58.731
65.20
56.10
47.112
38.263
29.245

m-1
25
30
35
40
45
50
65
70
80
90
110
45
50
60
75
85
100
120
60
75
95
110
130
65
75
80
95
110
130
150
170
120
135
160
195
250

m-1
30
35
40
50
55
65
75
85
95
110
130
55
60
75
90
105
120
145
75
90
110
135
160
80
90
100
115
135
160
180
200
145
165
195
235
305

m-1
15
20
20
25
30
30
40
45
50
55
65
30
35
40
50
55
60
75
40
50
60
70
80
45
45
55
60
70
80
95
105
75
85
100
120
155

m-1
20
25
30
35
35
45
50
60
65
75
90
40
45
50
65
70
85
100
50
65
75
90
110
55
60
70
80
95
110
125
140
100
115
135
160
210

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

Table 5: July 06

Section factor A/V (Hp/A)


Profile
3 sides 4 sides

JOISTS
Dimensions to BS 4 Part 1:1993
Designation
Mass per
Serial size
metre
mm
kg
203 X 152
52.3
152 X 127
37.3

Depth of
section D
mm
203.2
152.4

Width of
section B
mm
152.4
127.0

Thickness
Web
Flange
t
T
mm
mm
8.9
16.5
10.4
13.2

Area of
section
cm2
66.6
47.5

m-1
115
130

m-1
140
155

m-1
85
90

m-1
105
120

Section factor A/V (Hp/A)

Table 6: October 2006

Profile

Parallel Flange Channels

Box
4
sides

3 sides

Dimensions to BS 4 Part 1: 2005


Designation
Mass
Serial size
per
metre
mm
Kg
430 x100
64.40
380 x 100
54.00
300 x 100
45.50
300 x 90
41.40
260 x 90
34.80
260 x 75
27.60
230 x 90
32.20
230 x 75
25.70
200 x 90
29.70
200 x 75
23.40
180 x 90
26.10
180 x 75
20.30
150 x 90
23.90
150 x 75
17.90
125 x 65
14.80
100 x 50
10.20

Box
3 sides 4sides

4
sides

3 sides

Thickness
Depth Width
Area
of
of
of
section section Web Flange
section
t
T
D
B
mm
430
380
300
300
260
260
230
230
200
200
180
180
150
150
125
100

mm
100
100
100
90
90
75
90
75
90
75
90
75
90
75
65
50

mm
11.0
9.5
9.0
9.0
8.0
7.0
7.5
6.5
7.0
6.0
6.5
6.0
6.5
5.5
5.5
5.0

mm
19.0
17.5
16.5
15.5
14.0
12.0
14.0
12.5
14.0
12.5
12.5
10.5
12.0
10.0
9.5
8.5

cm2
82.09
68.74
58.00
52.78
44.38
35.14
40.97
32.69
37.86
29.87
33.19
25.91
30.41
22.77
18.80
13.00

m-1
135
150
150
160
170
205
170
200
170
200
185
215
180
220
225
255

m-1
95
110
115
120
135
150
140
155
140
160
155
175
160
190
195
215

m-1
75
85
85
90
100
115
100
115
100
115
110
125
110
130
135
155

m-1
150
165
165
175
190
225
195
225
195
225
210
245
210
255
260
295

m-1
115
125
120
130
135
170
135
165
130
160
135
170
130
165
170
190

m-1
75
85
85
90
100
115
100
115
100
115
110
125
110
130
135
155

m-1
75
85
85
90
100
115
100
115
100
115
110
125
110
130
135
155

m-1
130
140
140
150
160
190
155
185
155
185
165
195
160
200
200
230

NB Data on older and other steel sizes can be found on ASFP website / technical section

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


www.asfp.org.uk

28
VOL 1: SECTION 1

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

Table 7: October 2006

Section factor A/V (Hp/A)


Profile

Equal Angles (UKA)

3 sides

Box
4 sides

3 sides

4 sides

m-1
85
105
115
125
115
135
170
200
140
170
200
250
140
170
205
250
175
205
250
285

m-1
65
80
85
95
90
105
130
155
105
130
155
190
110
130
155
195
135
160
195
220

m-1
90
105
115
130
120
140
170
205
140
175
205
255
145
175
210
260
175
210
260
295

Dimensions to
BS EN 10056-1:1999
Size
DxD
mm
200 x 200

150 x 150

120 x 120

100 x 100

90 x 90

Thickness
t
mm
24
20
18
16
18
15
12
10
15
12
10
8
15
12
10
8
12
10
8
7

Mass per
metre
Kg/m
71.1
59.9
54.2
48.5
40.1
33.8
27.3
23.0
26.6
21.6
18.2
14.7
21.9
17.8
15.0
12.2
15.9
13.4
10.9
9.6

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


www.asfp.org.uk

Area of
Section
cm2
90.6
76.3
69.1
61.8
51.0
43.0
34.8
29.3
33.9
27.5
23.2
18.7
27.9
22.7
19.2
15.5
20.3
17.1
13.9
12.2

m-1
65
75
85
95
85
100
125
150
105
125
150
185
105
130
150
185
130
150
190
215

29
VOL 1: SECTION 1

m-1
85
100
110
125
110
135
165
195
135
165
200
245
135
165
200
245
165
200
245
280

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

Table 8: October 2006

Section factor A/V (Hp/A)


Profile

Unequal Angles
(UKA)

Box

3 sides

4 sides

3 sides

4 sides

Dimensions to
BS EN 10056-1:1999
Designation
Size
Thickness
DxB
t
mm
mm
18
200 x
15
150
12
15
200 x
12
100
10
15
150 x
12
90
10
15
150 x
12
75
10
12
125 x
10
75
8
12
100 x
10
75
8
10
100 x
8
65
7

Mass
per
metre
kg
47.1
39.6
32.0
33.7
27.3
23.0
26.6
21.6
18.2
24.8
20.2
17.0
17.8
15.0
12.2
15.4
13.0
10.6
12.3
9.9
8.8

Area of
section
cm2
60.0
50.5
40.8
43.0
34.8
29.2
33.9
27.5
23.2
31.7
25.7
21.7
22.7
19.1
15.5
19.7
16.6
13.5
15.6
12.7
11.2

m-1
115
135
165
135
165
200
135
170
200
135
170
200
170
200
250
170
205
250
205
250
285

m-1
115
135
165
135
165
200
135
170
200
135
170
200
170
200
250
170
205
250
205
250
285

m-1
90
105
130
115
140
165
110
140
165
115
140
170
140
165
205
135
160
200
165
200
230

m-1
80
95
120
90
110
130
95
115
140
90
115
135
115
140
170
125
145
180
140
175
200

m-1
115
135
170
135
170
200
140
170
205
140
170
205
170
205
250
175
205
255
205
255
290

m-1
90
110
135
115
145
170
115
140
170
120
145
175
145
170
210
140
165
205
170
210
235

m-1
85
100
125
95
115
135
95
120
145
95
115
140
120
145
180
125
150
185
145
180
205

m-1
90
110
135
115
145
170
115
140
170
120
145
175
145
170
210
140
165
205
170
210
235

m-1
85
100
125
95
115
135
95
120
145
95
115
140
120
145
180
125
150
185
145
180
205

NB Data on older and other steel sections can be found on ASFP website/technical section

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


www.asfp.org.uk

30
VOL 1: SECTION 1

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

m-1
115
140
170
140
170
205
140
175
205
140
175
210
175
210
260
180
210
260
210
260
295

Table 9: October 2006

Section factor A/V (Hp/A)


Profile
3 sides

Tees (UKT)
Split from UK Beams

4 sides

Box
3 sides

4 sides

Dimensions to BS4 Part 1:2005


Serial
size
mm
254 x 343
305 x 305

229 x 305

178 x 305

312 x 267

210 x 267

165 x 267

191 x 229

152 x 229

Web
Width of
Mass per
Depth of thicknes Area of
section
metre
section D
s
section
B
t
kg
mm
mm
mm
cm2
62.6
253.0
338.9
11.7
79.73
119.0
311.4
317.9
18.4
152
89.5
307.1
310.0
14.1
114.03
74.6
304.8
306.1
11.8
95.01
69.9
230.2
308.5
13.1
89.08
62.5
229.0
306.0
11.9
79.66
56.5
228.2
303.7
11.1
71.96
50.6
227.6
301.2
10.5
64.45
50.1
179.2
303.7
11.3
63.9
46.1
178.8
301.5
10.9
58.7
40.9
177.9
299.3
10.0
52.1
136.7
320.2
288.8
21.1
174
109.4
317.4
280.4
18.3
139
90.7
314.5
275.6
15.2
116
75.3
312.0
271.5
12.7
95.9
69.1
213.9
274.5
14.7
23.6
61.0
211.9
272.2
12.7
77.69
54.5
210.8
269.7
11.6
69.43
50.5
210.0
268.3
10.8
64.33
46.0
209.3
266.5
10.1
58.68
41.1
208.8
264.1
9.6
52.34
42.3
166.5
267.1
10.3
54.0
37.4
165.9
264.5
9.7
47.6
32.8
165.1
262.4
8.9
41.9
80.7
199.4
246.0
18.0
103
66.6
196.7
240.3
15.3
84.9
52.9
194.0
234.6
12.6
67.4
49.1
192.8
233.5
11.4
62.62
44.6
191.9
231.6
10.5
58.87
41.0
191.3
229.9
9.9
52.23
37.1
190.4
228.4
9.0
47.31
33.5
189.9
226.6
8.5
42.75
41.0
155.3
232.8
10.5
52.26
37.1
154.4
230.9
9.6
47.23
33.6
153.8
228.9
9.0
42.77

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


www.asfp.org.uk

m-1
115
60
80
95
95
105
115
125
120
130
145
50
60
75
90
85
95
105
115
125
140
130
145
160
65
80
95
105
115
125
135
150
115
130
140

31
VOL 1: SECTION 1

m-1
145
80
105
125
120
130
145
160
150
160
180
70
85
100
120
110
120
135
145
160
175
155
175
200
85
100
125
135
145
160
175
190
145
160
175

m-1
145
80
105
125
120
135
145
160
150
160
180
70
85
100
120
110
125
135
145
160
180
160
180
200
85
100
125
135
145
160
175
195
145
160
175

m-1
115
60
80
95
95
105
115
130
125
135
150
50
65
75
90
85
95
110
115
125
140
130
145
165
65
80
100
105
115
125
135
150
120
130
145

m-1
115
60
80
95
95
105
115
130
125
135
150
50
65
75
120
85
95
110
115
125
140
130
145
165
65
80
100
105
115
125
135
150
120
130
145

m-1
150
85
110
130
120
135
150
165
150
165
185
70
85
100
120
110
125
140
150
160
180
160
180
205
85
105
125
135
150
160
175
195
150
165
180

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

Table 9: October 2006

Section factor A/V (Hp/A)


Profile
3 sides

Tees (UKT)
Split from UK Beams

4 sides

Box
3 sides

4 sides

Dimensions to BS4 Part 1:2005


Serial
size
mm
152 x 229

178 x 203

140 x 203

171 x 178

127 x 178
165 x 152

127 x 152

102 x 152

146 x 127

102 x 127
133 x 102

Web
Width of
Mass per
Depth of thicknes Area of
section
metre
section D
s
section
B
t
kg
mm
mm
mm
cm2
29.9
152.9
227.2
8.1
38.11
26.1
152.4
224.8
7.6
33.31
42.6
181.9
208.6
10.9
54.3
37.1
179.5
206.3
9.5
47.24
33.5
178.8
204.6
8.8
42.76
30.0
177.9
203.1
7.9
38.25
27.0
177.7
201.2
7.7
34.47
26.6
143.3
203.3
7.9
34.0
23.0
142.2
201.5
6.8
29.31
19.5
141.8
198.9
6.4
24.82
33.5
173.2
181.6
9.1
42.74
28.5
172.2
178.9
8.1
36.27
25.5
171.5
177.4
7.4
32.44
22.5
171.1
175.6
7.0
28.66
19.5
126.0
176.6
6.6
24.88
16.5
125.4
174.4
6.0
21.06
27.0
166.9
155.1
7.9
34.38
23.0
165.7
153.2
6.7
29.37
20.1
165.0
151.6
6.0
25.65
24.0
125.3
155.4
9.0
30.61
20.9
124.3
153.5
8.0
26.69
18.5
123.4
152.1
7.1
23.58
16.4
102.4
156.3
6.6
20.91
14.1
101.8
154.3
6.0
17.93
12.4
101.6
152.5
5.8
15.80
21.5
147.3
129.7
7.2
27.38
18.5
146.4
127.9
6.3
23.58
15.5
146.1
125.6
6.0
19.83
14.1
102.2
130.1
6.3
18.03
12.6
101.9
128.5
6.0
16.01
11.0
101.6
126.9
5.7
14.00
15.0
133.9
103.3
6.4
19.10
12.5
133.2
101.5
5.7
15.98

m-1
155
180
110
125
135
150
165
160
185
215
125
145
160
180
190
220
135
160
180
140
160
180
195
225
255
145
170
195
195
220
250
175
205

m-1
195
220
140
160
175
195
215
200
230
270
160
190
210
235
235
280
185
210
240
180
200
225
240
280
315
195
225
270
250
280
320
240
285

m-1
195
225
140
160
175
195
215
200
230
270
165
190
210
240
240
280
185
215
245
180
205
230
245
280
320
200
230
270
255
285
320
245
290

m-1
160
180
110
125
140
155
170
160
185
215
125
145
160
180
195
225
140
160
185
140
160
180
200
230
255
150
170
200
200
225
255
180
210

m-1
160
180
110
125
140
155
170
160
185
215
125
145
160
180
195
225
140
160
185
140
160
180
200
230
255
150
170
200
200
225
255
180
210

m-1
200
225
145
165
180
200
220
205
235
275
165
195
215
240
245
285
185
215
245
185
210
235
245
285
320
200
235
275
260
290
325
250
295

NB Data on older and other steel sections can be found on ASFP website/technical section

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


www.asfp.org.uk

32
VOL 1: SECTION 1

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


www.asfp.org.uk

33
VOL 1: SECTION 1

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

Section factor A/V (Hp/A)

TABLE 10: October 2006

Profile

Structural Tees Split from UK


Columns
Dimensions to BS4 Part 1:2006
Serial
size
mm
305 x 152

254 x 127

203 x 102

152 x 76

3 sides

Width of Depth of
Web
Mass per
Area of
section section thickness
metre
section
B
D
t
kg
mm
mm
mm
cm2
79.0
311.2
163.5
15.8
100.67
68.4
309.2
160.2
13.8
87.20
58.9
307.4
157.2
12.0
75.10
48.4
305.3
153.9
9.9
61.72
83.5
265.2
1144.5
19.2
106
66.0
261.3
138.1
15.3
84.06
53.5
258.8
133.3
12.8
68.18
44.4
256.3
130.1
10.3
56.65
36.5
254.6
127.0
8.6
46.55
63.7
213.9
120.7
18.1
81.2
56.7
212.1
117.5
16.3
72.3
49.8
210.3
114.3
14.5
63.4
43.0
209.1
111.0
12.7
54.81
35.5
206.4
107.8
10.0
45.20
30.0
205.8
104.7
9.4
38.18
26.0
204.3
103.0
7.9
33.13
23.0
203.6
101.5
7.2
29.36
25.6
157.4
85.1
11.0
32.6
22.0
155.9
83.0
9.5
28.0
18.5
154.4
80.8
8.0
23.55
15.0
152.9
78.7
6.5
19.12
11.5
152.2
76.1
5.8
14.62

m-1
60
70
80
95
50
65
75
90
105
55
60
70
75
90
105
120
135
100
110
130
160
205

m-1
90
105
120
145
75
90
110
135
160
80
90
100
115
135
160
180
200
145
165
195
235
305

Box
4 sides

m-1
95
105
120
145
75
95
115
135
160
80
90
100
115
135
160
185
205
145
170
195
240
310

3 sides

m-1
65
70
85
100
50
65
75
90
110
55
60
70
80
95
110
125
140
100
115
135
160
210

m-1
65
70
85
100
50
65
75
90
110
55
60
70
80
95
110
125
140
100
115
135
180
210

4 sides

m-1
95
110
125
150
75
95
115
135
165
80
90
100
115
140
165
185
210
150
170
200
240
310

TABLE 11: July 06


ROLLED TEES

NOTE: Whilst this ASFP publication has previously included listings for 4 sizes of rolled tees we are
informed by Corus Construction & Industrial Division that rolled tees are no longer available from their
current manufacturing facilities

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


www.asfp.org.uk

34
VOL 1: SECTION 1

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

Table 12: October 2006


Circular Hollow Sections

Section factor A/V


(Hp/A)

Profile or box

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


www.asfp.org.uk

Section factor A/V


(Hp/A)

Square Hollow
Sections

3 sides

4 sides

m-1
275
260
235
215
180
270
255
230
210
175
140
270
250
225
205
170
140
115
265
250
225
205
165
135
110
265
250
220
200
165
135
110
220
200
160
130
105
220
200

m-1
370
350
315
290
240
365
340
305
280
230
190
360
335
300
275
225
185
150
355
335
300
270
220
180
145
350
330
295
270
220
180
145
295
265
215
175
140
295
265

160

215

Dimensions to
EN 10210
S355J2H

Dimensions to EN 10210
S355J2H
Wall
Area of
Outside
Mass per
thickness
the
diameter
metre
t
section a
mm
mm
Kg/m
cm2
2.6
1.20
1.53
21.3
2.9
1.32
1.68
3.2
1.43
1.82
2.6
1.56
1.98
26.9
2.9
1.72
2.19
3.2
1.87
2.38
2.6
1.99
2.54
2.9
2.20
2.81
33.7
3.2
2.41
3.07
3.6
2.67
3.40
4.0
2.93
3.73
2.6
2.55
3.25
2.9
2.82
3.60
3.2
3.09
3.94
42.4
3.6
3.44
4.39
4.0
3.79
4.83
5.0
4.61
5.87
2.9
3.25
4.14
3.2
3.56
4.53
48.3
3.6
3.97
5.06
4.0
4.37
5.57
5.0
5.34
6.80
2.9
4.11
5.23
3.2
4.51
5.74
60.3
3.6
5.03
6.41
4.0
5.55
7.07
5.0
6.82
8.69
2.9
5.24
6.67
3.2
5.75
7.33
3.6
6.44
8.20
76.1
4.0
7.11
9.06
5.0
8.77
11.2
6.3
10.80
13.8
2.9
6.15
7.84
3.2
6.76
8.62
3.6
7.57
9.65
88.9
4.0
8.38
10.7
5.0
10.3
13.2
6.3
12.8
16.3
table continued overleaf
114.3
3.2
8.77
11.2

Table 13:Oct 06

440
400
370
425
385
355
415
375
345
310
285
410
370
340
305
275
230
365
335
300
270
225
360
330
295
270
220
358
325
290
265
215
175
355
325
290
260
210
170
320

m-1

440
400
370
425
385
355
415
375
345
310
285
410
370
340
305
275
230
365
335
300
270
225
360
330
295
270
220
358
325
290
265
215
175
355
325
290
260
210
170
320

Designation
Size
Wall
Area of
Mass per
D x D thickness
the
metre
t
section a
mm
mm
Kg/m
cm2
3.0
3.41
4.34
3.2
3.61
4.60
40 x 40
3.6
4.01
5.10
4.0
4.39
5.59
5.0
5.28
6.73
3.0
4.35
5.54
3.2
4.62
5.88
3.6
5.14
6.54
50 x 50
4.0
5.64
7.19
5.0
6.85
8.73
6.3
8.31
10.6
3.0
5.29
6.74
3.2
5.62
7.16
3.6
6.27
7.98
60 x 60
4.0
6.90
8.79
5.0
8.42
10.7
6.3
10.3
13.1
8.0
12.5
16.0
3.0
6.24
7.94
3.2
6.63
8.44
3.6
7.40
9.42
70 x 70
4.0
8.15
10.4
5.0
9.99
12.7
6.3
12.3
15.6
8.0
15.0
19.2
3.0
7.18
9.14
3.2
7.63
9.72
3.6
8.53
10.9
80 x 80
4.0
9.41
12.0
5.0
11.6
14.7
6.3
14.2
18.1
8.0
17.5
22.4
3.6
9.66
12.3
4.0
10.7
13.6
90 x 90
5.0
13.1
16.7
6.3
16.2
20.7
8.0
20.1
25.6
100 x 100
3.6
10.8
13.7
4.0
11.9
15.2
table continued overleaf
100 x 100
5.0
14.7
18.7

35
VOL 1: SECTION 1

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

Table 12: October 2006


Circular Hollow Sections

Section factor A/V


(Hp/A)

Profile or box

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


www.asfp.org.uk

Section factor A/V


(Hp/A)

