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von Mises yield criterion

The von Mises yield criterion [1] suggests that the


yielding of materials begins when the second deviatoric
stress invariant J2 reaches a critical value. For this reason, it is sometimes called the J2 -plasticity or J2 ow
theory. It is part of a plasticity theory that applies best to
ductile materials, such as metals. Prior to yield, material
response is assumed to be elastic.

Von Mises
Yield Surface
Hydrostatic
Axis
Tresca
Yield Curve
Von Mises
Yield Curve

Tresca
Yield Surface

In materials science and engineering the von Mises yield


criterion can be also formulated in terms of the von
Mises stress or equivalent tensile stress, v , a scalar
plane
stress value that can be computed from the Cauchy stress
(Deviatoric Plane)
tensor. In this case, a material is said to start yielding
when its von Mises stress reaches a critical value known
as the yield strength, y . The von Mises stress is used
to predict yielding of materials under any loading condistress coordinates cirtion from results of simple uniaxial tensile tests. The von The von Mises yield surfaces in principal

2
Mises stress satises the property that two stress states cumscribes a cylinder with radius 3 y around the hydrostatic
with equal distortion energy have equal von Mises stress. axis. Also shown is Tresca's hexagonal yield surface.
Because the von Mises yield criterion is independent of
the rst stress invariant, I1 , it is applicable for the analysis of plastic deformation for ductile materials such as
metals, as the onset of yield for these materials does not
depend on the hydrostatic component of the stress tensor.

where y is the yield strength of the material. If we set the


von Mises stress equal to the yield strength and combine
the above equations, the von Mises yield criterion can be
expressed as:

Although formulated by Maxwell in 1865, it is generally

attributed to Richard Edler von Mises (1913).[1][2] Tytus


v = y = 3J2
Maksymilian Huber (1904), in a paper in Polish, anticipated to some extent this criterion.[3][4] This criterion or
is also referred to as the MaxwellHuberHenckyvon
Mises theory.
v2 = 3J2 = 3k 2

Substituting J2 with terms of the Cauchy stress tensor


components

Mathematical formulation

Mathematically the von Mises yield criterion is expressed 2 = 1 [( )2 +( )2 +( )2 +6( 2 + 2 + 2 )]


11
22
22
33
33
11
v
23
31
12
2
as:
This equation denes the yield surface as a circular cylinder (See Figure) whose yield curve, or intersection
with
2k , or
the
deviatoric
plane,
is
a
circle
with
radius

J2 = k 2
2
3 y . This implies that the yield condition is independent
of hydrostatic stresses.
where k is the yield stress of the material in pure shear.
As shown later in this article, at the onset of yielding,
the magnitude of the shear yield stress in pure shear is
3 times lower than the tensile yield stress in the case of 2 Reduced von Mises equation for
simple tension. Thus, we have:

dierent stress conditions

The above equation can be reduced and reorganized for


practical use in dierent loading scenarios.

y
k=
3
1

3 PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE VON MISES YIELD CRITERION


steel axle under torsion, even if both specimens are of the
same material. In view of the stress tensor, which fully
describes the stress state, this dierence manifests in six
degrees of freedom, because the stress tensor has six independent components. Therefore, it is dicult to tell
which of the two specimens is closer to the yield point or
has even reached it. However, by means of the von Mises
yield criterion, which depends solely on the value of the
scalar von Mises stress, i.e., one degree of freedom, this
comparison is straightforward: A larger von Mises value
implies that the material is closer to the yield point.
In the case of pure shear stress, 12 = 21 = 0 , while
all other ij = 0 , von Mises criterion becomes:
y
12 = k =
3

Intersection of the von Mises yield criterion with the 1 , 2 plane,


where 3 = 0

This means that, at the onset of yielding,


the magnitude

of the shear stress in pure shear is 3 times lower than


the tensile stress in the case of simple tension. The von
In the case of uniaxial stress or simple tension, 1 =

Mises yield criterion for pure shear stress, expressed in


0, 3 = 2 = 0 , the von Mises criterion simply reduces principal stresses, is
to
(1 2 )2 + (2 3 )2 + (1 3 )2 = 2y2
1 = y
In the case of plane stress, 3 = 0 , the von Mises criwhich means the material starts to yield when 1 reaches terion becomes:
the yield strength of the material y , and is in agreement with the denition of tensile (or compressive) yield
strength.
12 1 2 + 22 = 3k 2 = y2
It is also convenient to dene an Equivalent tensile
stress or von Mises stress, v , which is used to pre- This equation represents an ellipse in the plane 1 2 ,
dict yielding of materials under multiaxial loading con- as shown in the Figure above.
ditions using results from simple uniaxial tensile tests. The following table summarizes von Mises yield criterion
Thus, we dene
for the dierent stress conditions.
Notes:

v = 3J2

2 Subscripts
1,2,3
can be replaced with x,y,z, or other
2 +
2
(11 22 )2 + (22 33 )2 + (33 11 )2 + 6(12
+ 23
31 )
orthogonal
coordinate
system
=
2

Shear stress is denoted here as ij ; in practice it is


(1 2 )2 + (2 3 )2 + (3 1 )2
=
also denoted as ij
2

= 32 sij sij
where sij are the components of the stress deviator tensor
dev :

dev =

1
(tr ) I
3

In this case, yielding occurs when the equivalent stress,


v , reaches the yield strength of the material in simple
tension, y . As an example, the stress state of a steel
beam in compression diers from the stress state of a

3 Physical interpretation of the von


Mises yield criterion
Hencky (1924) oered a physical interpretation of von
Mises criterion suggesting that yielding begins when the
elastic energy of distortion reaches a critical value.[4] For
this reason, the von Mises criterion is also known as the
maximum distortion strain energy criterion. This
comes from the relation between J2 and the elastic strain
energy of distortion WD :

3
J2
2G

WD =
E
2(1+)

with the elastic shear modulus G =

In 1937 [5] Arpad L. Nadai suggested that yielding begins


when the octahedral shear stress reaches a critical value,
i.e. the octahedral shear stress of the material at yield in
simple tension. In this case, the von Mises yield criterion
is also known as the maximum octahedral shear stress
criterion in view of the direct proportionality that exists
between J2 and the octahedral shear stress, oct , which
by denition is

oct =

2
3 J2

thus we have

oct =

2
3 y

Comparison with Tresca yield


criterion

Also shown in the gure is Tresca's maximum shear stress


criterion (dashed line). Observe that Trescas yield surface is circumscribed by von Misess. Therefore, it predicts plastic yielding already for stress states that are still
elastic according to the von Mises criterion. As a model
for plastic material behavior, Trescas criterion is therefore more conservative.

See also
Yield surface
Henri Tresca
Mohr-Coulomb theory
Yield (engineering)
Stress
Strain
3-D elasticity

References

[1] von Mises, R. (1913). Mechanik der festen Krper im plastisch deformablen Zustand. Gttin. Nachr. Math. Phys.,
vol. 1, pp. 582592.
[2] Ford, Advanced Mechanics of Materials, Longmans, London, 1963

[3] Huber, M. (1903). Specic work of strain as a measure of


material eort, Towarzystwo Politechniczne, Czas. Techniczne, Lww
[4] . The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity. Oxford, Clarendon Press
[5] S. M. A. Kazimi. (1982). Solid Mechanics.
McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-451715-5

Tata

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