Square Hollow
Sections

3 sides

4 sides

m-1
130
104
90
195
160
130
105
85
70
160
130
100
85
70
160
125
100
85
70
55
160
125
100
85
70
60
55
155
125
100
80
65
60
55
155
125
100
85
65

m-1
175
140
115
260
215
170
140
115
95
210
170
135
110
90
210
170
135
110
90
75
210
170
135
110
90
80
75
210
170
135
110
90
80
70
210
165
135
110
90

60

80

Dimensions to
EN 10210
S355J2H

Dimensions to EN 10210
S355J2H
Wall
Area of
Outside
Mass per
thickness
the
diameter
metre
t
section a
mm
mm
Kg/m
cm2
3.6
9.83
12.5
4.0
10.9
13.9
114.3
5.0
13.5
17.2
6.3
16.8
21.4
3.2
10.8
13.7
3.6
12.1
15.4
4.0
13.4
17.1
139.7
5.0
16.6
21.2
6.3
20.7
26.4
8.0
26.0
33.1
10.0
32.0
40.7
5.0
20.1
25.7
6.3
25.2
32.1
168.3
8.0
31.6
40.3
10.0
39.0
49.7
12.5
48.0
61.2
5.0
23.3
29.6
6.3
29.1
37.1
193.7
8.0
36.6
46.7
10.0
45.3
57.7
12.5
55.9
71.2
5.0
26.4
33.6
6.3
33.1
42.1
8.0
41.6
53.1
219.1
10.0
51.6
65.7
12.5
63.7
81.1
14.2
71.8
91.4
16.0
80.1
102
5.0
29.5
37.6
6.3
37.0
47.1
8.0
46.7
59.4
244.5
10.0
57.8
73.7
12.5
71.5
91.1
14.2
80.6
103
16.0
90.2
115
5.0
33.0
42.1
6.3
41.4
52.8
273
8.0
52.3
66.6
10.0
64.9
82.6
table continued overleaf
273
12.5
80.3
102

Table 13:Oct 06

285
260
210
170
320
285
255
205
165
135
110
205
165
130
105
85
205
165
130
105
85
205
165
130
105
85
75
65
205
165
130
105
85
75
65
205
160
130
105
85

m-1

285
260
210
170
320
285
255
205
165
135
110
205
165
130
105
85
205
165
130
105
85
205
165
130
105
85
75
65
205
165
130
105
85
75
65
205
160
130
105
85

Designation
Size
Wall
Area of
Mass per
D x D thickness
the
metre
t
section a
mm
mm
Kg/m
cm2
6.3
18.2
23.2
8.0
22.6
28.8
100 x 100
10.0
27.4
34.9
4.0
14.4
18.4
5.0
17.8
22.7
6.3
22.2
28.2
120 x 120
8.0
27.6
35.2
10.0
33.7
42.9
12.5
40.9
52.1
5.0
21.0
26.7
6.3
26.1
33.3
140x 140
8.0
32.6
41.6
10.0
40.0
50.9
12.5
48.7
62.1
5.0
22.6
28.7
6.3
28.1
35.8
8.0
35.1
44.8
150 x 150
10.0
43.1
54.9
12.5
52.7
67.1
16.00
65.2
83.0
5.0
24.1
30.7
6.3
30.1
38.3
8.0
37.6
48.0
160 x 160 10.0
46.3
58.9
12.5
56.6
72.1
14.2
63.3
80.7
16.0
70.2
89.4
5.0
27.3
34.7
6.3
34.0
43.3
8.0
42.7
54.4
180 x 180 10.0
52.5
66.9
12.5
64.4
82.1
14.2
72.2
92.0
16.0
80.2
102
200 x 200
5.0
30.4
38.7
6.3
38.0
48.4
8.0
47.7
60.8
10.0
58.8
74.9
12.5
72.3
92.1
table continued overleaf
200 x 200 14.2
81.1
103

36
VOL 1: SECTION 1

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

Table 12: October 2006


Circular Hollow Sections

Section factor A/V


(Hp/A)

Profile or box

Section factor A/V


(Hp/A)

Square Hollow
Sections

3 sides

4 sides

m-1
55
155
125
100
80
65
60
55
125
100
80
65
60
55
125
100
80
65
60
50
100
80
65
55
50
100
80
65
55
50
40

m-1
70
205
165
130
105
85
75
70
165
130
105
85
75
70
165
130
105
85
75
70
130
105
85
75
70
130
105
85
75
70
55

Dimensions to
EN 10210
S355J2H

Dimensions to EN 10210
S355J2H
Wall
Area of
Outside
Mass per
thickness
the
diameter
metre
t
section a
mm
mm
Kg/m
cm2
14.2
90.6
115
16.0
101
129
323.9
5.0
39.3
50.1
6.3
49.3
62.9
8.0
62.3
79.4
10.0
77.4
98.6
323.9
12.5
96.0
122
14.2
108
138
16.0
121
155
6.3
54.3
69.1
8.0
68.6
87.4
10.0
85.2
109
355.6
12.5
106
135
14.2
120
152
16.0
134
171
6.3
62.2
79.2
8.0
78.6
100
10.0
97.8
125
406.4
12.5
121
155
14.2
137
175
16.0
154
196
6.3
70.0
89.2
8.0
88.6
113
10.0
110
140
457
12.5
137
175
14.2
155
198
16.0
174
222
6.3
77.9
99.3
8.0
98.6
126
10.0
123
156
508.0
12.5
153
195
14.2
173
220
16.0
194
247

Table 13:Oct 06

75
65
205
160
130
105
85
75
65
160
130
100
85
75
65
160
130
100
80
75
65
160
130
105
80
75
65
160
125
100
80
75
65

m-1

75
65
205
160
130
105
85
75
65
160
130
100
85
75
65
160
130
100
80
75
65
160
130
105
80
75
65
160
125
100
80
75
65

Designation
Size
Wall
Area of
Mass per
D x D thickness
the
metre
t
section a
mm
mm
Kg/m
cm2
16.0
90.3
115
5.0
38.3
48.7
250 x 250
6.3
47.9
61.0
8.0
60.3
76.8
10.0
74.5
94.9
250 x 250 12.5
91.9
117
14.2
103
132
16.0
115
147
6.3
49.9
63.5
8.0
62.8
80.0
10.0
77.7
98.9
260 x 260
12.5
95.8
122
14.2
108
137
16.0
120
153
6.3
57.8
73.6
8.0
72.8
92.8
10.0
90.2
115
300 x 300
12.5
112
142
14.2
126
160
16.0
141
179
8.0
85.4
109
10.0
106
135
350 x 350 12.5
131
167
14.2
148
189
16.0
166
211
8.0
97.9
125
10.0
122
155
12.5
151
192
400 x 400
14.2
170
217
16.0
191
243
20.0
235
300

NB Data on older and other steel sections can be found on ASFP website/technical section

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


www.asfp.org.uk

37
VOL 1: SECTION 1

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

Section factor A/V (Hp/A)

Table 14: 2006

3 sides

4 sides

Rectangular Hollow Sections


Dimensions to EN 10210 S355J2H
Designation
Size D x B
Thickness t
mm
mm
3.0
3.2
50 x 30
3.6
4.0
5.0
3.0
3.2
3.6
60 x 40
4.0
5.0
6.3
3.0
3.2
3.6
80 x 40
4.0
5.0
6.3
8.0
3.0
3.2
3.6
90 x 50
4.0
5.0
6.3
8.0
3.0
3.2
3.6
4.0
100 x 50
5.0
6.3
8.0
10.0
3.0
3.2
3.6
100 x 60
4.0
5.0
6.3
8.0
3.6
4.0
5.0
120 x 60
6.3
8.0
10.0
120 x 80
3.6
Association for Specialist Fire Protection
www.asfp.org.uk

Mass per metre


Kg
3.41
3.61
4.01
4.39
5.28
4.35
4.62
5.14
5.64
6.85
8.31
5.29
5.62
6.27
6.90
8.42
10.3
12.5
6.24
6.63
7.40
8.15
9.99
12.3
15.0
6.71
7.13
7.96
8.78
10.8
13.3
16.3
19.6
7.18
7.63
8.53
9.41
11.6
14.2
17.5
9.66
10.7
13.1
16.2
20.1
24.3
10.8

Area of the
section
cm2
4.34
4.60
5.10
5.59
6.73
5.54
5.88
6.54
7.19
8.73
10.6
6.74
7.16
7.98
8.79
10.7
13.1
16.0
7.94
8.44
9.42
10.4
12.7
15.6
19.2
8.54
9.08
10.1
11.2
13.7
16.9
20.8
24.9
9.14
9.72
10.9
12.0
14.7
18.1
22.4
12.3
13.6
16.7
20.7
25.6
30.9
13.7
38
VOL 1: SECTION 1

m-1
300
285
255
235
195
290
275
245
225
185
150
300
280
250
230
190
155
125
290
275
245
225
185
150
120
295
275
250
225
185
150
120
100
285
270
240
220
180
145
120
245
220
180
145
120
100
235

m-1
255
240
215
200
165
255
240
215
195
160
135
240
225
200
185
150
125
100
240
225
205
185
150
125
100
235
220
200
180
150
120
100
80
240
230
205
185
150
125
100
195
180
145
120
95
80
205

m-1
370
350
315
290
240
365
340
305
280
230
190
360
335
300
275
225
185
150
355
335
300
270
220
180
150
355
330
300
270
220
180
145
120
350
330
295
270
220
180
145
300
265
215
175
140
120
295

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

Section factor A/V (Hp/A)

Table 14: 2006

3 sides

4 sides

Rectangular Hollow Sections


Dimensions to EN 10210 S355J2H
Designation
Size D x B
Thickness t
mm
mm
4.0
5.0
6.3
8.0
10.0
4.0
5.0
6.3
150 x 100
8.0
10.0
12.5
4.0
5.0
6.3
150 x 125
8.0
10.0
12.5
4.0
5.0
6.3
160 x 80
8.0
10.0
12.5
5.0
6.3
8.0
200 x 100
10.0
12.5
16.0
5.0
6.3
8.0
200 x 120
10.0
12.5
14.2
16.0
5.0
6.3
8.0
200 x 150
10.0
12.5
14.2
16.0
5.0
6.3
250 x 100
8.0
10.0
Association for Specialist Fire Protection
www.asfp.org.uk

Mass per metre


Kg
11.9
14.7
18.2
22.6
27.4
15.1
18.6
23.1
28.9
35.3
42.8
16.6
20.6
25.6
32.0
39.2
47.7
14.4
17.8
22.2
27.6
33.7
40.9
22.6
28.1
35.1
43.1
52.7
65.2
24.1
30.1
37.6
46.3
56.6
63.3
70.2
26.5
33.0
41.4
51.0
62.5
70.0
77.7
26.5
33.0
41.4
51.0

Area of the
section
cm2
15.2
18.7
23.2
28.8
34.9
19.2
23.7
29.5
36.8
44.9
54.6
21.2
26.2
32.6
40.8
49.9
60.8
18.4
22.7
28.2
35.2
42.9
52.1
28.7
35.8
44.8
54.9
67.1
83.0
30.7
38.3
48.0
58.9
72.1
80.7
89.4
33.7
42.1
52.8
64.9
79.6
89.2
99.0
33.7
42.1
52.8
64.9
39
VOL 1: SECTION 1

m-1
210
175
140
115
95
210
170
135
110
90
75
200
165
130
105
85
70
220
180
145
115
95
80
175
140
110
95
75
60
170
140
110
90
75
65
60
165
135
105
80
70
65
55
180
145
115
95

m-1
185
150
120
100
80
185
150
120
95
80
65
190
155
125
100
80
70
175
145
115
95
75
65
140
115
90
75
60
50
145
115
95
75
65
55
50
150
120
95
80
65
60
55
135
110
85
70

m-1
265
215
175
140
115
260
215
170
135
115
95
260
210
170
135
110
90
260
215
170
140
115
95
210
170
135
110
90
75
210
170
135
110
90
80
75
210
170
135
110
90
80
70
210
170
135
110

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

Section factor A/V (Hp/A)

Table 14: 2006

3 sides

4 sides

Rectangular Hollow Sections


Dimensions to EN 10210 S355J2H
Designation
Size D x B
Thickness t
mm
mm
12.5
14.2
16.0
5.0
6.3
250 x 150
8.0
10.0
12.5
250 x 150
14.2
16.0
10.0
250 x 200
12.5
14.2
5.0
6.3
8.0
260 x 140
10.0
12.5
14.2
16.0
5.0
6.3
8.0
300 x 100
10.0
12.5
14.2
16.0
8.0
10.0
300 x 150
12.5
14.2
16.0
5.0
6.3
8.0
300 x 200
10.0
12.5
14.2
16.0
6.3
8.0
10.0
300 x 250
12.5
14.2
16.0
6.3
350 x 150
8.0
Association for Specialist Fire Protection
www.asfp.org.uk

Mass per metre


Kg
62.5
70.0
77.7
30.4
38.0
47.7
58.8
72.3
81.1
90.3
66.7
82.1
92.3
30.4
38.0
47.7
58.8
72.3
81.1
90.3
30.4
38.0
47.7
58.8
72.3
81.1
90.3
54.0
66.7
82.1
92.3
103
38.3
47.9
60.3
74.5
91.9
103
115
52.8
66.5
82.4
102
115
128
47.9
60.3

Area of the
section
cm2
79.6
89.2
99.0
38.7
48.4
60.8
74.9
92.1
103
115
84.9
105
118
38.7
48.4
60.8
74.9
92.1
103
115
38.7
48.4
60.8
74.9
92.1
103
115
68.8
84.9
105
118
131
48.7
61.0
76.8
94.9
117
132
147
67.3
84.8
105
130
146
163
61.0
76.8
40
VOL 1: SECTION 1

m-1
75
70
65
170
135
110
90
75
65
60
85
70
60
170
140
110
90
75
65
60
180
145
115
95
80
70
65
110
90
75
65
60
165
135
105
85
70
60
55
130
100
85
65
60
55
140
110

m-1
60
50
45
145
115
90
75
60
55
50
80
65
55
140
115
90
75
60
55
50
130
105
85
70
55
50
45
90
70
60
55
50
145
115
95
75
60
55
50
120
95
80
65
55
50
110
85

m-1
90
80
70
210
165
135
110
90
80
70
110
90
80
210
165
135
110
90
80
70
210
165
135
110
90
80
70
130
110
90
80
70
205
165
130
105
85
75
70
165
130
105
85
75
70
165
130

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

Section factor A/V (Hp/A)

Table 14: 2006

3 sides

4 sides

Rectangular Hollow Sections


Dimensions to EN 10210 S355J2H
Designation
Size D x B
Thickness t
mm
mm
10.0
12.5
14.2
16.0
6.3
350 x 250
8.0
10.0
12.5
350 x 250
14.2
16.0
400 x 120
6.3
8.0
10.0
400 x 120
12.5
14.2
16.0
6.3
8.0
10.0
400 x 150
12.5
14.2
16.0
6.3
8.0
10.0
400 x 200
12.5
14.2
16.0
8.0
10.0
400 x 300
12.5
14.2
16.0
8.0
10.0
450 x 250
12.5
14.2
16.0
8.0
10.0
500 x 200
12.5
14.2
16.0
8.0
10.0
500 x 300
12.5
14.2
Association for Specialist Fire Protection
www.asfp.org.uk

Mass per metre


Kg
74.5
91.9
103
115
57.8
72.8
90.2
112
126
141
49.9
62.8
77.7
95.8
108
120
52.8
66.5
82.4
102
115
128
57.8
72.8
90.2
112
126
141
85.4
106
131
148
166
85.4
106
131
148
166
85.4
106
131
148
166
97.9
122
151
170

Area of the
section
cm2
94.9
117
132
147
73.6
92.8
115
142
160
179
63.5
80.0
98.9
122
137
153
67.3
84.8
105
130
146
163
73.6
92.8
115
142
160
179
109
135
167
189
211
109
135
167
189
211
109
135
167
189
211
125
155
192
217
41
VOL 1: SECTION 1

m-1
90
75
65
60
130
105
85
70
60
55
145
115
95
75
70
65
145
115
90
75
65
60
140
110
90
70
65
60
105
85
70
60
55
105
85
70
65
55
110
90
75
65
60
105
85
70
60

m-1
70
55
50
45
115
95
75
60
55
50
100
80
65
55
50
45
105
85
70
55
50
45
110
90
70
60
50
45
95
75
60
55
50
90
70
60
50
45
85
70
55
50
45
90
75
60
50

m-1
105
85
75
70
165
130
105
85
75
70
165
130
105
85
80
70
165
130
105
85
75
70
165
130
105
85
75
70
130
105
85
75
70
130
105
85
75
70
130
105
85
75
70
130
105
85
75

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

Section factor A/V (Hp/A)

Table 14: 2006

3 sides

4 sides

Rectangular Hollow Sections


Dimensions to EN 10210 S355J2H
Designation
Size D x B
Thickness t
mm
mm
16.0
20.0

Mass per metre


Kg
191
235

Area of the
section
cm2
243
300

m-1
55
45

m-1
45
40

m-1
70
55

NB Data on older and other steel sections can be found on ASFP website/technical section

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


www.asfp.org.uk

42
VOL 1: SECTION 1

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

Table 15: July 06


CASTELLATED SECTIONS
Castellated Universal Beams
Serial size
Original Castellated
mm
mm
914 x 419 1371 x 419

914 x 305 1371 x 305

838 x 292 1257 x 292

762 x 267 1143 x 267

686 x 254 1029 x 254

610 x 305 915 x 305

610 x 229 915 x 229

533 x 210 800 x 210

457 x 191 686 x 191

Mass per metre


kg
388
343
289
253
224
201
226
194
176
197
173
147
170
152
140
125
238
179
149
140
125
113
101
122
109
101
92
82
98
89
82
74
67

Castellated Universal Beams (continued)


Serial size
Original Castellated
mm
mm

Mass per metre

457 x 152 686 x 152

406 x 178 609 x 178

406 x 140 609 x 140

356 x 171 534 x 171

356 x 127 534 x 127


305 x 165 458 x 165

305 x 127 458 x 127

305 x 102 458 x 102

254 x 146 381 x 146

254 x 102 381 x 102


203 x 133 305 x 133

kg
82
74
67
60
52
74
67
60
54
46
39
67
57
51
45
39
33
54
46
40
48
42
37
33
28
25
43
37
31
28
25
22
30
25

Castellated Universal Columns


Serial size
Original Castellated
mm
mm

356 x 406 546 x 406

356 x 368 534 x 368

305 x 305 458 x 305

254 x 254 381 x 254

203 x 203 305 x 203

152 x 152 228 x 152

Mass per metre


kg
634
551
467
393
340
287
235
202
177
153
129
283
240
198
158
137
118
97
167
132
107
89
73
86
71
60
52
46
37
30
23

Cellular beams
To accommodate building service within the beam depth, steel beams are now available with a variety of web apertures, to form cellular and
castellated beams. Whilst hexagonal, rectangular and elongated lozenge shaped apertures are available, circular apertures are the most
common. A mixture of such aperture shapes is also possible. See Section 6.

Association for Specialist Fire Protection


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43
VOL 1: SECTION 1

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

2.

STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING

Many structural design codes now include fire resistant design. In the UK the relevant design code is BS 5950
Part 8: 2003 and is called Code of practice for fire resistant design. In the Eurocodes, EC3 is the design code for
steel and EC4 is the code for composite steel and concrete structures. The fire resistant design parts of these
codes is Part 1.2 (EN 1993-1-2 and EN1994-1-2). All these codes cover the design of a number of types of steel
element and include the calculation of the temperatures of fire protected steel. The guidance of ENV 13381-4 is
recommended. An important feature of these codes is that they introduce the concept of a variable steel failure
temperature - the limiting steel temperature before the critical failure temperature is reached.
All Eurocodes have National Annexes. These are official national deviations from the published codes and for
EC3 -1-2 and EC4 1-2 these are expected to be published during 2007. A National Annex normally contains
small changes to safety factors to bring the Eurocode in line with existing national standards. They also contain
guidance on the use of Informative Annexes. Section 8.3.1 of BS 5950-8 states that where recommendations (for
limiting temperatures) are made when factored loads for the fire limit state differ from those applied in the tests they
should be prepared by a suitably qualified person
For the purpose of assessing the thickness of fire protection materials, a detailed knowledge of these codes is not
required but the basic concepts are explained below.
2.1

Strength of steel at elevated temperature

As steel is heated it will gain strength up to a temperature of about 200C and then, on further heating, lose
strength. It melts at about 1600C. The variation of strength retention factor with temperature for the normal
structural steels S275 to S355 at strain(%) of 1.5 is given in Table 16. The effect of the initial gain in strength is
normally ignored. The values given are taken from BS 5950-8: 2003. For other grades expert advice should be
sought. However, for stainless steel the data may be used as it loses strength more slowly with increasing
temperature.
In all design there is a built in factor of safety, based on strength, of at least 1.5 and for various reasons designers
may chose to use a higher factor. In fire, it is permissible to reduce this factor to 1.0, or less, and thus, a steel
element (beam or column) will be able to resist the applied loads at temperatures in excess of 500C. The exact
temperature will depend on the type of element and the initial cold factor of safety.

Table 16 Variation of the effective yield strength factor of normal structural steels with temperature
Temperature
(C)

20

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

Effective yield
strength factor

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.956

0.756

0.460

0.223

0.108

Note: The factors are applied to the cold strength of the steel to obtain the elevated temperature strength.
For example, at 600C the effective yield strength of S275 steel is 0.46 x 275 = 126.5 N/mm2
2.2

Load ratio

BS 5950-8 uses the concept of load ratio as a measure of the applied load that a member can resist at the time of a
fire. The Eurocodes use a similar concept of load level. The load ratio is defined as:

Load ratio

Load or moment at time of fire


Member strength at 20C

The load ratio can be seen as the ratio of the factors of safety for fire and normal design. If the factor of safety used
for the original, cold, design was, say, 1.7 and the factor for fire was 1.0, then the load ratio would be 1/1.7, i.e.
0.59. Often, the permitted factor of safety for fire design is less than unity, in which case, the load ratio, in the
example, might be less than 0.59. This would arise because BS 5950-8 allows the imposed load on floors to be
reduced to 80% of the nominal value in many cases and the Eurocodes allow the imposed load to be reduced to
50%. These reductions in loading can be justified using statistical evidence of actual measured imposed floor
loading.
Association for Specialist Fire Protection
www.asfp.org.uk

44
VOL 1: SECTION 2

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

The load ratio is a useful concept because it allows different size elements to be considered in the same way. A
200 mm deep beam will fail at approximately the same temperature as a 400mm deep beam if they are both
working at the same load ratio. In practical designs the load ratio will vary from 0.45 to 0.55. Load ratios much
higher than 0.6 are very rare although the maximum value could be as high as 0.7 for an element carrying purely
the dead weight of the structure!
For a given load or stress level, the maximum permitted temperature is termed the critical temperature in the
Eurocodes and the limiting temperature in BS 5950-8. The appraisal of the limiting or critical temperature of any
member should be only be carried out by a qualified engineer [registered with the UK Engineering Council] and will
normally be made by the consulting engineer for the job. In essence, the steel member will function satisfactorily at
the limiting temperature but fail at higher temperatures.
For illustrative purposes only, the load ratios and limiting temperatures for columns and laterally restrained beams
supporting concrete slabs or composite slabs (the most common type in multistorey buildings) are given in
Table 17. The data is extracted from Table 8 of BS 5950-8:2003.
Also see more detail in Section 1.5.2

Table 17: Limiting temperature for columns and beams


Description of member

Limiting temperature (C) for a load ratio of:


0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

Typical column in compression in


multistorey building

510

540

580

615

655

710

Non-composite beam supporting


concrete slabs or composite slabs in
multistorey building

590

620

650

680

725

780

Composite beams supporting concrete


or composite slabs, with 100% shear
connection

550

580

610

645

685

740

NOTE - SCI 4 November 1997 The existing temperatures of 550C and 620C are acceptable for most circumstances, but they
are not always conservative. A suitable statement must be provided in all contracts and quotations

2.3

Composite beams and voids

When a composite beam is constructed using a profiled steel deck, a potential void is created between the deck
and the top flange of the beam. With open trapezoidal steel decks this void is comparatively large and could be
180mm wide and 60mm high. With a closed dovetail deck the void is much smaller with an opening of between
12 and 15mm. In the case of the open trapezoidal deck the fire resistance of the composite beam may be reduced
because of the effects of additional heat entering the steel beam through the top surface of the flange. The effect of
filling or not filling voids was investigated by SCI and ASFP and others in a series of fire tests NEWMAN, G.M.,
LAWSON, R. M. Technical Report: The fire resistance of composite beams Steel Construction Institute, P109,
1991.
Although it is very rare for a steel beam supporting a composite floor slab not to be designed to act compositely with
the floor slab, a fire protection contractor will normally not be able to tell whether a beam is composite simply by
visual inspection. In a finished beam, the shear connectors will be covered by the floor slab and so the contractor
will have to obtain confirmation from an appropriate engineer.
Recommendations were prepared by SCI on situations when voids could be left unfilled. This was published
separately by SCI and ASFP. The guidance was originally based on the protection thickness for the beam being
nd
taken from the 2 Edition (Revised) of this publication and was based on limiting temperatures of either 550C or
620C.
When the void above a composite beam is left unfilled two effects occur. Firstly, the rate at which heat enters the
section is increased. The temperatures of all parts of the section are increased, although the increase on the
bottom flange is small. Secondly, the increased temperatures cause the section to lose strength at a faster rate.
These two effects can both be expressed in terms of a temperature increase compared to a protected beam with
filled voids carrying the same loading. For 60 minutes fire resistance the effective increase is approximately 70C
and for 90 minutes the effective increase is 90C. These increases should be subtracted from the temperature,
Association for Specialist Fire Protection
www.asfp.org.uk

45
VOL 1: SECTION 2

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

based on load carrying capacity, in assessing the fire protection requirements. Thus, if based on BS 5950-8 the
limiting temperature is 630C, a beam with unfilled voids should be considered to be at 560C for 60 minutes or
540C for 90 minutes fire resistance. This analysis has been carried out for beams with a high degree of shear
connection and is conservative for beams designed with a low degree of shear connection.
The temperature modifications are appropriate to both passive and reactive types of fire protection.
The existing guidance states that if the fire protection is based on a steel temperature of 550C (for 60 minutes)
then no increase in fire protection thickness is required. A beam with unfilled voids will actually be at a temperature
of 550C plus 70C, i.e. 620C. From BS 5950-8: 2003, the load ratio for offices at 610C is 0.5.
For buildings with largely non-permanent loading (See 1.5) this level of loading is almost never exceeded so, no
increase in fire protection is required.
Voids at compartment walls
Voids must ordinarily be filled on beams that are part of a compartment wall otherwise the integrity and insulation
criteria of the wall will be breached. Voids may only be left unfilled on beams that do not form part of a compartment
wall.
For decks with the profile running parallel to beams no special recommendations are made for spray applied
materials but, for board protection, the boards should be taken past the edge of the flange to abut the underside of
the deck.

Table 18: Recommendations for beams assessed at 550C or 620C


(using section 1 of this publication)
This table is subject to the scope of the SCI report P109 as referenced in Clause 2.3 above.
Trapezoidal deck
Beam type

Fire protection on beam

Fire resistance (minutes)


Up to 60

90

Over 90

Composite

Materials assessed at
550C

No increase in thickness

Increase thickness by 10
% or assess thickness
using A/V increased by
15%*

Fill voids

Composite

Materials assessed at
620C

Increase thickness by 20
% or assess thickness
using A/V increased by
30%*

Increase thickness by 30
% or assess thickness
using A/V increased by
50%*

Fill voids

Non-composite

All types

Fill voids above the flange


* The least onerous option may be used

For cellular beams - refer to manufacturers specific data and see Sections 6.1 and 6.2

Dovetail decks
Beam type

Fire protection on beam

Any

All types

Up to 60

90

Over 90

Voids may be left unfilled for all periods of fire resistance

For cellular beams refer to manufacturers specific data and see Sections 6.1 and 6.2
NOTE 1 - The assessed at temperature relates to that used in the performance assessment document
(assessment) for beams subjected to maximum design stress as defined in BS 5950-1:2000 Structural use of steel
in building: Part 1 Code of Practice for design, for the required fire resistance period.
NOTE 2 - Where such assessment temperatures exceed 550 deg C, it is appropriate to use the 620 deg C value
when defining requirements, these to be applied to the thicknesses derived for the fully stressed beam(s).
Association for Specialist Fire Protection
www.asfp.org.uk

46
VOL 1: SECTION 2

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

When filling voids above beams protected with a passive fire protection material it is not necessary to use the same
material to fill the voids as was used to protect the beam. Any non-combustible material with proven fire stopping
ability may be used. If, in Table 18 or 19, fill voids is specified and an intumescent coating is being used then it
may be interpreted that the upper surface of the top flange should have the same coating thickness as the other
parts of the beam. The physical filling of the void is not necessary, provided that the other fire resistance criteria for
any fire resisting walls, being penetrated by the beams, are also met [see 1.6.3].
If the protection to a beam is not based on any structural fire engineering analysis then the recommendations for
when voids may be left unfilled are given in Table 18. This applies to thicknesses specified using section 1 of this
publication. If the design specifies a limiting temperature the temperature modifications should be taken from Table
19. This applies to thicknesses specified using section 3 or 4 of this publication.

Table 19: Temperature modifications for beams with specified limiting temperature
Trapezoidal deck
Beam type
Composite

Temperature reductions for fire resistance (minutes) of


30

60

90

Over 90

50C

70C

90C

Fill voids

Non-composite

Fill voids
For cellular beams refer to manufacturers specific data and see Section 6.1 and 6.2
Dovetail decks

Beam type

30

Any

60

90

Over 90

No temperature modifications are required


For cellular beams refer to manufacturers specific data and see Sections 6.1 and 6.2

Trapezoidal Deck

Dovetail Deck

ADDITIONAL NOTES FOR TREATMENT OF VOIDS ABOVE TOP FLANGE OF BEAMS WITH WEB OPENINGS.
In most cases, lengths of profiled decking will be positioned perpendicularly across steel beams.
Section 6 of this document discusses the special measures required for steel beams with web openings. In such
cases the, limiting temperature of the beam can be reduced by the openings, depending on the size, shape,
spacing and location of the openings. The limiting temperature should be provided by the steel supplier and/or
structural engineer.
The following Footnotes 1 and 2 give additional guidance where voids exist above the top flange/
FOOTNOTE 1: For Westok CellBeam with web openings.
Westok SCI software already makes provision for voids above the steel top flange.
[a]

For fire periods greater than 90 minutes with trapezoidal decking, the voids in the deck must be filled to
provide fire protection to the top flange.

[b]

For fire periods not exceeding 90 minutes with trapezoidal decking, the Westok CellBeam software is able to
consider both filled and unfilled cases.

The software default is to consider unfilled trapezoidal deck voids as this gives the worst case and the safest
assumption.
When checking a cellular beam with unfilled trapezoidal voids over the cells the software conservatively assumes
that the beam is subjected to a 90 minute fire even if the fire period is 30 or 60 minutes. This was done to keep
engineering solution as simple as possible. An extract of the SCI text states that:Association for Specialist Fire Protection
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"Where trapezoidal steel decking is used and orientated perpendicular to the beam a void is formed between the
underside of the slab and the top flange of the steel section. If this void remains unfilled the temperature of the top
flange will be higher than for a beam supporting a solid concrete slab. Following the guidance given in Table 19 the
temperature of the top flange is increased if the user opts to leave the void unfilled. The magnitude of the
temperature increase is dependant on the fire resistance period considered.
The Westok CellBeam does not differentiate between the periods of fire resistance required, and the software
adopts conservatively a value of 90 degrees C for the temperature increase of the top flange. This temperature
increase is appropriate for 90 minutes fire resistance. For higher fire resistance periods the voids should always be
filled.
The Westok CellBeam model also takes account of following the recommendations of EN1994-1-2. Viz., the
temperature of the shear connectors are taken as 80% of the temperature of the top flange and the temperature of
the concrete flange is taken as 40% of the temperature of the top flange of the section, along with adjusting the stud
temperatures along the beam.
FOOTNOTE 2: For all other cell beams with web openings
If a manufacturer is asked to protect a solid web composite beam with unfilled voids and no info is supplied re load
levels and limiting steel temperatures then Table 18 must be used. Table 18 was created before cellular beams
were thought to be a problem.
If the beam is cellular or has significant web openings, or has a specified limiting temperature, then Table 19 must
be used. Thus:
1.

A solid web beam with a specified temperature of say 560 (or even 530 or 630) must be assessed using
Table 19

2.

A cellular beam assessed using SCI guidance will have a specified temperature and must be assessed using
Table 19. SCI have stated that this is the case.

3.

A cellular beam with significant web openings should have a specified limiting temperature and if it does then
Table 19 must be used. If no temperature is specified then no guidance can be offered at present about any
aspect of fire protection. The problem of what is a significant opening is complex. This situation should
change when SCI report on the research work on beams with rectangular openings for ASFP.

The comments apply to all fire protection systems and products used for this application

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TEST & ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES GENERAL GUIDANCE

Methods of assessing the performance of fire protection materials have been developed in the UK which enable
the thickness of protection for a wide range of situations to be predicted. The assessment procedures were
developed by the Association for Specialist Fire Protection in consultation with Industry, with a view to:
1.
Making assessments more consistent from different sources.
2.
Establishing more consistent acceptance criteria.
3.
Providing guidance to manufacturers on testing requirements.
4.
Providing practical guidance for evaluation of constructions which are un-testable.
5.
Consolidating available information on the performance of fire protection materials.
Separate procedures are given for intumescent coatings and passive materials in recognition of the technical
differences and physical performance characteristics of these materials.
Guidance on the test and assessment procedures of European Standard ENV 13381-4 is given in Section 6.
3.1

General information

The appropriate procedures detailed in this document have resulted from discussions of the ASFP Technical
Committee and the ASFP Technical Review Panel. These procedures are based on the best available
knowledge at the time of writing and are considered to provide a reliable means of evaluating the performance
of fire protection materials and coatings in terms of BS 476-21. The assessment procedures use data
generated either from tests on loaded beams and columns to BS 476-21, in conjunction with tests on unloaded
beams and columns exposed to the heating conditions specified in BS 476-20 or from tests on loaded /unloaded
beams and columns to the relevant part of EN13381. However, many factors can affect the performance of fire
protection materials and coatings under test conditions and some minor variation between the performance in
tests and that predicted by these assessment methods may occur.
The scope of a product assessment need not cover all the shapes and orientations detailed in this document.
For example, where a product is intended to be used only on beams, an assessment based on a loaded beam
test and other data from unloaded short sections may be used. The programme of tests need not be restricted
to one steelwork shape, but additional loaded tests may then be necessary.
Similarly an assessment need not cover all the steelwork shapes. An assessment can be restricted to one or
more shapes alone, e.g. I sections only, but at least three loaded tests plus unloaded sections would be
required to cover both orientations and a range of thicknesses.
rd

The assessments will be primarily based on test information from accredited 3 party test laboratories
accredited to ISO 17025; e.g. UKAS accredited laboratories. Appropriate data from other independently
validated sources may be used to supplement the assessment but will not be used as the main basis of the
evaluation.
Where BS 476-21 or EN 13381 series does not provide full details of test procedures, the resolutions of the Fire
Test Study Group and the scheme described in Test Procedures Sections 3.2 and in 4.2 or 5.2, should be
followed for the particular type of protection systems
The potential fissuring, cracking or detachment of a fire protection material or coating may only become
apparent during full scale loaded fire resistance tests. The loaded tests are therefore designed to provide
information regarding the physical/mechanical performance of fire protection under the following conditions:
1.
Vertical and horizontal orientations (columns and beams) as appropriate.
2.
Maximum and minimum protection thicknesses.
3.
Maximum and minimum fire resistance periods under consideration.
To demonstrate the retention of the fire protection material, loaded beam tests should be continued until the
deflection at mid-span reaches a minimum value of span/35. Loaded column tests should be continued until
structural failure is imminent.
3.2

General test procedures

The general procedures used for determining the fire resistance of load-bearing elements of structure are
specified in BS 476: Part 20 and 21: 1987.
Part 20 is concerned with general principles and covers common requirements
Part 21 covers the testing of load-bearing beams, columns, floors and walls
In assessing the performance of fire protection materials the relevant parts are:Part 20: Method of determination of the fire resistance of elements of construction (general principles) and
Part 21: Method of determination of the fire resistance of load-bearing elements of construction.
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The European standard ENV 13381-4 also makes reference to the European EN 1363 series of standards,
which contain general information about conducting fire resistance tests. However, as all the procedures for
assessing fire protection to structural steel are specified in ENV 13381-4 (a graphical method is being
reviewed), it is this standard which is generally referred to in this document, unless stated otherwise.
ENV 13381-4 has no parallel British Standard.
In both BS 476 and the new European Standards the performance of load-bearing steel beams and columns is
judged against the criteria of load-bearing capacity which is related to the ability of the element to remain in
place without excessive deformation.
rd

Primary test evidence must be obtained from 3 party test laboratories accredited to ISO 17025; e.g. UKAS
accredited laboratories or in a laboratory recognized by UKAS, operating in accordance with EN ISO 9000 or
EN 45000.
Loaded specimens should comply with the dimensional requirements of BS 476-21 or ENV 13381-4 and nonloaded specimens used to provide temperature data should have a length of at least 1 metre.
1.
2.
3.

4.

5.
6.

To provide maximum information tests should ideally be continued until all steel sections have reached a
mean temperature of 700C (or other maximum assessment temperature required by the sponsor).
If loadbearing capacity failure of a loaded beam occurs (or for columns is imminent) the load should be
removed and the test continued until the conditions given in 4 are achieved.
The mean steel temperature shall be calculated at intervals not exceeding 2 minutes and is defined as
follows:

I-section beams with three-sided exposure: (mean temperature of lower flange + mean web
temperature)/2.

I-section columns with four-sided exposure: (mean temperature of both flanges + mean web
temperature)/2.

RHS beams with three-sided exposure: mean temperature of the three exposed faces.

RHS/CHS columns with four-sided exposure: mean temperature of exposed face[s].


The load applied to loaded specimens shall either be equal to the maximum permissible load calculated
in accordance with BS 449-2 (including amendments 1 to 7 but excluding subsequent amendments) or
comply with the requirements of ENV 13381-4 and/or EN 13381-8 when the draft is agreed or published.
Stone mineral or ceramic fibre insulation should be provided between the top flange of all unloaded beam
sections and the concrete cover slabs.
Loaded beams shall be tested with their ends simply supported. Columns should be axially loaded with
their ends fixed (i.e. restrained in direction and against rotation).

In certain cases it may not be practical to comply with all the above requirements. In such cases all variations
should be agreed with the assessor and the reasons for, and details of the variation, will be included in the
assessment report.
3.3

General assessment procedures

ENV 13381-4 specifies a number of methods of analysis of the data generated by the specified programme of
tests. It is acceptable to adopt the methods given in this European standard subject to the criteria of
acceptability being met [see later]. The permitted extensions listed in this Standard may also be applied
provided that full data input set is available.
3.3.1

Assessment procedure and basis of assessment

Temperatures attained by steel sections


In practice the fire performance of steel sections will depend on their load ratio and the maximum allowable
steel temperature. The temperature of the steel at failure will vary, depending on these factors, and whether or
not the section is designed to act in composite action with the floor.
Critical, limiting and design temperatures

The critical temperature is defined as the steel temperature at which failure of the structural steel
element is expected to occur against a given load level.

The limiting temperature is the maximum temperature of the critical element of a member prior to failure
under specified fire conditions.
The design temperature is the temperature determined by calculation at which failure of the structural steel
element is expected against a given load level at a particular location in a building

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4.

TEST AND ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION


SYSTEMS

4.1

Test programme - passive protection systems

For a passive fire protection material / product /system being evaluated to BS 476-21, a typical exploratory
testing programme would include the following combinations of steel sizes and orientations over the range of
manufactured/applied thicknesses.

Loaded steel I section beams


305 x 127mm x 42kg/m
305 x 127mm x 42kg/m
Loaded steel I section column
203 x 203mm x 52kg/m
1m long unloaded specimens
Beams
305 x 102mm x 25kg/m
305 x 102mm x 25kg/m
254 x 146mm x 31kg/m
254 x 146mm x 43kg/m
356 x 171mm x 67kg/m
356 x 171mm x 67kg/m
Columns
203 x 203mm x 52kg/m
254 x 254mm x 89kg/m
152 x 152mm x 30kg/m
254 x 254mm x 132kg/m

A/V Section factor


Profile Protection

Table 20

A/V Section factor


Box Protection

Thickness Factor
K

180
180

140
140

1.0
0.0

180

125

1.0

285
285
230
170
140
140

225
225
160
120
105
105

0.2
0.8
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.8

180
130
235
90

125
90
160
65

1.0
0.2
0.0
0.3

= thickness factor = (dp - dpmin) / (dpmax - dpmin), where

d pmax

= maximum thickness to be assessed (mm)

d pmin

= minimum thickness to be assessed (mm)

dp

= average thickness of fire protection material applied (mm)

If reinforcement is used over part of the thickness range additional loaded tests will be required.
Details of the programme of sections to be tested for the European Standard are given in ENV 13381-4. The
data from the fire tests is used for the UK assessment procedures without the inclusion of any of the correction
factors described in the European Standard.
4.2

Test procedure - passive protection systems

These procedures are additional to, or highlight those, specified in BS 476-21 or ENV 13381-4.
1.

The materials and standards of workmanship of the test specimens shall be representative of good site
practice. The applied thickness of protection should generally be maintained within 15% of the mean
applied thickness.

2.

Test specimens shall be conditioned in such a manner that they correspond as closely as possible, in
temperature, moisture content and state of cure to the expected state of a similar element in service.

3.

When possible the moisture content or state of cure should be measured immediately prior to test.

4.

Loaded specimens should comply with the dimensional requirements of BS 476-21 or ENV 13381-4 and
non-loaded specimens used to provide temperature data should have a length of at least 1 metre.

5.

To provide maximum information tests should ideally be continued until all steel sections have reached a
mean temperature of 700oC (or other maximum assessment temperature required by the sponsor) or until
the insulation system has suffered a significant detachment from the steel section.

6.

If loadbearing capacity failure of a loaded beam occurs (or for columns is imminent) the load should be
removed and the test continued until the conditions given in (5) are achieved.

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4.3

Assessment of performance of passive protection systems

Test specimens shall be conditioned in such a manner that they correspond as closely as possible, in
temperature, solvent content and state of cure to the expected state of a similar element in service or as
specified by the manufacturer.
4.3.1

Basis of Assessment

The aspects considered in the assessment of test data are:


Section Factor (A/V)
Shape of section (e.g. I-section, rectangular hollow section)
Size of section
Fire resistance period
Temperatures attained by steel sections
Critical temperature
Orientation of section
Thickness and density of applied protection
Surface preparation of steel
Reinforcement (if any)
Primer compatibility
Fixing and support detail
Physical performance and retention of protection material
Over-coating
The thickness of material required to provide specific standards of fire resistance, at a given critical temperature
for the steel, is derived by means of an empirical relationship in the equation below

Fire resistance time (minutes) t = a0 + a1 dp V/A + a2 dp


Equation 1
Where a0, a1, a2 = constants applicable to the material,
dp = thickness of fire protection material (mm), and A/V = Section Factor (m-1).
The values of the constants ao, a1 and a2 are determined by means of multiple linear regression using
information from the unloaded sections only as input data. These data may be from tests to either BS 476-21 or
ENV 13381-4. For the purposes of analysis, the fire resistance time is taken as the time for the steel sections to
achieve the given critical temperature.
The analysis may be repeated at other critical temperatures. The range of critical temperatures agreed for this
publication is 350C to 700C, usually in 50C steps.
With many fire protection materials it is possible to achieve a coefficient of determination (r2) in excess of 0.95,
which indicates a high level of agreement between test and predicted data.
If the coefficient of determination is found to be less than 0.95, further investigations must be carried out to
determine the reasons for the discrepancy and an appropriate safety factor may be included in the analysis to
compensate for the variation.
By re-arranging the equation and substituting values of ao a1 a2 derived from the regression analysis it is
possible to derive protection thicknesses for given values of A/V and derive tables of the form presented in the
Data Sheets (Section 9).

dp =

t a0
(a1 V/A + a2)
Equation 2

The tests on the loaded sections are carried out with the loads on the specimen calculated to give a critical
temperature of 550C for columns and 620C for beams. If the results of the loaded tests are worse than those
of the short sections at the same critical temperature or if the mean temperature of the loaded section at failure
is less than 550C (columns) or 620C (beams) then further investigations must be carried out to determine the
reasons for the discrepancy and an appropriate safety factor may be included in the analysis to compensate for
the variation.
A coefficient of determination less than 0.9 indicates an inadequate correlation which could arise because:
(a)

the standard equation is unsuitable for the specific product (e.g. due to a high combined moisture level).

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(b)

the test data are unreliable due to excessive density variation, loss of material during test, etc.

In either case the assessing body should seek to establish the reason for the variation.
In the case of (a) an appropriate assessment technique should be adopted. The basis for the justification of the
alternative technique should be documented in detail in the assessment report. In the case of (b) the data
should be rejected and further tests carried out or suitable safety factors included in the analysis.
General assessment procedures are referred to in Section 3.3.
4.3.2

Assessment procedures

The following general conditions are applied to the assessment of passive fire protection materials.
1.

Assessments are only made regarding the performance of horizontal elements if the loaded beam test
with maximum thickness in accordance with BS 476-21 or ENV 13381-4 has achieved the maximum fire
resistance under consideration. If this criterion is not met (e.g. a beam fails at 210min rather than 240min
or more) the result may still be acceptable provided that the load is removed after a deflection of at least
span/35 has occurred and the test is run-on until the full period is completed. The material should remain
intact during this over-run period for the extrapolation to be considered.

2.

Assessments are only made regarding the performance of vertical elements if a loaded column has been
tested and meets requirements similar to those noted for steel beams under (1).

3.

The average thickness of material applied to a test specimen is used in the analysis. The predicted
thicknesses are always considered as the minimum required for on-site application.

4.

Assessments only apply to the specific formulation tested.

5.

In certain cases the standard method of assessment may not be appropriate (e.g. for materials containing
significant quantities of combined water) and alternative or modified methods of analysis are not
precluded; however, any alternative approach must be fully documented and justified in the assessment
report, subject to agreement by the Fire Test Study Group and ASFP Technical Review Panel

6.

The acceptable range of thicknesses is related to the maximum and minimum thicknesses tested on
loaded sections. The extrapolation of maximum thickness will normally only be acceptable by up to 10%
of the maximum thickness tested, and subject to a maximum increase of 10% in the section factor. The
extrapolation of minimum thickness will normally only be acceptable by up to 10% of the minimum
thickness tested as shown below

Permitted extended use of data


Section Factor
A/V

Positive extension: + 10%


Negative extension: -10%
Positive extension: + 10%

Material Thickness

7.

The assessments derived from the procedures detailed in this document may be applied directly to steel
sections having the following properties:
Re-entrant profile
Profiles that are not re-entrant provided that the fixing of the sprayed fire protection system is equivalent
to that tested. Useful information is also provided in BS 8202-1 for guidance on use of supporting mesh.
Depth not exceeding 686mm
Width not exceeding 325mm
Where any of the above criteria are not met additional assessment and/or test work will be required to
ensure that the fire protection material will be retained in position under fire conditions Section 1.6.2
provides relevant additional information.

8.

In the computation of required spray material thickness for presentation in the product data sheet the
calculated value shall be rounded as in the following example:
15.1 or above becomes 16mm
15.09mm becomes 15mm.

9.

In the computation of the maximum Section Factor (A/V) for a stated board thickness for presentation in
the product data sheet the calculated value shall be rounded down to the nearest whole number.

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4.3.3

Assessment report

Following the completion of the appropriate test and assessment package a fully documented report should be
prepared by the assessor for consideration by the ASFP Technical Review Panel prior to acceptance for
rd
publication in Section 8 of this document. In the case of a 3 Party Certificated product, review by the ASFP
Technical Review Panel will not be required provided that the Certification Body adopts the requirements /
recommendations of this Publication.
The assessment report will fully detail the scope of approval, basis of the assessment and justification for any
deviations from the procedures detailed in this document. All test data used in the preparation of the
assessment should be fully referenced by test number, test standard and type of test (beam/column,
loaded/unloaded, full scale/small scale, etc).
The format of the report should provide the following minimum details:
1.

Fire protection material /product/ system - Brief description of generic types.

2.

Test specimens - Number of specimens and sizes used in the analyses.

3.

Limits of acceptability - Details of any constraints.

4.

Predictive analyses at each critical temperature with summary of test results and summary of analysis
data.

5.

Predicted thicknesses for various Section Factors and critical temperatures.

6.

Data sheets (details as Section 8).

7.

The test reports used for the assessment should be appended to the Assessment Report.

8.

Physical performance and retention of material.

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5.

TEST AND ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES REACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION


SYSTEMS

This Section presents guidance with respect to the evaluation of structural steel sections protected against fire by
thin film intumescent coatings. See Section 6 for the fire protection of cellular steel beams.
5.1

Test programme [Reactive systems]

prENV 13381-8 specifies a programme of tests for reactive (intumescent) systems and reference should be made to
this document should it be required to test in accordance with this European Standard.
It should be noted that the current European fire test standard ENV 13381-4 is in the course of being revised and
will be reissued as two separate standards: ENV 13381-4 for passive Boards and Spray coatings, and prEN 133818 for Reactive coatings. In addition, the fire testing and assessment of cellular beams is not within the scope of
these standards under revision, and therefore there is currently no agreed European approach that deals with the
fire protection of steel cellular beams as elements of construction. See section 6.2
For tests carried out to BS 476, in order to maintain a consistency of approach the following guidance is given.
To enable the test laboratories to maintain a stock of appropriate test specimens, the following steel sections are
suggested for the development of a test programme with respect to BS 476: Part 21.

Table 21
Steel I Sections
mm x mm x Kg/m
305 x 102 x 25
254 x 146 x 31
356 x 171 x 67
203 x 203 x 52
254 x 254 x 89
254 x 254 x132
406 x 178 x 60
305 x 127 x 42
254 x 146 x 43
152 x 152 x 30
610 x 305 x 238

Steel Rectangular Hollow Sections


mm x mm x mm
80 x 80 x 3.6
120 x 60 x 3.6
150 x 150 x 5.0
200 x 200 x 6.3
150 x 100 x 8.0
300 x 200 x 8.0
140 x 140 x 5.0
250 x 250 x 12.5
100 x 100 x 5.0
300 x 300 x 12.5

The scope of the assessment will depend upon the nature of tests carried out and the performance of the material
in those tests.
5.1.1 Loaded tests
For a system which is to be used over a range of thicknesses, steel shapes and critical steel temperatures the
following loaded tests are considered appropriate. Thicknesses refer to dry film thickness.
For approval of I Section Beams
406mm x 178mm x 60kg/m
Suitable beam for a particular target assessment.

Maximum thickness, or
Maximum thickness

For approval of "I" section columns (alternatively a tall unloaded column can be tested only if a loaded beam is
tested)
203mm x 203mm x52kg/m

Maximum thickness, or

Suitable I column for a particular target assessment

Maximum thickness

For approval of Hollow Column Sections (alternatively a tall unloaded column can be tested only if a loaded I
section or hollow beam is tested)
200mm x 200mm x 6.3mm Column

Maximum thickness, or

Suitable hollow column for the target assessment

Maximum thickness

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For approval of Rectangular Hollow Beams


300mm x 200mm x 6.3mm

Maximum thickness or

Suitable rectangular hollow beam for the target assessment

Maximum thickness

(To our knowledge, it has never been shown that there is a stickability problem at the minimum dry film thickness
especially as it is a phenomenon related to excessive film builds)
If mesh reinforcement is used over part of the thickness range additional loaded tests will be required.
A test programme for unloaded sections is required to explore the relationship between fire resistance, dry film
thickness and section factor. A typical programme will include at least ten sections where a range of dry film
thicknesses is required. The sections are generally selected from the list given above. To allow the short section
beam data to be corrected for stickability, a short reference beam made from the same steel as each loaded beam
and with the same nominal protection should be included in the testing. Similarly, to allow the short section column
data to be corrected for stickability, a short reference column made from the same steel as each loaded column or
tall column and with the same nominal protection should be included in the testing.
To establish the performance of a material on deep web sections a deep web unloaded beam section (e.g. 610mm
x 305mm x 238kg/m) should be included in the test package.
See 5.3.3 to determine which hollow section shape is most onerous for assessment.
5.2

Test procedures [Reactive systems]

These procedures are additional to those in Section 3, or highlight those specified in BS 476: Parts 20/21 or
prEN13381-8.
1.

The materials and standards of workmanship of the test specimens shall be representative of good site
practice. For test purposes the coating should be applied such that the standard deviation of dry film
thickness about the mean is not more than 15% using the principles of ASFP TGN 007:2001. Assuming that
the readings are normally distributed this implies that:
a)

68% of readings are within 15% of mean.

b)

95% of readings are within 30% of mean.

c)

99% of readings are within 45% of mean.

If measurement shows that the readings are not in accordance with this distribution it will be necessary to
make adjustments by removing paint or touching up to ensure conformity. The method of measurement and
equipment operation is given in Section 5.3.6
2.

Test specimens shall be conditioned in such a manner that they correspond as closely as possible, in
temperature, solvent content and state of cure to the expected state of a similar element in service or as
specified by the manufacturer.
Where it is required that both beams and columns are to be assessed the assessment shall be based on the
data obtained from testing at least one loaded beam, a tall unloaded column at least 2m in height and a
package of short beams and columns. Where loaded column data is available this should be used in
preference to the tall-unloaded column specified in ENV 13381 but the tall column option is sufficient when
carrying out new tests.
If the assessment is to be confined to columns only, the assessment shall be based on the data obtained
from testing a loaded column and a package of short columns.
The specification for temperature measurement shall be as given in prEN13381-8. In the absence of loaded
column data the following critical temperatures shall be used in the assessment of the performance of
columns under maximum permissible design loading:
I-shaped sections:
Hollow sections:

550C
520C

Where it is desired to carry out the assessment of hollow columns at a different design temperature a suitable
loaded column should be tested in order to establish the critical steel temperature at the maximum
permissible load subject to a maximum temperature of 550C. For hollow beams a suitable loaded beam
should be tested in order to establish the critical steel temperature at the maximum permissible load. The
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actual steel temperature at structural failure may be used in the assessment, subject to a maximum
temperature of 620C.
5.3

Assessment procedures [Reactive systems]

5.3.1

Basis of Assessment

Assessments may be based on tests to BS 476 Part 21:1987 or prEN 13381-8.


The aspects considered in the assessment of test data are:
Section factor (A/V)
Any test programme should include a number of steel sections with the widest possible range of section factors.
Shape of section (e.g. I-section, rectangular hollow section)
The performance of reactive coatings can vary depending on the shape/profile of the steel cross section. Generally
coatings will perform better when applied to steel sections with a re-entrant profile. In addition, reactive coatings on
circular hollow sections may provide a slightly better result than the same coating applied to rectangular/square
hollow sections. Therefore, re-entrant sections are dealt with separately from hollow sections, requiring their own
set of loaded and unloaded sections in the test programme. See 5.3.3 to determine which hollow section shape is
most onerous for assessment.
Size of section
The fire performance of some reactive coatings can reduce when they are applied to deep web or narrow flange
beams. If the web of the section is large, or the flange is small, the reactive coating on the web will not be
supported as well by the coating on the flanges. It is therefore advisable to include a 610mm deep web unloaded
beam and a 120mm wide flange unloaded beam in the test programme. This would normally cover all standard
steel sizes up to 914mm deep web. For deeper beams, a separate assessment is required.
Fire resistance period
The fire resistance period of each tested loaded section is the duration of the test until the specimen is no longer
able to support the test load (see Section 1).
Orientation of section
The fire performance of reactive coatings can vary between vertical columns and horizontal beams. Generally,
therefore, unless there is particularly good correlation in the data being considered between the two types, the test
results and assessment of those results is carried out for beams and columns separately.
Thickness of applied protection
The performance of most reactive coatings will increase as the thickness increases up to a certain limit. After such
limits are exceeded there may be little or no improvement. In fact, the performance will often decrease.
Surface preparation of steel
The adhesion of the coating system, including the primer, will depend on satisfactory preparation of the steel
Surface reinforcement (if any)
If any mesh reinforcement has been used with the coating system during the fire tests, then the same system must
be used in practice.
Primer compatibility
The generic type of primer, its thickness and method of application, can play an important role in the overall
performance of the system. An assessment of the coating system will generally be limited to the primer type and
thickness used in the tests. The use of alternative primers should be in accordance with the manufacturer's
recommendations.
Method of application
The method of application of water-based intumescent coatings does not significantly affect the results so any
method may be used but spray application is recommended. Solvent based intumescent coatings are much more
sensitive to the method of application and spray application should be used unless the manufacturer specifically
recommends a different method which should then be used. The method of application used shall be recorded in
the assessment and where solvent based intumescent are applied by brush for testing then the application shall be
restricted to this method whereas if applied by spray for testing then the application shall allow both brush and
spray.

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Effects of over-coating
Overcoating the reactive coating system with a non-fire paint, including a top coat, may have a detrimental effect on
the overall performance of the system. It is therefore recommended that if most of the test specimens do not have a
top coat that there are some unloaded sections with topcoats, which can be used for comparison. Alternatively the
manufacturer may be able to demonstrate satisfactory performance using secondary test evidence from in-house
tests.
Number of coats
The number of coats to build the required thickness may affect the overall performance of the coating, although the
evidence for this is limited. It is therefore recommended that the number of coats applied on the test specimens is
similar to the number used in practice and is recorded in the test report.
Physical performance and retention of the protection material
A critical factor in the performance of any reactive coating is its ability to remain coherent and in position for the
defined range of deformations, furnace and steel temperatures, such that its ability to provide fire protection is not
impaired. This is known as stickability of the coating system. Hence, the importance of testing loaded sections
protected with the expected maximum thickness of intumescent coating.
5.3.3

Assessment protocol

The following general conditions are applied to the assessment of reactive intumescent fire protection materials.
1.

Assessments will only be made regarding the performance of horizontal elements if a loaded beam test has
been successfully completed for the required fire resistance period, in accordance with BS 476: Part 21 or
ENV 13381-4, or for a period capable of being extrapolated to the required time period as defined in clauses
3 and 6.

2.

Assessments will only be made regarding the performance of vertical elements if a loaded column test in
accordance with BS 476: Part 21 or prEN 13381-8 has been successfully completed or a tall unloaded
column has been tested in conjunction with the loaded steel beams (1 above).

3.

If, during a loaded test, load-bearing capacity failure of the specimen occurs before the appropriate fire
resistance period is achieved, (e.g. 115min rather than 120min or more) the result may still be acceptable
provided that, for beams, the load is removed after a deflection of at least span/35 has occurred or, for
columns, the load is removed when structural failure is imminent and the test is run-on until the full period is
completed. The materials should remain intact during the over-run period for the extrapolation to be
considered. The time extrapolation will be limited to 10% of the achieved maximum load-bearing capacity for
any particular specimen shape or orientation.

4.

The average total dry film thickness (dft) will be used as a basis for assessments. The assessment should
take account of the individual dfts of primer, reactive coating and topcoats. If the criteria specified in Section
5.2 (1) are not met the assessor should consider the thickness distribution in detail and, where appropriate,
safety factors introduced into the assessment to take account of the variability.

5.

Test Reports and Assessments only apply to the specific system and formulation as tested, including primer,
basecoat and topcoat if tested. Guidance for other primers and topcoats may be found in the ETAG No 018
Part 2 Reactive Coatings for Fire Protection of Steel Elements.

6.

The acceptable maximum thickness is related to the maximum thicknesses tested on loaded beams and tall
column sections. In the case of maximum thicknesses, these may differ for different steel shapes and
orientations and, as such, are not transferable from columns to beams or from I-sections to hollow sections.
The extrapolation of maximum thickness will normally only be acceptable by up to 10% of the maximum
thickness tested. The extrapolation of minimum thickness will normally only be acceptable by up to 10% of
the minimum thickness tested on short sections.

7.

For assessment purposes steel section shapes will be divided into the following groups:
I section (or other section shape providing a re-entrant profile)
a)
Horizontal
b)
Vertical
Square/rectangular section
a)
Horizontal
b)
Vertical

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8.

Each of the shape groups detailed in (7) is treated separately for the purposes of assessments. Testing of
circular and rectangular hollow columns protected with intumescent coatings does not conclusively
demonstrate that one particular shape is more onerous than another. To allow test data to be used for both
types, testing should be undertaken to adequately demonstrate which particular shape is more onerous, prior
to assessing both circular and rectangular hollow shapes on the basis of testing one shape only.
The following process shall be followed to determine whether the coating performs differently on circular or
rectangular hollow columns
[a]

Fire test a tall column of each type with the same nominal section factor, protected with the same
coating thickness, that relates to the nominal maximum thickness.

[b]

Determine the most onerous performance, by comparing the steel temperature profiles of each type of
column with respect to time, and include this in the product assessment.

[c]

Once the determination of the most onerous type of hollow section has been made, the short sections
may be selected accordingly.

Alternatively fire tests on both circular and rectangular hollow sections may be conducted and assessed
separately.
Any other steel profile shapes considered more onerous by a Certification Body should be assessed
separately.
9.

To establish the performance of a material on deep web sections (max 914mm web) a deep web unloaded
beam section (min 610mm web) should be included in the test and assessment package.

10.

Where this information is not available, the following constraints shall apply based on the size of the loaded
beam tested.

Table 22: Constraints for use of limited data from loaded beam tests
Beam size tested
406mm x 178mm x 60kg/m
Suitable beam

Maximum web size for assessment


purposes
686mm
+ 280mm

Maximum flange size for assessment


purposes
305mm
+127mm

11.

When considering the performance of elements fully loaded in accordance with BS 449-2, the following
criteria shall apply. The assessment shall be carried out separately for beams, columns and different shaped
sections. The temperature used for the assessment shall be the lowest temperature at failure of the
appropriate beam or column when tested in accordance with BS 476-21 or prEN 13381-8, except that this
temperature should not exceed 550C (except beams with 3 sided exposure and supporting concrete slabs
where the temperature should not exceed 620C). Analysis may be carried out at other limiting steel
temperatures between 350C and 700C, provided that the protection system has proved to be effective and
intact at those temperatures, fire resistance periods and section factors.

12.

To take into account the stickability performance of the product the temperature data for the short sections is
to be corrected against the loaded beams, loaded columns and tall columns depending upon the selected
test programme. The correction for the short beams is based on interpolation between the performance at
maximum and minimum protection thickness. In order to do this the following steps should be applied:
1

3
4
5

For both minimum and maximum thickness obtain the performance in terms of time to reach the
specified design temperature for the short reference beam if it was protected with the same amount of
material as its equivalent loaded beam.
Divide the time for the loaded beam by the corrected time for the short reference beam to reach the
specified design temperature for both minimum and maximum thickness. These are the correction
factors for maximum and minimum thickness (kmax and kmin). Where the factor is greater than 1 a
value of 1 is to be used.
By interpolation between kmin and kmax obtain for each short section beam the factor appropriate to
the actual thickness applied to the section.
Multiply the time to reach the specified design temperature for each short section by the calculated
factor to obtain the corrected time.
Use the corrected time for each section in the analysis.

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Example Calculation

Table 23: data for example


Loaded and ref
sections

DFT d (mm)

Time to design
temp (mins)

LB 1 dmax

2.5

67

Ref B 1 max

2.56

70

LB 2 dmin

0.38

39

Ref B 2 min

0.39

46

Corrected time
for df (mins)

Ratio
(lb/sb)

This is time the


short beam
would have got if
dft was as LB
If k greater than 1
then 1 is used

0.98 (kmax)
68.4
0.87 (kmin)
44.8

LB loaded beam. Ref B equivalent short beam


There is no need to consider the effect of a difference in section factor if the equivalent pairs are from the
same piece of steel.
Short section

DFT d i (mm)

Time to design temp


(mins)

*factor ki

Modified time (mins)

short beam

1.25

75

0.92

69

* obtained by linear interpolation between k max and k min as follows:

Correction for columns is determined in a similar manner but using only factors derived from the loaded or tall
column with the nominal maximum thickness.
All the methods of data analysis specified in prEN 13381-8 are acceptable provided that the acceptance
criteria therein are applied. Alternatively, the data may be analysed graphically in accordance with the
method described in Section 5.3.4 but it shall meet the conditions detailed below item (12) above
13.

Criteria for Acceptability.


The following criteria shall be applied to the analysis to ensure the predictions are valid:
(a)

For each short section the predicted time to reach each design temperature shall not exceed the time
for the corrected temperature to reach the design temperature by more than 15%.

(b)

The mean value of all percentage differences in time as calculated in (a) shall be less than zero.

(c)

A maximum of 30% of individual values of all percentage differences in time as calculated in (a) shall
be more than zero.

The above criteria shall be applied to each design temperature.


14.

Permitted extensions are as follows:

Table 24: Permitted extended use of data


Section Factor
A/V
Material Thickness
15.

Negative extension: no limit below the minimum A/V tested, using the dry
film thickness assessed for the minimum A/V tested.
Positive extension: + 10%
Negative extension: -10%
Positive extension: + 10%

Situations may arise where certain of the above principles are not appropriate to a particular assessment. In
such circumstances the reason for the variation and the justification for the alternative approach must be
clearly detailed in the assessment report and must be agreed by the ASFP Technical Review Panel
(BRE/Warringtonfire/ASFP).

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5.3.4
Assessment Guidelines: Graphical Approach
Data
The input data shall be the mean time to reach the limiting steel temperature derived in accordance with Section 5.2
for all sections tested. The data shall be modified in accordance with the principles given in Section 5.3.3 (10).
The justification for excluding any of the test results from the analysis must be given in the assessment report.
Examples of suitable justification are falling debris or flame impingement. It is not acceptable to exclude any result
solely on the basis that it is lower than expected.
Method
Generally, where steel beams and columns perform differently, only steel beam data points shall be used for the
assessment of steel beams and only steel column data points should be used for the assessment of columns.
In situations where all equivalent steel beams and columns, i.e. those of the very similar section factor and
thickness, produce fire resistance times, within 5%, it is acceptable to use all data points for both beams and
columns. The performance may be adjusted to accommodate small differences in section and thickness of up to
15% using a similar technique to that used to correct the data (section 5.3.3 (11)). The equivalent sections must
cover the range of section factors and thickness.
For each fire protected steel section tested, plot the inverse section factor (V/A m) against time taken (minutes) to
reach the limiting steel temperature.
For each data point of the same mean dry film thickness draw a line which represents the best fit such that the plot
is conservative. Normally a minimum number of 3 points is necessary to draw a curve but one of these points could
be a conservative baseline point of 10 minutes.
Figure 7 shows a typical graph. Note that to obtain the same mean dry film thickness it is necessary to calculate the
value assuming linear behaviour so that if trying to plot a 500 and a data point of 523 with a time of 64 minutes
use 500/523 x 64 i.e. 61 minutes. Corrections using this approach should be limited to one standard deviation
(15%) of the nominal target.
Additional graphs e.g. dry film thickness versus time to reach the limiting steel temperature for constant section
factor may be also be used to illustrate particular aspects of the assessment.
To draw curves, typically at least three data points of a nominally similar thickness must be available. It is
acceptable to use a minimum of two data points to draw a curve when such points are intermediate between curves
established from three data points.
In certain circumstances it is acceptable to draw straight lines between points. Instances where these may occur
are where two data points are close to and are to each side of a required fire resistance period and where there is
only one data point at a particular thickness. In these types of situations straight lines can be drawn between points
or to a point on the axes representing zero respectively as these lines are considered conservative and therefore
acceptable.
Establish the limiting inverse section factor at the intercept between each required period of fire resistance for each
of the nominal dry film thickness plots.
From the intercepts derive the limiting section factor for each required period of fire resistance for each of the
nominal dry film thickness plots. The achieved time for any of the data points plotted on the graphs may only be
linearly extrapolated to a required fire resistance by a maximum of 10%.
For each fire resistance period linearly interpolate between the limiting section factor and the dry film thickness to
obtain intermediate values.

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Figure 7

Limiting Steel Temperature: 550 Deg C

0.018
0.017

Inverse section factor m

0.016
0.015

No extraploation justified for


DFT 2 for 90 minutes: >10%
No extrapolation justified for
DFT 1 to 60 minutes: >10%

0.014
0.013
0.012

Limited extrapolation
justified for DFT 3
to 90 minutes: <10%

0.011
0.010

Lines drawn conservatively upwards

0.009
0.008
0.007
0.006
0.005
0.004

DFT 2

0.003
DFT 1

0.002

DFT 3

0.001
0.000
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Time minutes

Conditions for Acceptability


In order for the Assessment Report to be valid, the conditions for acceptability given in Section 5.3.3 (13) must be
met.
Where the criteria are not met the data points should be re-appraised in accordance with method above drawing
lines more conservatively until the criteria are just met.
Direct Application of Results
Permitted extensions are given in section 5.3.3 (14).
5.3.5

Assessment Report

Following the completion of the appropriate test and assessment package a fully documented report should be
prepared by the assessor for consideration by the ASFP Technical Review Panel (BRE/Warringtonfire/ASFP) prior
rd
to acceptance for publication in Section 8 of this document. In the case of a 3 Party Certificated product, review
by the ASFP Technical Review Panel will not be required provided that the Certification Body adopts the
requirements / recommendations of this Publication.
The Assessment Report will fully detail the scope and limits of approval, basis of the assessment and justification
for any deviations from the procedures detailed in this document. All test data used in the preparation of the
assessment should be fully referenced by test number, test standard and type of test (beam/column,
loaded/unloaded, full scale/small scale, etc).
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The format of the Assessment Report should provide the following minimum details:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
5.3.6

Fire protection material /product/system - Brief description of generic types.


Test specimens, number of specimens and sizes used in the analysis.
Details of method of analysis adopted.
Predictive analyses at each critical temperature with summary of test results and summary of
analysis data.
Compliance with criteria of acceptability, details of any constraints and permitted extensions.
Predicted thicknesses for various section factors and critical temperatures.
The test reports used for the assessment should be appended to the assessment report.
Physical performance and retention of material /product/system.
Surface preparation and primer details.
Method of application (validity of assessment for the application method).
Reasons for the omission of any test data.

Measurement of Dry Film Thickness

Equipment Type
Thickness shall be measured using an instrument employing either the electromagnetic induction or eddy current
principle, with a probe contact diameter of minimally 2.5mm.
The instrument shall satisfy the following criteria.
a)
b)
c)
d)

Possess a total range greater than the highest thickness to be measured.


Provide a digital display of coating thicknesses and be capable of storing measured values.
Capability to calculate statistical parameters max/min values, mean and standard deviation.
Capability to provide hard copy print out of data.

Operation and Calibration


The instrument shall be operated in accordance with the manufacturers instruction for use. Calibration shall be
carried out immediately prior to any series of measurements being taken.
The instrument shall be set to zero on the flat plate supplied.
Calibration shall be carried out utilising calibration shims both above and below the anticipated thickness being
measured. Calibration shims shall be no more than 50% greater or less than the coating thickness being measured.
Number and Location of the Thickness Measurements
Thickness shall be measured on all coated surfaces other than edges and web/flange joins. Measurements shall be
2
evenly distributed over all the coated surface(s) and there shall be minimally one reading per 50cm of coated
2
surface. For I sections, there shall be minimally one reading per 25cm on the web.
No readings shall normally be taken within 25mm of edges, web/flange joins or web stiffeners but it may be
necessary to waive this requirement for narrow flange beams e.g. 100mm.
In the case of a primer being employed, primer thickness shall be determined prior to application of the intumescent
coating and subsequently subtracted from the measured total thickness of primer and intumescent coating.

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6.

THE FIRE PROTECTION OF CELLULAR BEAMS & CASTELLATED SECTIONS

To satisfy building design requirements, steel beams are now available with a variety of apertures created in the
basic section size, during a secondary manufacturing process, to form deeper cellular beams than the parent
beam. Alternatively, cellular beams can be created from three flat steel plates welded together. Castellated
sections have hexagonal apertures. Whilst cellular beams are available with rectangular and/or elongated
aperture shapes, most apertures are circular in shape. A large range of circular aperture sizes and spacing/pitch
is available. The dimensions of the residual web post between adjacent openings can affect the performance of
the cellular beam in fire.
Section factor
The method of calculating section factor for cellular beams with apertures is treated in a different manner than in
the case of solid and hollow steel sections in Section 1.6, because for any beam with closely spaced openings
failure in fire will in most cases be caused by failure of the steel web. It is therefore important that the steel web
temperature needs to be controlled. Moreover, the method of calculating section factor must be suitable for
symmetric and asymmetric beams fabricated from hot rolled sections and for beams fabricated from steel plate.
Asymmetric steel beams may have different flange widths top and bottom. The position of the aperture may not
be centrally located within the web of the beam.
In view of these variables, the ASFP has agreed to adopt the recommendation from the Steel Construction
Institute, as published in RT1085, that for castellated sections and cellular beams manufactured from all rolled
steel sections and from welded plate, the Section Factor for both passive and active fire protection systems
should be calculated as
-1

Section factor [m ] = 1400 / t


where t = the thickness [mm] of the lower steel web and applies for beams made from all steel rolled
sections and from welded steel plate.
6.1

Cellular beams, including castellated sections, protected by passive fire


protection systems [e.g. boards and sprays]

In previous editions of this publication, it has been recommended that to obtain the thickness of passive fire
protection [boards and sprays] for a castellated section, the thickness of fire protection should first be obtained
based on the section factor as determined for the original parent steel section and then increased by 20%, for
the installed fire protection product. This guidance is now withdrawn and replaced by new inclusive guidance for
all castellated and cellular beams, as described below. The use of reactive coatings (intumescent paints) is
discussed in 6.2
A new passive rule for the fire protection of all cellular beams and castellated sections is now permitted,
subject to the provisions listed below
a)

-1

That the Section factor [m ] is determined by SCI method, as above


-1

Section factor [m ] = 1400/t


where t is the thickness [mm] of the lower steel web
b)

That the default design temperature is the limiting temperature for the steel cellular beam as
determined and declared by the steel beam manufacturer, or a competent structural engineer, recognised
by the Engineering Council. No proposal should be offered where the limiting temperature is not
provided.

NOTE 1 - The previous 550C default temperature is removed as inappropriate to all types of cellular beams. It
is considered that the manufacturers declared Limiting Temperature for each beam will make sufficient
provision for any effects from particular web-post dimensions and spacings, added stiffener plates, etc.
c)

The passive fire protection product being considered must have been tested and assessed for standard
solid I -section beams.

d)

The thickness of the passive fire protection product/system will be determined from the Section Factor,
the limiting temperature, and fire protection product temperature tables, for the appropriate fire resistance
periods. This thickness will then be multiplied by 1.20 to provide a prudent and conservative generic
solution.

NOTE 2 - The ASFP will support manufacturers who develop specific multi temperature analysis tables/ thermal
models in conjunction with independent structural models such as SCI RT1085 v04, so that the factor
1.20 can be avoided.

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e)

The maximum thickness of a boxed board or reinforced sprayed PFP system to be used on the cellular
beam must not exceed the maximum temperature or thickness, as tested and assessed by an
independent body on a loaded solid beam.

f)

The maximum thickness of a profiled board or sprayed PFP system to be used, must not exceed the
maximum temperature or thickness, as tested and assessed by an independent body on a loaded solid
beam.

NOTE 3 - If a tested boxed PFP system is to be used as a profiled PFP system then it shall be deemed
necessary to confirm the manufacturers proposal by a member of the ASFP Technical Review Panel, to
assess the acceptability of the stickabilityof the proposed PFP system.
g)

The proposal for sealing the PFP around the apertures in the cellular beam shall be covered by a
suitable assessment from an independent body and deemed acceptable by a member of the ASFP
Technical Review Panel. [This must not be the same member who may have made the Assessment]

NOTE 4 - The fixing detail and stickabilityof the proposed PFP system must not be prejudiced by narrow web
post widths, based on the existing test protocol in Sections 3 and 4 of this Publication
h)

The PFP system being offered must ensure that there are no exposed areas of the steel except where
normally accepted at re-entrant profiles adjacent to the supported soffit above the beam [see Section 2.3
in this Publication]

6.2

Cellular beams protected by reactive coatings [e.g intumescent coatings]


rd

In the 3 Edition, it was stated that no definitive guidance could be provided for the use of reactive intumescent
coatings for the fire protection of cellular beams. That situation has now changed, as detailed in the text that
follows.
6.2.1

Background
Recent testing of cellular beams has proven that previous practices, not supported by ASFP, of adding
20% to the fire protection thickness of a particular steel section (for an equivalent solid section in terms of
A/V and for a given fire protection period) does not necessarily provide a safe solution for reactive
coatings.
It is now recognised that the thickness of a reactive coating required to provide a given fire resistance to a
cellular beam is a function of the beams web thickness, the hole shape and dimensions, the width of the
web post, the degree of the beam asymmetry and the structural utilisation factor, as well as the nature of
the proprietary fire protection itself. The design of the beam determines the position and nature of the
critical stresses within the beam. These critical stresses are independent of the fire protection required
and are used to determine the limiting structural temperatures for the beam.
The ability of a reactive coating product to provide protection to the critical area(s) of the beam is very
product specific. Individual protection products, normally quite similar in performance when compared on
the basis of rolled steel sections, may require radically different thicknesses for the same cellular beam.
Therefore its likely that most reactive coating products will need a thickness adjustment factor to be
applied to the data obtained from solid rolled sections. This factor may be more or less than 20%.

6.2.2

Fire protecting cellular beams with reactive coatings


It is essential that the reactive coating manufacturer seeks information from the cellular beam
manufacturer regarding the mechanical properties of the particular cellular beam design. This will include
the limiting temperature, the section factor and the web post width the dimension between adjacent
openings. It is up to the intumescent coating manufacturer then to determine by testing and, if
appropriate, by calculation the thickness of the specific product required to achieve the required level of
protection.
-1

The Section factor [m ] is determined by SCI method, as above


-1

Section factor [m ] = 1400/t


where t is the thickness [mm] of the lower steel web, and applies for beams made from all steel
rolled sections and from welded steel plate.
For some beam design /reactive product combinations, the combined influence of variations in beam
design and required thicknesses of reactive coating are the subject of a complex computer analysis, the
validity of which shall be proven over the range of its application.

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Alternatively, the limiting temperature of a cellular beam may be established using a suitable structural
model, based on the principles given in the relevant Eurocode. The model shall take account of any
increased temperatures of the web post relative to the flanges.
A protocol
To evaluate and characterise reactive fire protection products, the ASFP has devised a cellular beam fire
protection testing protocol to provide product specific thermal data for the fire protection of cellular
beams, see Section 6.3. These tests should be conducted by a UKAS approved fire test laboratory
utilising the standard temperature/time curve given in BS 476 Part 20 or BS EN 1363 1.
To utilise the data from the cellular beam fire testing protocol, the reactive coating (intumescent)
manufacturer must first have a multi-temperature analysis (MTA) of the performance of the product on
plain rolled sections, for each fire protection period. This, together with the data obtained from the
cellular beam testing protocol is used to derive the required thickness of fire protection for a particular
beam design.
6.2.3

Generic advice
As far as it is possible to give generic advice regarding the determination of required thicknesses of
intumescent fire protection products for cellular beams, the Steel Construction Institute has published SCI
RT 1085 v04 which includes limitations of use such as it only refers to cellular beams with circular holes
up to 80% of the beam depth; width of end posts not less than 30% of the opening diameter; width of web
posts not less than 130mm; ratio of opening spacing to opening diameter not less than 1.3; and beams
subject to loading typical of office buildings. The SCI RT1085 v04 currently excludes beams with
rectangular or elongated openings; roof beams; beams without lateral restraint or intermediate lateral
restraint.
Readers should contact the Steel Construction Institute for the latest guidance.
NOTE - that it also assumes that for cellular beams - SCI RT1085 v04 clause 1.3 Scope comments that it is
assumed that the voids formed by steel decking above the top flange are filled. Beams with unfilled voids may be
used provided that the protection thickness is further increased by use of the ASFP guidance in Clause 2.3 of this
ASFP publication. ALSO refer to manufacturers specific data.

6.2.4

Product specific thickness determinations


Product specific information based on multi-temperature analysis [MTA] of the product on plain rolled
sections and the data obtained from the same product in the cellular beam testing protocol can be used
to provide the required level of fire protection to cellular beams of a variety of designs. Based upon the
nature and design of the cellular beam (method of construction, shape and spacing of holes, etc.,) this
may require an analysis of the structural design data and the product data, or may represent a more
simple analysis of information based on the fire testing of unprotected beams in comparison with
protected beams. The former shall result in a product specific analysis or assessment of the combined
steel beam and protection product performance [similar to RT 1085] as provided by a competent
structural fire engineer.
In order to undertake the assessment and to determine the appropriate reactive coating thicknesses,
input data is required from [a] the steel beam manufacturer on the one hand and [b] the fire protection
coating manufacturer on the other.

6.3

The ASFP fire testing protocol for cellular beam protection

Where a reactive coating manufacturer wishes to obtain product specific thermal data for the fire protection of
cellular beams, this requires data from tests as described in the ASFP protocol. The assessments will be
rd
primarily based on test information from 3 party test laboratories accredited to ISO 17025; e.g. UKAS
*
accredited laboratories. Furnace control should be to either BS 476-21 or EN 13381-4: 2002 [for passive
*
protection systems] or prEN 13381-8 [for reactive coatings] when exposed to the standard time-temperature
curve specified in BS 476 -20 or BS EN 1363-1. [* See comments in the Notes to Section 7.1]
The ASFP test protocol only uses circular openings in the steel web. The approach initially requires a
conventional plain beam assessment, (see 5.1) for each product which is to be tested and evaluated for use on
cellar beams. The plain beam assessments provide a baseline dry film thickness onto which has to be added
an additional thickness derived from the beam characteristics.
N.B. Test programme results cannot be extrapolated for a higher period of fire resistance i.e. factors derived
from a 60 minute test programme cannot be used for 90 or 120 minute requirements.

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6.3.1

Thermocouples

Mineral insulated thermocouples must be used to in order to ensure reliable recording of the localised data and
can be fitted on either steel face at mid depth. However, the main beam web reference thermocouples must
form a 50mm square in the centre of the plain web areas, see Figure 8. A pair of diagonally opposite
thermocouples must be placed on either side of the web to form the 50mm square, which must be positioned
centrally between the stiffener and the vertical edge of the half circular opening.
In addition, three thermocouples must be used on each web post on the web post centre line (see Figure 8).
One must be fitted in the middle of the web post, and the outer two must be fitted 25mm from the edge of the
openings. For assessment purposes, the average web post temperature will be the weighted average based
upon the separation distances of each thermocouple from the edge of the opening.
Thirty-five mineral insulated thermocouples, with optional welded cover plates, must be used. These must be
placed in the web/flange corners and vertically up and down the web. The precise positions of the
thermocouples are not shown dimensionally, but their position in relation to each pair of circular and semicircular openings are shown in Figure 8. The test laboratory will provide detailed drawings in the test report.
It should be noted that the thermocouples above the bottom flange, on the centre line of the web post, should be
equidistant from the edge of the openings and the bottom flange. Likewise, the thermocouples below the full
circular openings should be equidistant from the edge of the opening and the bottom flange.
6.3.2

Dry film thickness [dft] measurements

Dry film thickness measurements should be taken in the usual way to provide an overall average for each
section. Specific zone dfts should also be measured as indicated below.
Ten dft measurements should be taken in the web post zones WP1, WP2 and WP3, which must be situated
125mm above and below the web centreline - See Figure 9 below. These measurements should be taken
randomly on either side of the web and the thicknesses averaged separately for each face. The combined
averages of these measurements are considered to represent the average dft.
A plain web reference zone (WR) should also be included in the measurements. Ten dft measurements
should be taken randomly either side of the web within a 250mm x 250mm square around the four
thermocouples. These measurements should then be averaged out for each side and a combined average
taken. See Figure 9 for details of the positions of the web post measurement zones i.e. WP1, WP2, WP3 and
WR.
Six dft measurements must be taken on each of the underside bottom flange zones, BF1, BF2 and BF3. Each
zone must be 250mm in length and must be situated immediately below its equivalent web post zone. The
resultant measurements will be averaged as separate zones. Similarly, six measurements should be taken
immediately under the plain web reference zone BF0. See Figure 9 for details of the positions of the bottom
flange zones i.e. BF1, BF2 BF3 and BF0.
The total underside bottom flange (TBF) must also be averaged as a separate zone. In this respect, the total
zone averages of WR, WP1, WP2, WP3, TBF, BFO, BF1, BF2 and BF3 must be equal to or greater than 0.85 of
the maximum zone average, i.e. all zone dfts must be within 15% of each other. If any zone does not meet
this requirement, physical adjustments must be made to ensure compliance.
In the case of the intumescent coating around all other web thermocouples [not included in these zones] the
dfts should be measured locally. Three measurements must be taken on each side of the steel section within
a 25mm radius of each thermocouple. The intumescent coating around the remaining bottom flange
thermocouples must also be treated in a similar manner - i.e. six dft measurements must be taken on the
underside face only.
The short symmetrical beams must be treated as detailed above, but should exclude the plain web reference
area.
The short asymmetrical beam must also be treated as detailed above, but the web zones must be divided into
two discreet halves; above and below the centre line. Five dft measurements should be taken above and
below the centre line on both sides of the web.
See Figure 10 for details of the positions of the thermocouples on both the symmetrical and asymmetrical short
beams.
Note: dft measurements must be taken at a minimum of 20mm from the edge of any opening as electronic
gauges are not reliable at less than this distance. Refer to gauge manufacturers for details.

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6.3.3

Test specimens

The steel sections used in the test must be grade S275 and the loaded sections must be fabricated from plate
steel topped with Holorib composite decking. The decking should incorporate two shear connectors between
each dovetail, positioned across the top flange width, parallel to the dovetail. The concrete slab must be
120mm thick, 700mm wide and cast from C30 topping reinforced with A142 mesh.
It should be noted that the sections specified differ for the 60, 90 and 120 minute test programmes because, for
example, 120 minutes would not necessarily be achieved using the lighter more slender sections required for
the 60 minute fire test. The SCI has calculated the applied loads for each test programme in order to ensure
web post buckling at failure. Tables 25, 26 and 27 provide details of the sections to be tested for 60, 90 and
120 minute requirements.
All web openings must be circular and 400mm in diameter for both the 90 and 120 minute test sections.
Openings for the 60 minute test section should be circular and 380mm in diameter. The loaded sections must
incorporate three pairs of circular openings/half circular openings, to provide three web posts. The web post
widths must be 130mm. 160mm and 225mm and it should be noted that the beams must be fitted with stiffeners
in order to prevent web buckling. Figures 11, 12 and 13 provide details of web post widths and web stiffeners.
Each test programme must include four short sections. Each section must be 1200mm in length and must
incorporate two web posts as detailed. The test results will apply equally to any cellular beam made from hot
rolled steel sections or steel plate. Figure 10 provides details of the short sections.
NOTE - The short sections include web/flange ratios that apply to both hot rolled sections and plate girders, and
also cover a wide range of slenderness ratios from 50 to 97 and Hp/As from 100 m to 270 m.
To provide an indication of the behaviour of protected asymmetrical sections, one of the 1200mm short sections
may be asymmetrical in order to provide a degree of basic thermal data
6.3.4

Web post line assessment

The web post assessment should be based on the ratio of the web post temperature to the average bottom
flange temperature; for each period of fire resistance. This ratio should be plotted against web post width.
Where the two web post assessments are carried out from a single fire test and the lower fire resistance period
results in lower web post factors than for the higher fire resistance period, the factors from the higher fire
resistance period must be used for both.
As a minimum requirement, the average bottom flange temperature must not reach 620C before it is in within
10% of the required period of fire resistance. However, it may be possible to extend the 10% limit provided that
sufficient supporting evidence is available. No upper limit has been set in this respect, as the web to flange
temperatures will be taken when the bottom flange has reached 620C and not when the predicted period of fire
resistance has been achieved. This will ensure that no benefit will be gained from conservative over-application
of the coating.
When the average bottom flange temperature reaches 620C the weighted average web temperatures should
be determined, according to the Position Number, as follows: Position 1: temperature of web post at a distance of 25mm from one edge of hole.
Position 2: temperature of web post at a distance of 25mm from other edge of hole.
Position 3: temperature at centre of web post.
a)

For web post width 100mm


Average =

b)

(Position 1) + (Position 2) + (Position 3)


3
For web post width 130mm
When web post widths (P) are 130mm.

Weighted Average =

c)

(Position 1 x 45) + (Position 2 x 45) + (Position 3 x 40)


130
For web post width 160mm or more
When web post widths (P) are 160mm or greater.
Weighted Average =

d)

(Position 1 x 50) + (Position 2 x 50) + (Position 3 x 60)


160
For web post width 225mm

Weighted Average =

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(Position 1 x 50) + (Position 2 x 50) + (Position 3 x 125)


225
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The ratios of each [weighted average web post temperature / the overall bottom flange temperature] must be
determined at the time taken for the bottom flange to reach 620C and also at the required period of fire
resistance. In each case the higher value should be used as the relative temperature ratio.
The temperature ratios for each web post width are averaged using the data from the loaded beam and the
short sections. The web post width (X-axis) in mm should then be plotted against the average relative
temperature (Y-axis). The plot should take account of the reference area of the web, which is deemed to have a
web post width of 450mm, and should use the simple average web reference temperature. The 450mm ratio is
the anchor point for any plot and if this value is less than unity at the point where the line crosses unity on the
Y-axis, all web post ratios greater than this should be taken as one.
NOTE - The thermal data from the asymmetrical short sections is not used in the web post line calculation.
The web post line must not be extrapolated below 115mm unless additional test results can prove otherwise.
The web post line can be a linear or curved plot provided an R >0.9 can be shown.
rd

Web post assessments must be based upon fire test report and assessment from a 3 party test laboratory
accredited to ISO 17025; e.g UKAS accredited laboratories, prior to submission to an independent structural
engineer recognised by the Engineering Council, such as the SCI. The structural engineer will then produce
specific limiting temperature tables based upon the specific web post line.

FIG 8. Thermocouple positions for loaded beams

Bottom Flange Plan View T/C Positions at points

FIG 9. DFT Zones

WP1

WR

WP2

WP3

BF1

BF0

BF2

BF3

TBF = Total Bottom flange Average Underside only

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FIG 10. Short section detail


1200 mm

1200 mm

Post 2

Post 1

Post 2

Post 1

Bottom Flange Plan View T/C Positions at points

Symmetrical Sections

Asymmetric Section

Post 1 = 130 mm in all cases

Post 1 = 130 mm

Post 2 = 160 or 225 mm

Post 2 = 160 mm

FIG 11. Loaded section detail


4500
3565(3555
3035(3045)

No. in brackets is for 60 min


test

Stiffeners on both
sides at loading
points: 50 x 10

See Figure 12 for


central dimensions

1480(147

920 (930)

225

160

150
67
5

130

150

See Figure 13 for


end bearing detail

1725
2775

DO NOT SCALE

382
Test

Steel depth

Opening

Flanges

Web

d/t

60
90
120

500 mm
550 mm
550 mm

380
400
400

160x12
180x12
180x15

6
8
10

79
66
52

Applied

4 x 50kN
4 x 90kN
4 x 105kN

Note: All dimensions in mm. All steel grade S275. All welds 5mm double sided fillet. Web post
dimensions are for reference only

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225

FIG 12. Central dimensions

Based
on 400

100 approx
50

425

1725

2775

NOTE: The two half openings have been reduced in size and offset to increase the area of
plain web.
This will have negligible effect on the structural performance as the shear is very low in this
region.

FIG 13. End bearing detail

20 plate

25

Roller 50
dia

Floor slab detail

400

DO NOT SCALE

Width
Depth

700
120

Decking

Holorib or similar, Voids to be unfilled, Deck to span across flange

Deck sheet thickness


Reinforcement

1 approx
A142, placed on deck

Shear connectors

19 dia x 100, welded through deck


Studs to be placed in pairs at every deck trough

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Note 1:
Note 2:

DITTO

60

500

79

130

1.325

200

0.58

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

500
500
600
600
600
600
600
600
550
550

79
79
97
97
73
73
84
84
50
50

160
225
130
225
130
160
130
160
130
160

1.4
1.5625
1.325
1.5625
1.325
1.4
1.325
1.4
1.325
1.4

200
200
250
250
195
195
NA
195
100
100

0.58
0.58
0.67
0.67
0.58
0.58
0.69
0.63
0.40
0.40

Cell spacing
S/d

Web: flange
ratio (tw/tf)

NA

BottomTee
Hp/A (m-1)

600x171x12x8

Web post
P (mm)

Equivalent
Plate Girder

600x125x10x6

Slenderness
d/t

SBa
1200mm
SBb
1200mm
SBc
1200mm
SBd
1200mm

406x140x39kg
406x140x39kg
356x127x33kg
356x127x33kg
356x171x51kg
356x171x51kg
TT356x127x33kg
BT356x171x51kg
550x200x25x10
550x200x25x10

500x160x12x6
N.B. 380 dia holes

Depth
(mm)

4200mm

406x140x39kg

Fire
Resistance
(min)

LBa

Parent
Section

Beam Ref

Table 25: Cell beam fire test programme - for 60minutes

Short section SBc is included for information only, relating to asymmetrical beams and is not used in the web post calculations.
This may be replaced by a second SBb but with both web posts 100mm wide, if data is required for narrower web posts.
Bottom Tee Hp/A is based on the plate girder except in the case of the asymmetric section.

Note 1:
Note 2:

DITTO

90

550

66

130

1.325

190

0.60

90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90

550
550
600
600
600
600
600
600
550
550

66
66
72
72
71
71
68
68
50
50

160
225
130
225
130
160
130
160
130
160

1.4
1.5625
1.325
1.5625
1.325
1.4
1.325
1.4
1.325
1.4

190
190
195
195
165
165
NA
165
100
100

0.60
0.60
0.64
0.64
0.62
0.62
0.63
0.62
0.40
0.40

Cell spacing
S/d

Web: flange
ratio (tw/tf)

NA

BottomTee
Hp/A (m-1)

600x171x15x8

Web post P
(mm)

Equivalent
Plate Girder

600x171x12x8

Slenderness
d/t

SBe
1200mm
SBf
1200mm
SBg
1200mm
SBh
1200mm

406x178x67kg
406x178x67kg
356x171x51kg
356x171x51kg
356x171x57kg
356x171x57kg
TT356x171x51kg
BT406x178x67kg
550x200x25x10
550x200x25x10

550x180x12x8
NB 400 dia holes

Depth
(mm)

4200mm

406x178x67kg

Fire
Resistance
(min)

LBb

Parent
Section

Beam Ref

Table 26: Cell beam fire test programme - for 90minutes

Short section SBg is included for information only, relating to asymmetrical beams and is not used in the web post calculations.
This may be replaced by a second SBf but with both web posts 100mm wide, if data is required for narrower web posts.
Bottom Tee Hp/A is based on the plate girder except in the case of the asymmetric section.

Note 1:
Note 2:

DITTO

120

550

52

130

1.325

145

0.67

120
120
120
120
120
120
120
120
120

550
550
550
550
600
600
600
600
550

52
52
52
52
47
47
56
56
50

160
225
130
225
130
160
130
160
130

1.4
1.5625
1.325
1.5625
1.325
1.4
1.325
1.4
1.325

145
145
155
155
125
125
NA
135
100

0.67
0.67
0.56
0.56
0.58
0.58
0.63
0.62
0.40

Cell spacing
S/d

Web: flange
ratio (tw/tf)

NA

BottomTee
Hp/A (m-1)

600x153x20x12

Web post P
(mm)

Equivalent
Plate Girder

550x173x15x10

Slenderness
d/t

SBi
1200mm
SBj
1200mm
SBk
1200mm
SBl

406x178x74kg
406x178x74kg
356x171x67kg
356x171x67kg
457x152x82kg
457x152x82kg
TT356x171x67kg
BT457x152x82kg
550x200x25x10

550x180x15x10
N.B 400 dia holes

Depth
(mm)

4200mm

406x178x74kg

Fire
Resistance
(min)

LBc

Parent
Section

Beam Ref

Table 27: Cell beam fire test programme - for 120 minutes

Short section SBk is included for information only, relating to asymmetrical beams and is not used in the web post calculations.
This may be replaced by a second SBj but with both web posts 100mm wide, if data is required for narrower web posts.
Bottom Tee Hp/A is based on the plate girder except in the case of the asymmetric section.

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72
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4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

6.4

Cellular beams with rectangular openings protected by reactive coatings.

6.4.1 Background
This test programme is an extension to the protocol referred to in Section 6.3 and deals with cellular beams with
rectangular holes in the web. Prior to undertaking the testing it is essential that the testing protocol referred to in
Section 6.3 has been completed for beams with circular holes protected by the same reactive coating.
Cellular beams with rectangular web openings behave differently in fire compared with those containing circular
holes and therefore different structural design considerations are necessary. However the thermal data and
measurement of physical properties required for the assessment of each type may be generated in a similar
manner albeit they may be have different values.
6.4.2 Test Requirements
The testing is designed to extend the scope of the cellular beam testing protocol for beams with circular web
openings to include those with rectangular holes. It is not sufficient to allow the assessment of beams with
rectangular openings in isolation.
It is not required to test a loaded beam since it is considered that the stickability of the coating has already
been demonstrated by the loaded test as required by the protocol for beams with circular openings.
It is however necessary to establish the relationship between the thermal data (web post temperature)
associated with beams with rectangular holes with that previously generated for beams with circular holes.
Therefore it is only required to test short unloaded beam sections to establish this relationship.
6.4.2.1 Measured Parameters
The following methods for the determination of various parameters should be adopted:
Thermocouples:
The type to be as defined in Section 6.3.1 but positioned as described in Section 6.4.2.3
Dry Film Thickness (dft) measurement:
Principles are as defined in Section 6.3.2. For the specific zones refer to 6.4.2.3
Web post line assessment:
The principles outlined in Section 6.3.4 should be followed and the web post weighted average temperature
calculated accordingly to the width of the web post as given in the Section 6.4.2.3
Section factor:
as defined in Section 6.
6.4.2.2 Test Specimens
Typically structural designs for beams with rectangular web openings means the spacing between holes is
much greater than the spacing for beams with circular web openings e.g. typically web post widths greater than
500mm are common for beams with rectangular web openings.
However, even though the testing should reflect realistic end use it should also provide a reasonable
comparison with the much shorter spacing for circular holes particularly as the structural model for beams with
rectangular holes in the webs will also cover much narrow web posts.
The following short unloaded beam test specimens are required for each reactive product:
Beam
Ref

Parent Section
(universal beam)
mm x mm x kg/m

Equivalent Plate
mm

Depth
mm

Slenderness*
(d/t)

SRB1

356x171x51

600x125x12/8

600

73

SRB2

356x171x51

600x125x12/8

600

73

Web Post width


(P)
mm

200
400
600

Web/Flange
Ratio* (tw/tf)

0.64
0.64

130
SRB3

356x171x51

600x125x12/8

600

73

160

0.64

130
* data for Universal beam section

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The beams should be a minimum length of 1.5m, be symmetrical and installed within the test furnace in a
similar manner to those listed in Section 6. The holes should be 450mm high and situated at mid-height in the
web. The following drawings show the details.
Beam SRB1
DIMENSIONS IN MM. DO NOT SCALE

150

125

WEB CUT-OUT POSITIONS


400
200
200

200

150

200

62.5

62.5

450 WEB CUT-OUT

600
450

225

12
FLANGE

C/L

C/L

12
FLANGE

225

FULL WELD,
FULL LENGTH

1500

SIDE ELEVATION OF BEAM SRB1

8 WEB

VERTICAL SECTION

Beam SRB2
DIMENSIONS IN MM. DO NOT SCALE

250

WEB CUT-OUT POSITIONS


600

200

125
200

250

62.5

62.5

450 WEB CUT-OUT

600
450

225

12
FLANGE

C/L

C/L

12
FLANGE

225

FULL WELD,
FULL LENGTH

1500

SIDE ELEVATION OF BEAM SRB2

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8 WEB

VERTICAL SECTION

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings


4th Edition revised 24 Aug 2010

SRB3
DIMENSIONS IN MM. DO NOT SCALE

140

200

WEB CUT-OUT POSITIONS


200
160
130
200

125
130

200

140

62.5

62.5

450 WEB CUT-OUT

600
450

225

12
FLANGE

C/L

C/L

12
FLANGE

225

FULL WELD,
FULL LENGTH

1500

SIDE ELEVATION OF BEAM SRB3

8 WEB

VERTICAL SECTION

Dimensions in mm. Drawings not to scale.

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6.4.2.3 Thermocouple Positions


The thermocouple positions for the web posts for SRB3 (web post widths up to 200mm) are identical with those
for similar beams with circular holes defined in Section 6.3.4. The weighted average temperature is determined
in accordance with the calculations given in 6.3.4 i.e. the same as for short beams with circular holes.
A minimum of four thermocouples are to be fixed to the bottom flange of SBR3 in similar positions to those
shown for short beams with circular holes given in Figure 10.
Additional thermocouples are required on web posts greater than 200mm as shown in the following drawing to
take into account the effect of the greater mass of steel towards the centre of the web post. A minimum of four
thermocouples are to be fixed to the bottom flange in similar positions to those for SRB3.
400mm and 600mm Web Posts
25

25
equal

equal

equal

Centreline of
web post

Position 4
Position 1

Position 3
Position 2

Weighted web post average temperatures are determined as follows:


Web post 400mm
weighted average

(Pos 1 x 50 ) + (Pos 2 x 150) + (Pos 3 x 150) + (Pos 4 x 50)


400

Web post 600mm


weighted average

(Pos 1 x 50 ) + (Pos 2 x 150) + (Pos 3 x 150) + (Pos 4 x 50)


600

6.4.2.4 Measurement of Coating Thickness


The coating thickness will be measured in the web post areas and the lower flange areas adopting the principles
in Section 6.3.2 and as indicated in Figure 9.

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7.

TEST AND ASSESSMENT METHODS TO THE EUROPEAN STANDARD


ENV 13381- 4

The current European fire test standard ENV 13381-4 is in the course of being revised and is expected to be
reissued as two separate standards. These are expected to be ENV 13381-4, which will cover passive products
such as boards and non-reactive spray coatings, and prEN 13381-8 which is expected to deal with reactive
coatings. Alternatively, the possibility exists that Part 8 may become a sub-section of a revised ENV 13381-4
7.1

Introduction

The European standard ENV 13381-4 adopts a slightly different approach to the assessment of fire protection to
structural steelwork when compared to that currently used in the UK. Therefore it may be helpful to consider
briefly the basic philosophies of the two approaches before discussing in detail the requirements of the
European standard.
The UK approach in earlier publications of this document considered the ability of the protection material to
maintain the steel temperature below the temperature at which structural failure occurs under the maximum
permissible design loading. Consequently the appraisal of the fire resistance of protected steel is usually
confined to this critical temperature. The testing programme and assessment procedures are designed to utilise
the critical temperature obtained from tests on fully loaded steel members. The critical temperature may be
different for columns and beams and therefore two design temperatures may be used in the assessment.
It is well documented that the ability of structural steel components to support load varies with temperature,
consequently the individual components of the steel frame of a building can be designed such that they are able
to support the applied load at temperatures other than that related to the maximum permissible loading.
Increasingly, buildings constructed using structural steel, particularly complex ones, are being designed using
fire engineering principles which provide for protection thicknesses which are related to the load-bearing
capability of the steel member in situ. For further information see Section 2
The European approach given in the ENV 13381-4 allows for a wider range of steel design temperatures,
generally 350C to 700C, to be used, consequently the thickness of applied fire protection may be varied in
accordance with the load carried by the individual steel member.
The European document is in two main parts: [a] the Fire Test which specifies the tests required to provide
information about the physical and thermal performance of the protection material and [b] the Assessment
which prescribes how the data from the fire test is analysed.
NOTE 1 The fire testing and assessment of cellular beams is not within the scope of ENV 13381-4 and,
therefore there is currently no agreed European approach that deals with the fire protection of cellular beams.
Also see Section 6
7.2

General

The standard is designed to cover a range of thicknesses of applied protection material, a range of steel sizes, a
range of design temperatures and a range of fire protection periods. The evaluation consists of a test and a
subsequent assessment protocol based on the data obtained from the tested sections. There are three basic
assessment protocols which initially refer to I-shaped or H-shaped sections. Other shaped sections, e.g. hollow
sections, are dealt with by modifying the I or H section data or including additional test specimens.
The test programme specifies the test specimens appropriate to the assessment method and determines the
ability of the fire protection specimen to remain coherent and fixed to the steelwork (stickability) and provides
data on the thermal characteristics of the material.
The test programme is carried out on loaded sections and unloaded short sections and may include a 2m tall
column if the protective system is reactive e.g. an intumescent product.
The loaded beam sections are subjected to a total load which represents 60% of the design moment resistance
according to ENV 1993-1-1, calculated using the nominal steel strength and the recommended values given in
ENV 1993-1-1.
The loaded column sections are subjected to an axially applied load which represents 60% of the design
buckling resistance according to ENV 1993-1-1, calculated using the nominal steel strength and the
recommended values given in ENV 1993-1-1.
The test loading required by the standard is largely similar to that adopted for tests to BS 476-21.
The assessment procedure is used to establish:

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(a)

a correction factor for the physical performance or stickability of the material based on the temperature
data derived from the testing of loaded and unloaded sections.

(b)

the thermal properties of the material derived from the testing of short steel columns.

The standard defines criteria for acceptability which must be met for the assessment to be valid. It also defines
the limitations of the assessment and the permitted direct application of the results to variations in the tested
system e.g. different shaped sections.
A number of methods of analysing the test data are defined since there is unlikely to be a single method which
is suitable for all protection materials. The methods are listed as follows:
(a)

Differential equation based on thermal conductivity (variable and constant)

(b)

Multiple linear regression

(c)

Graphical

The first analysis of the data is normally on the basis of either differential equation or numerical regression
methods.
Also defined is an evaluation of reactive systems against a slow heating regime which may be required in some
areas of Europe such as Germany.
7.3

Testing Protocol

The selection of the number and steel section sizes (section factor A/V) of the test specimens is decided
according to the assessment method. This largely relates to whether the protection material /product is passive
or reactive to the fire exposure. Generally, the standard adopts the principle that passive materials /products are
likely to be more predictable than reactive systems. Consequently, a lower number of test specimens will be
needed to satisfy the criteria of acceptability of the standard.
The methods associated with physical principles (thermal conductivity) and statistical analysis (multiple linear
regression) generally require less specimens than the graphical approach.
The assessment can be limited to 3 and 4 sided protection (beams and columns) or 4 sided protection (columns
only) at the request of the test sponsor.

Table 28: Steel sections to be tested to ENV 13381- 4 [for passive products]
or to prEN 13381-8 [for reactive coatings]
Specimen

Loading

Equivalent Section Size


mm x mm x kg/m

Section Factor
A/V Profiled

Section Factor
A/V Boxed

Thickness

Beam
Beam
Beam
Beam
Column

loaded
unloaded
loaded
unloaded
loaded or unloaded

406 x 178 x 67
406 x 178 x 67
406 x 178 x 67
406 x 178 x 67
305 x 305 x 97

155
155
155
155
145

115
115
115
115
100

min
min
max
max
max

Typically the sections listed in Table 28 are to be tested in order to establish the physical properties of the
material (stickability):
The section sizes shown in Table 28 are the nearest UK equivalent of the sections listed in the European
document.

The unloaded sections are 1000mm plus or minus 50mm in length. The loaded beams have a heated
length of not less than 4000mm ; they also contain web stiffening at supports and loading points.

A tall column (305mm x 305mm x 97kg/m) with maximum thickness is also required for reactive systems.

For a separate assessment for columns only (4 sided protection) the above tall column and loaded beams
may be substituted by two tests on loaded columns (maximum and minimum thickness).

The standard selection of short columns for the differential equation or the regression analysis methods
(generally passive protection materials although they may be suitable for reactive systems if additional
specimens are included) is based on a minimum of 10 specimens and that for the graphical method
(generally thin film reactive systems) is 18 specimens. The test protocol specifies the particular section
size and thickness of material to be tested.

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7.4

Additional specimens may be needed to provide additional data points and the standard test packages
may be varied if the thickness of the protection is provided in a number of discrete thicknesses
Test Conditions

The furnace pressure and heating conditions are specified in EN 1363-1 and are similar to those given in BS
476-20. The temperature of the furnace is controlled using plate thermometers rather than the thermocouples
specified by the British standard. A description of the plate thermometer is given in Section 1.3.2.
When loaded beams are tested with short columns, plate thermometers located in the vicinity of the short
columns are used to control the furnace rather than those in the region of the loaded beam.
7.5

Properties of Test Component Materials

The properties of the test specimens, including steel section size, protection material thickness and distribution
and, where appropriate, the density of the material, are required to be measured for each specimen. The
measured properties are required to satisfy certain rules in order for the temperature data from the specimens to
be acceptable for the analysis.
7.6

Validity of the Temperature Data

The standard requires certain rules to be followed in order for the temperature data from the sections to be
considered valid for the analysis. These rules take into account malfunction of thermocouples and could lead to
the rejection of all the data obtained on a particular section. However, the standard requires a high number of
thermocouples on each section which makes the complete rejection of data from a section unlikely.
7.7

Correction of Temperature Data

Only temperature data from the short columns is used for the basic analysis. This data must be corrected
for stickability and for any difference in protection thickness between the loaded sections and their
respective short section.

For reactive systems, correction is also made against the tall column.

The passive and reactive systems are treated slightly differently in respect of data correction, which also
relates to the method of analysis adopted.

In all cases the correction factors are calculated on the basis of steel temperature.
NOTE that the correction factors are based on the characteristic temperature which is the sum of the mean
temperature and the maximum temperature divided by 2.

7.8

For the analysis, the mean temperatures of the short steel columns are used.
Assessment Methods

Assessment of the thermal performance of the protective materials for all methods uses the corrected data for
the short columns.
7.8.1

Differential Equation

The two methods using the differential equation are based on a one dimensional heat flow equation and
assume the predominant heat flow is conduction through the protection material with the outer face assumed to
be at the standard fire temperature. The protection material is described using its thermal conductivity, specific
heat and density and the moisture content is also taken into account. The basic equation is:

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The differential equation is solved to give thermal conductivity as a function of time. The thermal conductivity is
then adjusted until the criteria for acceptability given in the document are just satisfied. The results are
presented to give the thickness of protection material required to provide specified fire resistance periods to
various section factors for various design temperatures.
7.8.2

Numerical Regression Analysis

The numerical regression analysis is a statistical approach which has time to reach a specified design
temperature, steel temperature, section factor and protection thickness as variables.
The multiple linear regression is performed using the following equation:

Transposition of Equation 5 to determine protection thickness gives:

Using the corrected data from the short columns, the regression coefficients are determined and modified if
necessary to satisfy the criteria for acceptability. The coefficients are used to predict the thickness of protection
material required to provide specified fire resistance periods to various section factors for various design
temperatures.

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7.8.3

Graphical Approach

At each design temperature the corrected data from each short column is used to provide plots of time to reach
the particular design temperature against protection thickness for constant section factors.
From each of these graphs and for each thickness of protection material a second series of graphs are plotted
showing the variation in time to reach the design temperature as a function of section factor.
When these graphs are plotted a number of simple rules must be applied. These rules are summarised as
follows:
1.

The points on the graph are connected by straight lines, i.e. curve fitting is not allowed.

2.

The time to the design temperature must also increase as the thickness of material increases.

3.

The time to the design temperature must decrease as the section factor increases.

If rules 2 and 3 are not satisfied the relevant point is omitted.


From the second series of graphs the variation in section factor against temperature for each thickness of
material and for each specified period of fire resistance is plotted.
7.9

Criteria for Acceptability

For the assessment to be valid, the following criteria for acceptability must be met :
(a)

For each short column section the predicted time to reach each design temperature shall not exceed the
time for the corrected temperature to reach the design temperature by more than 30%.

(b)

The mean value of all percentage differences in time shall be less than zero.

(c)

A maximum of 20% of individual values of all percentage differences in time shall be more than zero.

7.10

Direct Application of Results

Permitted extension of the variables evaluated during the test is dependent upon the assessment method
adopted and is given in Table 29.

Table 29: Permitted extension of the tested variables


Assessment Method
Section Factor A/V
Material Thickness
Design Temperature
7.11

Differential Equation Differential Equation


(variable l)
(fixed l)
-20% to +50%
-20% to +50%
-20% to +20%
-5% to +5%
-0% to +10%
-0% to +7.5%

Numerical
Regression
-10% to +10%
-5% to +5%
-0% to +5%

Graphical
0%
0%
0%

Presentation of the Results

An example of a method of presenting the results is given in Table 30:

Table 30: Fire Resistance Classification R30 (30 minutes)


Design Temp C

350

400

A/V

450

500

550

600

650

700

limit

Thickness of material required in mm

40
60
etc to limit

The limits on section factor, material thickness and temperature are those determined by Table 26.

The section factor interval may be varied as required.

The results may also be presented graphically.

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7.12

Applicability of the Results of the Assessment to Other Section Shapes

7.12.1

Structural Hollow Sections - Passive Protection Systems

For boxed protection systems the thickness for circular or rectangular hollow sections is equal to that for the I or
H section of the same boxed section factor.
For profiled protection systems the required thickness for circular or rectangular hollow sections is based on the
following modification to the equivalent thickness for I or H sections:
(a)

For A/V values up to 250 m-1

where dp = thickness of protection based on I or H section data


A/V = section factor for hollow section
(b)

For A/V values higher than 250 m-1


modified thickness = 1.25dp
where dp = thickness of protection based on I or H section data

The maximum thickness assessed for I or H sections should not be exceeded.

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7.12.2

Structural Hollow Sections - Reactive Protection Systems

In order to adapt the data derived from I or H sections to circular or rectangular hollow sections, it is necessary
to provide additional test evidence to confirm the stickability of sections which have no re-entrant detail.
The test specimens are tall 2m circular or rectangular columns protected with both minimum and maximum
material thickness. For circular sections the nominal size recommended is 76.1mm diameter by 5mm wall
thickness (A/V = 214 m-1) and for rectangular sections the nominal size recommended is 100mm by 100mm by
7.1 mm wall thickness (A/V = 147 m-1).
The temperature data obtained from the hollow sections is used to correct the data from the short I or H section
columns in a similar manner to that referred to in the main body of this section of the document.
The maximum value of any correction factor should not exceed 1.5. If this value is exceeded the correction of
the I or H section data to suit hollow sections is deemed inappropriate and a new testing programme should be
undertaken involving hollow sections.
The maximum thickness assessed for I or H sections should not be exceeded unless substantiated by test.
7.12.3

Angles, Channels & T-Sections

The standard does not give specific guidance on the protection to these types of sections but merely refers to
obtaining advice from appropriate design codes such as those referred to in Section 1.
In the absence of a definitive European approach to assessing the required protection for these types of
sections it is considered reasonable to adopt the assessment method referred to in Section 3.
7.13

Assessment of Existing BS 476 Test Data to ENV 13381- 4

The test protocol and the assessment methodology of ENV 13381-4 differs with respect to the testing procedure
of BS 476-21 and the current UK assessment techniques in a number of important aspects. The most critical
are summarised as follows:
(a)

The upper flange of the loaded beam is insulated from the lightweight slab above by an insulating gasket
compared with in situ cast high density concrete used for the BS test.

(b)

The temperature of the upper flange is measured and used in the calculation of the characteristic
temperature. These temperatures may not be available with existing data.

(c)

A greater number of thermocouples are fixed to the sections.

(d)

The loading is applied to the top of the beam and not via the concrete slab.

(e)

The loaded section contains web stiffeners.

(f)

The short sections which provide the data for the analysis are columns only, whereas existing data is
likely to be a mixture of beams and columns that may not be as specified by the test protocol.

(g)

The data must be corrected for stickability and if appropriate for discrepancy in thickness. Without
identical unloaded reference beams it may not be possible to correct the data as required.

(h)

The furnace temperature must be controlled using plate thermometers which were unlikely to be available
at the time the existing test data was generated.

Therefore, because of the differences highlighted above, and different assessment methods, BS 476 test data is
unlikely to be an acceptable basis for assessing to the requirements of ENV 13381-4.

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8.

FIRE PROTECTION PRODUCT/ SYSTEM DATA SHEETS AND THEIR


APPLICATION

8.1

Structural fire protection using passive products/systems

8.1.1

Introduction

The data sheets in Section 9 for the various Passive fire protection products (boards and sprays) describe their
characteristics and summarise the recommended fixing systems. The data sheets enable the required
thickness of fire protection, for any given fire resistance period, critical steel temperature and Section Factor
(A/V), to be chosen for any steel section, without recourse to individual assessment. The manufacturers
installation instructions should be followed for on-site applications
Values of A/V for various sections for three and four sided protection are tabulated in Section 1, which also
shows in Fig. 6 how A/V values may be calculated for any protection configuration and sets out modified
procedures which may be required in respect of castellated sections and bracings, etc. The particular method of
calculating Section Factors for cellular beams is given in Section 6.
Each fire protection system has been the subject of test and has been assessed by one of the methods
described in Sections 3 and 4 or 5 or 6. These are:

Tests and assessment based on the traditional UK procedure at steel temperatures of typically 550C
and/or 620C.

Assessment based on the traditional UK procedure but at a range of steel temperatures from 350C to
700C. Test data from BS476-21 or ENV 13381-4 (+ loaded column if vertical members are to be
included).

Tests and assessment based on the ENV 13381-4 procedures.

NOTE -The current European fire test standard ENV 13381-4 is in the course of being revised and is expected
to be reissued as two separate standards. These are expected to be ENV 13381-4, which will cover passive
products such as boards and non-reactive spray coatings, and prEN 13381-8 which is expected to deal with
reactive coatings. Alternatively, the possibility exists that Part 8 may become a sub-section of a revised ENV
13381-4. In addition, the fire testing and assessment of cellular beams is not within the scope of these
standards, therefore there is currently no agreed European approach that deals with the fire protection of these
types of beams. Also see text in Section 6.
The assessments are based on the critical steel temperatures listed above, stickability and any limitations
which must be imposed on the basis of the physical characteristics of the materials.
The assessment methods can be used to derive thicknesses, for any specified critical steel temperature,
provided the necessary tests have been programmed correctly.
8.1.2

Notes on the application of the data sheets

In the following any reference made to the manufacturer is intended to imply manufacturer, supplier or
applicator as appropriate.
1.

In respect of fire resistance, A/V and thickness, together with protection details, no deviation can be
made except for specific situations where some variation may be necessary. Such variations must be
validated by an independent authority, or an appropriate testing laboratory, or a body as defined in
Appendix A of Approved Document B to the Building Regulations 2000. Ancillary data, contained in Data
Sheet items 12 to 16, are provided by the manufacturer for information and guidance only.

2.

The protection techniques referred to as Profile and Box are explained in Section 1 (Figs. 1 and 2).

3.

It is emphasized that the selection of the fire protection material should not be based on consideration of
fire resistance alone, but should involve other important aspects such as interior or exterior application,
impact and abrasion resistance. Products should comply with BS 8202 Guidance for the fire protection of
building elements, or with ETAG 018 Fire protective products: Specific guidance for individual products
may be obtained from the manufacturer.

4.

The fire protection thicknesses embody safety factors which are incorporated within the EN assessment
procedure or which, in the UK assessment procedure, are due to the need to round up the calculated
thicknesses of board products to fit the available manufactured thickness and, in the case of spray
products, converting the calculated average thickness to a minimum on site.

5.

Thicknesses of fire protection required for different A/V values, fire resistance periods and critical steel
temperatures are given in tabular form. Interpolation is permissible to determine thickness. However, if
the A/V of a section coincides with the cut off between two board product thicknesses, the lesser

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thickness shall be used. In using the data it is imperative that any constraints for fire resistance (item 11
in data sheets) are implemented.
6.

For the surface preparation of the steel with respect to fire performance, reference should be made to the
individual data sheets or the product manufacturer. Where a direct bond to the steel is required, the
normal recommendation is for the steel to be de-greased and loose scale and rust removed. Where a
steel primer is specified it should be compatible with the protection and advice should be obtained from
the manufacturer of the protection material. For pre-formed casings, or board or spray applied to mesh,
no preparation of the steel is required. It does not matter if the steel is primed eg for corrosion purposes,
except in those instances where the protection is bonded to the steel section, when the primer must be
compatible with the adhesive used.

7.

The thickness of protection to be applied to a section having a calculated A/V less than the minimum A/V
given in the data sheets is the thickness required at that minimum value. If the calculated A/V of a
section exceeds the maximum figure in the data sheets reference should be made to the manufacturer for
an individual assessment by an appropriate authority as defined in (1).

8.

For wet applied protection, thicknesses given are minimum on site. The data sheets specify the dry
thickness. Where the thickness is found to be less than that specified it may still be acceptable provided
that:(a)

The thickness is not less than 85% of the specified thickness, the deficient area does not exceed
1m2 and no other deficient area occurs within 3m of this area; or

(b)

The thickness is not less than 75% of the specified thickness, the deficient area does not exceed
0.2m2 and no other deficient area occurs within 1m of this area.

9.

Some materials undergo dimensional changes after application, and special care should be taken to
recognise this factor for site control purposes (see data sheets for information where appropriate).

10.

In the case of sprayed/ trowelled protection, special consideration may have to be given to the need for
reinforcement or modified/additional support if the sections on site do not allow for encapsulation or if
there is no re-entrant detail, unless specific tests have been carried out. (See fig. 14)
Re-entrant detail

Examples showing encapsulation

Re-entrant detail

No re-entrant detail

Examples showing no re-entrant detail


Figure 14: Protection Configurations
11.

In the case of sprayed or trowelled protection to deep web or wide flange sections, in-depth
reinforcement in the form of a corrosion protected wire mesh, 25, 38 or 50mm x 0.9mm, should be
included where:
Web depth between flanges exceeds 650mm or flange width exceeds 325mm except where applicable
test data is available to show such reinforcement is unnecessary. The mesh should preferably be in the
middle third of the thickness and be retained by welded pins and non-return washers at nominal 500mm
centres. The use of expanded metal lath as a support medium does not obviate the need for this
additional reinforcement.

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12.

Where expanded steel lathing is used to form a hollow encasement, it should be spaced from any steel
surface to allow penetration of the lath by the fire protection material to form a mechanical key. A method
for achieving this is to wire 6mm diameter steel rods to the lath prior to fitting.

13.

Sprayed mineral materials should comply with BS 8202-1 Code of practice for the selection and
installation of sprayed mineral coatings.

14.

The data sheet includes information on the limiting Section Factors (A/V) which can be protected with
each system.

8.1.3

Application of data sheets

The following examples demonstrate how the data sheets, tables and constraints should be interpreted and
applied for some of the protection systems which may be encountered. (Any similarities between any of the
examples and real products are unintentional.)
Example 1
A 406mm x 178mm x 60kg/m universal beam is to be protected on three sides using a spray applied
profile protection to provide fire resistance of 120 minutes at a critical steel temperature of 620C.
(a)

Determine the A/V value from tables in Section 1. In this case the A/V value is 170m-1 (Table 3).

(b)

Consult the data sheet in Section 9 for the product selected to determine the thickness required. Product
X was chosen and an extract from its data sheet for a critical steel temperature of 620C follows as
Table 31:

Table 31: Extract from datasheet for product X criticial steel temperature 620C
Section
factor
A/V

Thickness (mm) to provide fire resistance (minutes)


30

60

90

120

180

240

150

10

12

25

36

57

79

170

10

13

26

38

60

83

190

10

13

27

40

63

87

210

10

14

28

41

65

90

This table indicates that the thickness required for a A/V of 170m-1 and fire resistance of 120 minutes would be
-1
38mm, whilst that for a A/V of 190m-1 would be 40mm. If, the section factor had been 175m , then by linear
-1
interpolation the theoretical thickness for a A/V of 175m is 38.5mm. This should be rounded up and 39mm
-1
would be the minimum on site thickness for the section factor of 170m .
Constraints for fire resistance, item 11 in some data sheets, must also be considered. They are:
(a)

Minimum dry thickness - 10mm

(b)

Maximum dry thickness for 60 minutes fire resistance -19mm

(c)

Maximum dry thickness for 120 minutes fire resistance - 42mm

(d)

Maximum un-reinforced thickness for up to and including 240 minutes fire resistance - 70mm

It will thus be seen that 38mm, un-reinforced, is acceptable for 120 minutes fire resistance.
Example 2
A universal beam section 762mm x 267mm x 173 kg/m is used as a column and it is required to be
protected on four sides using a box encasement to provide fire resistance of 240 minutes at a critical
steel temperature of 550C.
The A/V value from Table 3 in Section 1 is 95m -1. Product U was selected and part of the block diagram
relating A/V to thickness of protection and fire resistance period at a critical steel temperature of 550C, given in
its data sheet, is presented below in Table 31 as an extract from the data sheet.

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Section factor A/V (Hp/A)

Table 32: Extract from table for Product U


Fire resistance period (minutes)
550C
30

60

90

120

180

240

Product
thickness

89

30mm

95

36mm

101

45mm

110

48mm

119

54mm

From the table it will be seen that the A/V value coincides with the boundary between 45mm and 36mm. Hence
in accordance with Note 5 in 5.1.2 the requirement is 36mm, the lesser protection thickness.
The data sheet must also be consulted to check that 36mm for 240 minutes fire resistance is within the
limitations imposed by the constraints and to establish how 36mm can be obtained within the thicknesses
available. The following extracts from the data sheet are therefore reproduced:
9.

Thickness range
Nominally 12,15, 18 and 21mm in single layers but may be laminated to produce greater thicknesses.

10.

Fire resistance range:


(a)
(b)

11.

30 to 240 minutes
A/V: 17-260m-1

Constraints for fire resistance


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)

Minimum thickness - 12mm


Maximum single layer thickness - 21mm
Maximum multi-layer thickness - 63mm
No more than 3 laminates may be used to provide the thickness and the thickest laminate should
be on the outside
Minimum thickness for 180 minutes - 18mm
Minimum thickness for 240 minutes - 21mm
For 240 minutes fire resistance in laminated panels, the outer layer should not be less than 18mm.

The board thickness information indicates that a laminated system is required and constraint (d) requires that
not more than three laminates may be used. Further, constraints (d) and (g) state that the thickest layer should
be on the outside and not less than 18mm thick.
In this example, to create 36mm of fire protection therefore requires two layers each 18mm thick.
8.1.4

Failure Temperatures

For the purpose of consistency in earlier editions of this publication, all assessments of passive fire protection
materials were assessed on the basis of a failure temperature of 550C. A failure temperature of 620C could
however be adopted for passive materials when applied to steel beams supporting a concrete slab provided test
data was available to support this critical temperature. Intumescent coatings were generally assessed on the
basis of 620C for beams with concrete slabs over. 550C has generally been used for columns and other
beams.
However, as described in Section 1.5 of Section 1, many structural design codes now include fire resistant
design, introducing the concept of a variable steel failure or limiting temperature. As such, this publication now
includes assessments at a range of limiting /critical steel temperatures from 350C to 700C (usually in 50C
steps) based on either the traditional UK procedure or on the EN procedures.
Manufacturers may utilise data based upon other failure temperatures where this is appropriate to the design of
the structure and the data has been assessed by an appropriate independent body.

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8.2

Structural fire protection using reactive coatings

8.2.1

Introduction

The data sheets for the various reactive coatings describe their characteristics and application techniques to
enable the correct thickness of coating for any given fire resistance period to be chosen for any steel section,
given its A/V and critical steel temperature, without recourse to individual assessment.
Values of A/V for various sections for three and four sided protection are tabulated in Section 1 which also
shows (Fig. 6) how A/V values may be calculated for any protection configuration.
Each product has been the subject of test and has been assessed by one of the methods described in Sections
3 and 5 These are:
a)

Tests and assessment based on the traditional UK procedure at steel temperatures of typically 550C
and/or 620C.

b)

Assessment based on the traditional UK procedure but at a range of steel temperatures from 350C to
700C. Test data from BS 476-21 or prEN 13381-8 plus a loaded column if vertical members are to be
included.

c)

Tests and assessment based on the prEN 13381-8 procedures [also see NOTE below]

The assessments are based on the limiting / critical steel temperatures listed above, stickability and any
limitations which must be imposed on the basis of the physical characteristics of the materials.
The assessment method can be used to derive thicknesses for any specified critical temperature, provided the
necessary tests have been programmed correctly.
NOTE - The current European fire test standard ENV 13381-4 is in the course of being revised and is expected
to be reissued as two separate standards. These are expected to be ENV 13381-4, which will cover passive
products such as boards and non-reactive spray coatings, and prEN 13381-8 which is expected to deal with
reactive coatings. Alternatively, the possibility exists that Part 8 may become a sub-section of a revised ENV
13381-4. In addition, the fire testing and assessment of cellular beams is not within the scope of these
standards, therefore there is currently no agreed European approach that deals with the fire protection of these
types of beams. Also see text in Section 6.
8.2.2

Notes on the application of the data sheets

In the following any reference made to the manufacturer is intended to imply manufacturer, supplier or
applicator as appropriate.
1.

In respect of fire resistance, A/V and thickness (together with protection details) no deviation can be
made except for specific situations where some variation may be necessary. Such variations must be
evaluated by an independent authority or an appropriate testing laboratory or consultant, as defined in
Appendix A of Approved Document B to the Building Regulations 2000. Ancillary data, contained in Data
sheet items 1 to 16, are provided by the manufacturer for information and guidance only.

2.

The protection techniques referred to as Profile and Box, are explained in Section 1 (Figs. 1 and 2).

3.

It is pointed out that the selection of the fire protection material should not be based on consideration of
fire resistance alone, but should involve other important aspects such as interior or exterior application,
impact and abrasion resistance. Products should comply with BS 8202 Guidance for the fire protection of
building elements or with ETAG 018 Fire protective. Specific guidance for individual products may be
obtained from the manufacturer.

4.

Thicknesses of fire protection required for different A/V values, fire resistance periods and critical steel
temperatures are given in tabular form. Interpolation is permissible to determine thickness. In using the
data it is imperative that any constraints for fire resistance noted in data sheets are implemented.

5.

Preparation of steel is given against each product.

6.

The thickness of protection to be applied to a section having a calculated A/V less than the minimum A/V
given in the data sheets is the thickness required at that minimum value. If the calculated A/V of a
section exceeds the maximum figure in the data sheets reference should be made to the manufacturer for
an individual assessment by an appropriate authority as defined in (1) which will take into account all
aspects of the project.

7.

The data sheets specify the dry film thickness.

8.

Some materials undergo dimensional changes after application, and special care should be taken to
recognise this factor for site control purposes (see data sheets for information where appropriate).

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9.
8.2.3

The data sheet includes information on the limiting section factors (A/V) which can be protected with each
system.
Application of data sheets

The following examples demonstrate how the data sheets, tables and constraints should be interpreted and
applied for some of the protection systems which may be encountered. Any similarities between any of the
examples and real products are unintentional
Example 1
A 406 x 178mm x 60kg/m universal beam is to be protected on three sides using an intumescent coating
to provide fire resistance of 30 minutes at a critical steel temperature of 620C.
1.

Determine the A/V value from tables in Section 1, in this case the A/V value is 170m-1 (Table 3).

2.

Consult the data sheet in Section 9 for the product selected to determine the dry film thickness required
for this A/V value along with other constraints on usage and the manufacturers claims regarding
durability. Product M was chosen and an extract from its data sheet for a critical steel temperature of
620C follows:
For A/V up to and including 191m-1 use 1.8mm dry film thickness to provide 30 minutes fire
resistance for flexural members. For A/V up to and including 285m-1 use 2.3mm dry film thickness
to provide 30 minutes fire resistance for flexural members.
The data indicates that the dry film thickness required for an A/V of 170m-1 and fire resistance of 30
minutes would be 1.8mm.

Example 2
A circular hollow section column of external diameter 219.1mm and wall thickness 10mm is to be used
as a compression member and to be profile protected using a reactive coating at a critical steel
temperature of 550C.
1.

Determine the A/V value from Table 12 in Section 1. In this case the A/V value is 105m-1.

2.

Consult the data sheet in Section 9 for the product selected to determine the dry film thickness for this
A/V value along with other constraints on usage and the manufacturers claims regarding durability.
Product S was chosen and the following figures were extracted from the data sheet at a critical steel
temperature of 550C as shown:
Compression CHS

60 minutes
For A/V up to 140m-1 use 2.5mm
For A/V 141 - 200m-1 use 4.5mm

The table indicates that a minimum dry film thickness of 2.5mm is required for a compression member
with an A/V value of 105m-1.
Before the intumescent coating is applied the steel should be shot blasted and primed. Reference should be
made to the manufacturer for advice on suitable primers, and on the durability of the coating if the column is in
an external location.

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9.

BIBLIOGRAPHY & REFERENCES

ASSOCIATION FOR SPECIALIST FIRE PROTECTION

www.asfp.org.uk

ASFP TGN 002-1:1994

Spray coatings for the fire protection of structural steel: Part 1 Technical guidance note for the
mechnaical retention of sprayed mineral coatings based upon the requirements of BS 82021:1993

ASFP TGN 003-1: 1996

On site measurement of intumescent coatings: Part 1: Technical guidance note for measurement
of dry film thicknesses for intumescent coatings

ASFP TGN 006: 1998

Structural steel fire protection using intumescent coting systems in conjunction with - [a] existing
paint layers [b] zinc rich primers

ASFP TGN 007:2001

On site guidance note for the specifiction and use of site applied intumescent coating systems

ASFP Yellow Book

Fire protection for structural steel in buildings: 4th Edition: 2007: ISBN 978 1 870409 25 4

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION

www.bsi-global.com

BS 449-2: 1996

Structural steel in buildings: 1996 Metric units

BS 476:

Fire tests on building materials and structures

BS 476-4: 1970 [1984]

Non combustibility tests for materials

BS 476-20: 1987

Method for determination of the fire resistnce of load bearing elements of construction [general
principles]

BS 476-21: 1987

Method for determination of the fire resistance of load bearing elements of construction

BS 476-22: 1987

Method for determination of the fire resistance of non load-bearing elements of construction

BS 476-23: 1987

Methods for determination of the fire resistance of the contribution of components to the fire
resistance of a structure

BS 5950

The stuctural use of steelwork in buildings

BS 5950-1: 1990

Code of Practice for design in simple and continuous construction

BS 5950-3

Design in composite construction; Section 3.1 Code of Practice for design in simple and
continuous composite beams

BS 5950-8: 2003

Structural use of steelworkin buildings Part 8; Code of Practice for fire resistant design

BS 8202

Coatings for fire protection of building elements

BS 8202-1:1995

Code of practice for the selection and installation of sprayed mineral coatings

BS 8202-2:1992

Code of practice for the use of intumescent coating systems to metallic substrates for providing
fire resistance

DD 9999: 2005

Code of practice for fire safety in the design, construction and use of buildings

BSI/ EUROPEAN STANDARDS


BS EN 1363-1:1999

Fire resistance tests - Part 1: General requirements

BS EN 1363-2:1999

Fire resistance tests - Part2: Alternative and additional procedures

ENV 1363-3: 1998

Fire resistance tests -Part 3: Verification of furnace performance

BS EN 1365-3:2000

Fire resistance tests for load-bearing elements: Part 3: Beams

BS EN 1365-4:1999

Fire resistance tests for load-bearing elements: Part 4: Columns

BS EN 1991-1

Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures. Part 1: Basis of design

BS EN 1991-2

Eurocode 1: Basis of design nd action on structures. Part 2: Actions on structures exposed to fire

BS EN 1993 -1-1

Eurocode 3: Design of steel structurs Part 1.1 General rules and rules for buildings

BS EN 1993-1-2:2005

Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. Part 1-2:General rules Structural fire design

BS EN 1994-1-2:2005

Eurocode 4 Design of composite steel and concrete structures. Part 1-2: General rules
Structural fire design

BS EN 13501-2: 2003

Fire classification of construction products and building elements: Classification using data from
fire resistance tests, excluding ventilation services

ENV 13381-2:2002

Test methods for determining the contribution to the fire resistance of structural members: Part 2:
Vertical protective membranes

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ENV 13381-3:2002

Test methods for determining the contribution to the fire resistance of structural members:
Part 3: ApplIed protection to concrete members

ENV 13381 -4: 2002

Test methods for determining the contribution to the fire resistance of structural members:
Part 4: Applied protection to steel members

PrEN 13381-8

Test methods for determining the contribution to the fire resistance of structural members:
Part 8: Applied reactive protection to steel members

PrEN 13381-4

Test methods for determining the contribution to the fire resistance of structural members:
Part 4: Applied passive protection to steel members

ETAG 018-1

Fire protective products: Part 1: General

ETAG 018-2

Fire protective products: Part 2: Reactive coatings for fire protection of steel elements

ETAG 018-3: 2006

Fire protective products: Part 3: Renderings and rendering kits intended for fire resisting
applications

ETAG 018-4: 2003

Fire protective products: Part 4: Fire protective board, slab and mat products and kits

BUILDING RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT Ltd [BRE]


BRE Report [BR 128]

www.bre.co.uk

Guidelines for the construction of fire resisting structural elements: 1998: MORRIS W.A; READ
R.E.H and COOKE G.M.E; ISBN 0 85125 293 1

DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT

www.communities.gov.uk
www.planningportal.gov.uk

Approved Document B: 2006 Fire safety. Volumes 1 and 2


The Building Regulations 2000 [SI 2000/2531] for England and Wales
The Regulatory Reform [Fire Safety] Order 2005: ISBN 0 11072 945 5

DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS

www.dfes.gov.uk

Building Bulletin [BB] 100

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH

www.dh.gov.uk

HTM 05-02 Guidance in support of functional provisions for healthcare premises

EUROPEAN COMMISSION

www.ec.europa.eu

Construction Products Directive:

CPD 89/106/EC

Commission Decision

2000/553/EC of 6th September 2000 implementing Council Directive 89/106/EC

Commision Decision [European tests]

2000/367/EC of 3rd May 2000 implementing Council Directive 89/106/EC

The European CE Marking Directive

[93/68/EC]

Construction Products Regulations 1991

[SI 1991 No 1620]

Construction Products [Amendment] Regulations 1994 [SI 1994 No 3051]

EXOVA WARRINGTONFIRE

www.warringtonfire.net

FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION

www.thefpa.co.uk

The LPC design guide for the fire protection of buildings 2000
Essential principles

FOOTBALL LICENSING AUTHORITY

www.flaweb.org.uk/home.php

Concourses: ISBN 0 95462 932 9

HEALTH AND SAFETY COMMISSION

www.hse.gov.uk

The Workplace [Health Safety and Welfare Regulations 1992


Construction [Design and Management] Regulations 2007 : Managing health and safety in construction

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANISATION

www.iso.org

ISO / IEC 17025: 2005

General requirements for the competence of testing and claibration laboratories

ISO 9000: 2005

Quality management systems Fundamentals and vocabulary

NORTHERN IRELAND

www2.dfpni.gov.uk/buildingregulations

The Building Regulations [Northern Ireland] 2000


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DFP Technical Booklet E Fire safety 2005

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION

www.pfpf.org.uk

Ensuring best practice for pasive fire protection in buildings; ASFP ISBN 978 1 870409 19 3

STEEL CONSTRUCTION INSTITUTE [SCI]

www.steel-sci.org

SCI 288

Fire safe design: A new approach to multistorey steel framed buildings [ 2nd Edition]
ISBN 1 85942 169 5

SCI P313

Single storey steel framed buildings in fire boundary conditions ISBN 85942 135 0

SCI P109: 1991

The fire resistance of composite beams Lawson R.M and Newman G.M

SCI P109: 2nd Edition

The fire resistance of composite floors with steel decking [2nd Edition] Newman GM

SCI RT 1085v04: 2007

Guidance on the use of intumescent coatings for the fire protection of beams with web openings

SCOTLAND

www.infoscotland.com/firelaw

The Building Scotland Regulations 2004


Technical Handbook [Fire] 2005 for domestic and non-domestic buildings

THE FIRE TEST STUDY GROUP [UK] [FTSG]


UKAS

www.warringtonfire.net

www.ukas.com

The United Kingdom Accreditation Service

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10.

LIST OF PRODUCT DATA SHEETS

BOARDS...........................................................................................................................................................Vol 2: Part 1
British Gypsum Gyplyner Encase ................................................British Gypsum Ltd
ColumnClad .................................................................................Rockwool Ltd
FirePro Beamclad Systems .........................................................Rockwool Ltd
Glasroc Firecase S ......................................................................British Gypsum Ltd
Knauf Fireboard ...........................................................................Knauf Insulation
Intutec ..........................................................................................Firetherm
Promat TD Board .........................................................................Promat UK Ltd
Promatect 250..............................................................................Promat Ltd
Rocksilk FireTech Slab & Rocksil Dry Fix Noggin Slab................Knauf Insulation
Supalux ........................................................................................Promat UK Ltd
Vermiculux ...................................................................................Promat UK Ltd
CASINGS / BLANKETS ...................................................................................................................................Vol 2: Part 2
Firemaster 607 Blanket ................................................................Thermal Ceramics Ltd
CIRCULAR PRE-FORMED PRODUCTS .........................................................................................................Vol 2: Part 2
FirePro Fire Tube .........................................................................Rockwool Ltd
Vicutube .......................................................................................Promat UK td
SPRAYED NON REACTIVE COATINGS .........................................................................................................Vol 2: Part 3
Cafco 300 ....................................................................................Cafco International
Cafco Blazeshield II .....................................................................Cafco International
Cafco Mandolite CP2 ...................................................................Cafco International
Cafco Mandolite HS3 ...................................................................Cafco International
Cafco Mandolite TG .....................................................................Cafco International
Monokote MK6 .............................................................................Grace Construction Products
Monokote Z106 ............................................................................Grace Construction Products
Monokote Z146 ............................................................................Grace Construction Products
Steelguard CM4703 .....................................................................PPG Industries
Steelguard CM4704 .....................................................................PPG Industries
Vermiplaster BD ...........................................................................Proteccion Pasiva
SPRAYED REACTIVE INTUMESCENT COATINGS .......................................................................................Vol 2: Part 4
Firesteel 47-4 ...............................................................................Firetherm
Firesteel 47-4 EXT .......................................................................Firetherm
Firesteel Classic 120....................................................................Firetherm
Firetex FX1000 / FX2000 .............................................................Leighs Paints
Firetex FX3000 / FX4000 .............................................................Leighs Paints
Firetex FX5000 ............................................................................Leighs Paints
Firetex FX5002 ............................................................................Leighs Paints
Firetex FX7000 / FX8000 .............................................................Leighs Paints
Firetex M95 ..................................................................................Leighs Paints
Interchar 212 ................................................................................International Paint Ltd
Interchar 963 ................................................................................International Paint Ltd
Interchar 973 ................................................................................International Paint Ltd
Intusteel WB.................................................................................Bollom Fire Protection
Nullifire System S605...................................................................Nullifire Ltd
Nullifire System S606...................................................................Nullifire Ltd
Nullifire System S706...................................................................Nullifire Ltd
Nullifire System S707-60 .............................................................Nullifire Ltd
Nullifire System S707-120 ...........................................................Nullifire Ltd
Sika Unitherm Safir ......................................................................Sika Korrosionsschutz GmbH
Sika Unitherm 38091 ...................................................................Sika Korrosionsschutz GmbH
Sprayfilm WB3 .............................................................................Cafco International
Steelguard FM549 .......................................................................PPG Industries
Steelguard FM550 .......................................................................PPG Industries
Steelguard FM560 .......................................................................PPG Industries
Steelguard FM580 .......................................................................PPG Industries
Steelguard FM585 .......................................................................PPG Industries
Steelguard FM2570 .....................................................................PPG Industries
Steelguard 551.............................................................................PPG Industries
Steelguard 561.............................................................................PPG Industries

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